Publications by authors named "Ziheng Wang"

56 Publications

Analysis of the Dose Drop at the Edge of the Target Area in Heavy Ion Radiotherapy.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 11;2021:4440877. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Heavy Ion Radiotherapy, Wuwei Tumor Hospital, No. 31 Sanitary Lane, Haizang Road, Wuwei City, Gansu Province, China 733000.

Background: The dose distribution of heavy ions at the edge of the target region will have a steep decay during radiotherapy, which can better protect the surrounding organs at risk.

Objective: To analyze the dose decay gradient at the back edge of the target region during heavy ion radiotherapy.

Methods: Treatment planning system (TPS) was employed to analyze the dose decay at the edge of the beam under different incident modes and multiple dose segmentation conditions during fixed beam irradiation. The dose decay data of each plan was collected based on the position where the rear edge of the beam began to fall rapidly. Uniform scanning mode was selected in heavy ion TPS. Dose decay curves under different beam setup modes were drawn and compared.

Results: The dose decay data analysis showed that in the case of single beam irradiation, the posterior edge of the beam was 5 mm away, and the posterior dose could drop to about 20%. While irradiation in opposite direction, the posterior edge of the beam was 5 mm away, and the dose could drop to about 50%. In orthogonal irradiation of two beams, the posterior edge of the beam could drop to about 30-38% in a distance of 5 mm. Through the data analysis in the TPS, the sharpness of the dose at the back edge of the heavy ion beam is better than that at the lateral edge, but the generated X-ray contamination cannot be ignored.

Conclusions: The effect of uneven CT value on the dose decay of heavy ion beam should also be considered in clinical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4440877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8601813PMC
November 2021

Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets anchored to the inner wall of wood carbon tracheids by nitrogen-doped atoms for high-performance supercapacitors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 25;608(Pt 1):70-78. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Materials Surface & Interface Science and Technology, College of Science, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, PR China. Electronic address:

In this paper, a novel type of electrode material for high-performance hybrid supercapacitors is designed. The electrode mainly uses nitrogen-doped atoms to anchor the nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide on the inner wall of wood-derived carbon tracheids from Chinese fir wood scraps. The specific capacity of the composite single electrode is 14.26 mAh cm at 10 mA cm. The hybrid supercapacitor with a composite electrode cathode and nitrogen-doped wood-derived monolithic carbon materials as the anode has a high specific capacitance of 4.74F cm at 5 mA cm, and the capacitance retention rate is 93.15% after 8000 charge-discharge cycles. The highest energy density and power density reach 1.48 mWh cm and 22.40 mW cm, respectively. After doping with nitrogen, the combination with the nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide is more uniform and stable, and the capacitance and cycling stability are significantly improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.09.127DOI Listing
September 2021

Lipocalin 2 Is a Regulator During Macrophage Polarization Induced by Soluble Worm Antigens.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 20;11:747135. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Medicine, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Caused by schistosomes, the human schistosomiasis is a tropical zoonotic parasitic disease. Pathologically, it occurs most often in the intestines and the liver, the sites of egg accumulation. The parasites' produced eggs cause the main pathology in patients. Deposited parasite eggs in the liver induce the production of multiple cytokines that mediate the immune response, which in turn leads to granulomatous responses and liver fibrosis. These impact the hosts' quality of life and health status, resulting in severe morbidity and even mortality. In this study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ordinary samples and three 6- week infected mice were mined from microarray analysis based on the limma package. In total, we excavated the differential expression LCN2 was exhibited high expressions profile in GSE59276, GSE61376 demonstrated the result. Furthermore, CIBERSORT suggested detailed analysis of the immune subtype distribution pattern. experiments like real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, and immunofluorescence (IF) demonstrated the expressions of LCN2 was significantly upregulated in -infected mice liver tissues and located in macrophages. Previous studies have shown that macrophages act as the first line of defense during schistosome infection and are an important part of liver granuloma. We used soluble worm antigens (SWA) to induce RAW264.7 cells to construct an inflammatory model. The current study aimed to investigate whether the NF-κB signaling network is involved in LCN2 upregulation induced by SWA and whether LCN2 can promote M1 polarization of macrophages under SWA treatment. Our research work suggests that LCN2 is significant in the development of early infection caused by and is of great value for further exploration. Collectively, the findings indicated that SWA promoted the expression of LCN2 and promoted M1 polarization of macrophages the upregulation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that NF-κB/LCN2 is necessary for migration and phagocytosis of M1 macrophages in response to SWA infection. Our study highlights the essential role of NF-κB/LCN2 in early innate immune response to infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.747135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8489661PMC
October 2021

Low Back Pain Exacerbation Is Predictable Through Motif Identification in Center of Pressure Time Series Recorded During Dynamic Sitting.

Front Physiol 2021 14;12:696077. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem - sitting on a chair for a prolonged time is considered a significant risk factor. Furthermore, the level of LBP may vary at different times of the day. However, the role of the time-sequence property of sitting behavior in relation to LBP has not been considered. During the dynamic sitting, small changes, such as slight or big sways, have been identified. Therefore, it is possible to identify the motif consisting of such changes, which may be associated with the incidence, exacerbation, or improvement of LBP. Office chairs installed with pressure sensors were provided to a total of 22 office workers (age = 43.4 ± 8.3 years) in Japan. Pressure sensors data were collected during working days and hours (from morning to evening). The participants were asked to answer subjective levels of pain including LBP. Center of pressure (COP) was calculated from the load level, the changes in COP were analyzed by applying the Toeplitz inverse covariance-based clustering (TICC) analysis, COP changes were categorized into several states. Based on the states, common motifs were identified as a recurring sitting behavior pattern combination of different states by motif-aware state assignment (MASA). Finally, the identified motif was tested as a feature to infer the changing levels of LBP within a day. Changes in the levels of LBP from morning to evening were categorized as exacerbated, did not change, or improved based on the survey questions. Here, we present a novel approach based on social spider algorithm (SSA) and probabilistic neural network (PNN) for the prediction of LBP. The specificity and sensitivity of the LBP inference were compared among ten different models, including SSA-PNN. There exists a common motif, consisting of stable sitting and slight sway. When LBP level improved toward the evening, the frequency of motif appearance was higher than when LBP was exacerbated ( < 0.05) or the level did not change. The performance of the SSA-PNN optimization was better than that of the other algorithms. Accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score were 59.20, 72.46, 40.94, and 63.24%, respectively. A lower frequency of a common motif of the COP dynamic changes characterized by stable sitting and slight sway was found to be associated with the exacerbation of LBP in the evening. LBP exacerbation is predictable by AI-based analysis of COP changes during the sitting behavior of the office workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.696077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476954PMC
September 2021

Morphine promotes microglial activation by upregulating the EGFR/ERK signaling pathway.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0256870. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Center for Specialty Strategy Research of Shanghai Jiao Tong University China Hospital Development Institute, Shanghai, PR China.

Although they represent the cornerstone of analgesic therapy, opioids, such as morphine, are limited in efficacy by drug tolerance, hyperalgesia and other side effects. Activation of microglia and the consequent production of proinflammatory cytokines play a key pathogenic role in morphine tolerance, but the exact mechanisms are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on microglial activation induced by morphine in mouse microglial BV-2 cells. In this research, BV-2 cells were stimulated with morphine or pretreated with AG1478 (an inhibitor of EGFR). Expression levels of cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b), EGFR, and phospho-EGFR were detected by immunofluorescence staining. Cell signaling was assayed by Western blot. The migration ability of BV-2 cells was tested by Transwell assay. The production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the cell supernatant was determined by ELISA. We observed that the expression of CD11b induced by morphine was increased in a dose- and time- dependent manner in BV-2 cells. Phosphorylation levels of EGFR and ERK1/2, migration of BV-2 cells, and production of IL-1β and TNFα were markedly enhanced by morphine treatment. The activation, migration, and production of proinflammatory cytokines in BV-2 cells were inhibited by blocking the EGFR signaling pathway with AG1478. The present study demonstrated that the EGFR/ERK signaling pathway may represent a novel pharmacological strategy to suppress morphine tolerance through attenuation of microglial activation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256870PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439491PMC
November 2021

Cobalt Selenide Hollow Polyhedron Encapsulated in Graphene for High-Performance Lithium/Sodium Storage.

Small 2021 Oct 25;17(40):e2102893. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Material Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Owing to the high specific capacities, high electrochemical activity, and various electronic properties, transition metal selenides are considered as promising anodes for lithium- and sodium-ion storage. However, poor electronic conductivity and huge volume expansion during cycling are still responsible for their restricted electrochemical performance. Herein, CoSe hollow polyhedron anchoring onto graphene (CoSe/G) is synthesized by self-assembly and subsequent selenization. In CoSe/G composites, the CoSe nanoparticles, obtained by in situ selenization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in high temperature, are distributed among graphene sheets, realizing N element doping, developing robust heterostructures with a chemical bond. The unique architecture ensures the cohesion of the structure and endorses the reaction kinetics for metal ions, identified by in situ and ex situ testing techniques, and kinetics analysis. Thus, the CoSe/G anodes achieve excellent cycling performance (1259 mAh g at 0.1 A g after 300 cycles for lithium storage; 214 mAh g at 2 A g after 600 cycles for sodium storage) and rate capability (732 mAh g at 5 A g for lithium storage; 290 mAh g at 5 A g for sodium storage). The improved electrochemical performance for alkali-ion storage provides new insights for the construction of MOFs derivatives toward high-performance storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102893DOI Listing
October 2021

SCAMP4 is a novel prognostic marker and correlated with the tumor progression and immune infiltration in glioma.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 10 12;139:106054. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nantong University Affiliated Hospital, Nantong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Glioma is the most prevalent brain tumor with high mortality and morbidity and the prognosis of patients remains very poor. Glioma therapy is largely limited by the extraordinary invasive capability in glioma and the lack of valuable biomarkers of LGG and GBM. So it is urgent and important for us to identify valuable biomarkers to treat glioma patients. SCAMP4 (Secretory Carrier-Associated Membrane Protein 4) has not been reported to be linked to cancer prognostic or any treatments.

Methods: We analyzed the role of SCAMP4 in LGG and GBM via the publicly available CGGA (The Chinese Glioma Atlas) and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) databases. The correlations between SCAMP4 and the immune cells were analyzed by applying CIBERSORT and TIMER, while R was utilized in the analysis of the statistical data.

Results: Our results indicated that SCAMP4 which is correlated to age, stage, grade and tumor status and may be a promising independent prognostic factor in LGG and GBM. Meanwhile, the expression of SCAMP4 is closely associated with some tumor-infiltrating immune cells such as Monocytes, NK cells activated, Macrophages, Mast cells resting and so on. Furthermore, during the in-depth analysis of the integrated correlations, we also find that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and SCAMP4 shared similar prognostic values.

Conclusions: Together with all these findings, the identification of SCAMP4 as a new biomarker could elucidate how the immune microenvironment influence the glioma development. With further analysis, SCAMP4 may be a predictor for glioma prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2021.106054DOI Listing
October 2021

Continuous Conductive Networks Built by Prussian Blue Cubes and Mesoporous Carbon Lead to Enhanced Sodium-Ion Storage Performances.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 3;13(32):38202-38212. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Material Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

The challenges of improving electrical conductivities and enhanced rapid dynamics are active research areas in the modification of Prussian blue (PB) and Prussian blue analogues (PBAs), which are used as excellent cathodes of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, the terephthalic acid etched stepwise hollow bulky PB cubes and the intimate contact mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) particles with the adhered minisize PB cubes can together build continuous conductive networks. The composite (donated as [email protected]) has high electrical conductivity, low resistance, and ultrahigh specific surface, which can lead to high capacitive contribution ratios. The [email protected] electrode can deliver a discharge capacity of 120 mAh g and maintain retention of 85.0% after cycling for 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g. Even cycling at 1 A g, the reversible capacity can be measured to 102 mAh g and exhibit stability over a long cycle. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were further measured to illustrate the phase transition of crystal structure along with the extraction/insertion processes of Na ions. Especially, the assembled full cell with NaTi(PO)@C anode can also show good stability and provide promising insights of applying the [email protected] for energy storage systems in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c06634DOI Listing
August 2021

A Machine Learning Approach for Detecting Vicarious Trial and Error Behaviors.

Front Neurosci 2021 7;15:676779. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Vicarious trial and error behaviors (VTEs) indicate periods of indecision during decision-making, and have been proposed as a behavioral marker of deliberation. In order to understand the neural underpinnings of these putative bridges between behavior and neural dynamics, researchers need the ability to readily distinguish VTEs from non-VTEs. Here we utilize a small set of trajectory-based features and standard machine learning classifiers to identify VTEs from non-VTEs for rats performing a spatial delayed alternation task (SDA) on an elevated plus maze. We also show that previously reported features of the hippocampal field potential oscillation can be used in the same types of classifiers to separate VTEs from non-VTEs with above chance performance. However, we caution that the modest classifier success using hippocampal population dynamics does not identify many trials where VTEs occur, and show that combining oscillation-based features with trajectory-based features does not improve classifier performance compared to trajectory-based features alone. Overall, we propose a standard set of features useful for trajectory-based VTE classification in binary decision tasks, and support previous suggestions that VTEs are supported by a network including, but likely extending beyond, the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.676779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292638PMC
July 2021

Advanced Li-S Batteries Enabled by a Biomimetic Polysulfide-Engulfing Net.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12;13(20):23811-23821. Epub 2021 May 12.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P.R. China.

Lithium-sulfur batteries are attractive because of their high specific capacity and energy density, but issues with the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling intrinsically hinder their wide application. Here, hydroxylate multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-OH) were grafted with a supramolecular polymer (heptakis(6-amino-6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin) to form a polysulfide-engulfing net, which was coated on a separator. Such a molecular microarray structure of a polymer can block the polysulfides and have biomimetic cellular behavior for engulfing polysulfides. The cavity (∼6 Å) and functional groups of the supramolecular polymer can provide a dynamic structure for reversible adsorption of polysulfides while the conductive MWCNT-OH ensure fast electron transfer. The batteries with the modified separator exhibited excellent rate capacities (945.5 and 625.4 mA h g at 2 C and 4 C rates, respectively). Especially, the high areal capacities of 5.86 and 7.2 mA h cm achieved at S loadings of 4.5 and 6.0 mg cm and good cycling stability after 200 cycles at 0.1 C can be obtained. This demonstrates a strategy of supramolecular polymer-grafted carbon for dynamic polysulfide adsorption toward advanced Li-S batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04872DOI Listing
May 2021

The effects of cognitive bias modification for attention and interpretation on the postoperative psychological resilience and quality of life of patients with pituitary adenoma: a randomized trial.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 30;10(5):5729-5737. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Background: Negative emotions such as anxiety and depression may have a bearing on patients' psychological resilience and quality of life (QoL) following surgery. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) for attention and interpretation has been confirmed to alleviate anxiety and depression. However, the psychological effects of CBM attention and interpretation on Chinese patients with pituitary adenoma have hardly received research attention.

Methods: This prospective interventional study enrolled 100 patients undergoing surgical treatment for pituitary adenoma. Participants were divided into an experimental group and a control group, with 50 cases in each group. Baseline characteristics of included patients were collected. Patients in the control group were given routine training, and those in experimental group received routine training plus CBM attention and interpretation training. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to assess patients' psychological resilience. The patients' levels of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). QoL was assessed based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30).

Results: No statistical difference was found between the 2 groups in CD-RISC, SAS, SDS, or QoL score at baseline (P>0.05). After CBM training, psychological resilience and QoL in the experimental group improved, and the levels of anxiety and depression decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the experimental group showed statistically superior psychological resilience and QoL than the control group. The levels of anxiety and depression in the experimental group were statistically lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusions: CBM for attention and interpretation effectively improves the psychological resilience of patients and reduces the symptoms of anxiety and depression, thus improving patients' postoperative QoL.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: ChiCTR2100045899.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-782DOI Listing
May 2021

Bimetallic Antimony-Vanadium Oxide Nanoparticles Embedded in Graphene for Stable Lithium and Sodium Storage.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 28;13(18):21127-21137. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Material Science & Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Bimetallic oxides have received considerable attention as anodes for lithium/sodium-ion batteries (LIBs/SIBs) due to their high electrochemical activity and theoretical specific capacity. However, their cycling performance is limited by large volume variation, severe aggregation, and pulverization of bimetallic oxide nanoparticles during repeated metal ion insertion/extraction processes. Herein, bimetallic antimony-vanadium oxide nanoparticles embedded in graphene (SbVO/G) composites are prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. Bimetallic SbVO with abundant redox reaction sites can provide high specific capacity by a multi-electron reaction. A robust graphene substrate can not only alleviate volume expansion but also prevent aggregation and collapse of highly active bimetallic SbVO. Due to the excellent synergy between the two building components, SbVO/G hybrids exhibit excellent electrochemical activity, structural stability, and electrochemical performance. When employed as anodes for LIBs and SIBs, SbVO/G composites display excellent cycling performance (1079.5 mAh g at 0.1 A g after 150 cycles for LIBs and 401.6 mAh g at 0.1 A g after 450 cycles for SIBs) and impressive rate capability. This work demonstrates that SbVO/G composites are promising anodes for both LIBs and SIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c21676DOI Listing
May 2021

Development of a Prognostic Model for Ovarian Cancer Patients Based on Novel Immune Microenvironment Related Genes.

Front Oncol 2021 31;11:647273. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Biobank, Nantong University Affiliated Hospital, Nantong, China.

Ovarian cancer (OV) has become the most lethal gynecological cancer. However, its treatment methods and staging system are far from ideal. In the present study, taking the advantage of large-scale public cohorts, we extracted a list of immune-related prognostic genes that differentially expressed in tumor and normal ovarian tissues. Importantly, an individualized immune-related gene based prognostic model (IPM) for OV patients were developed. Furthermore, we validated our IPM in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository and compared the immune landscape and pathways between high-risk and low-risk groups. The results of our study can serve as an important model to identify the immune subset of patients and has potential for use in immune therapeutic selection and patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.647273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045757PMC
March 2021

In Situ Nitrogen Retention of Carbon Anode for Enhancing the Electrochemical Performance for Sodium-Ion Battery.

Chemistry 2021 May 27;27(30):8030-8039. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Kingfa Science & Technology Company, Guangzhou, 510520, P. R. China.

Retaining nitrogen for polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based carbon anode is a cost-effective way to make full use of the advantages of PAN for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Here, a simple strategy has been successfully adopted to retain N atoms in situ and increase production yield of a novel composite PAZ by mixing 3 wt % of zinc borate (ZB) with poly (acrylonitrile-co-itaconic acid) (PANIA). Among the prepared carbonised fibre (CF) samples, PAZ-CF-700 maintains the highest N content, retaining 90 % of the original N from PANIA. It represents the highest capacity storage contribution (80.55 %) and the lowest impedance R (117 Ω). Consequently, the specific capacity increases from 60 mAh g of PANIA-CF-700 to 190 mAh g of PAZ-CF-700 at a current density of 100 mA g . At the same time, PAZ-CF-700 exhibits a good rate performance and excellent long-term cycling stability with a specific capacity of 94 mAh g after 4000 cycles at 1.6 A g .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202100076DOI Listing
May 2021

Prognostic Biomarker ZNF311 and Its Correlation With Tumor Progression and Immune Infiltrates in Glioma.

World Neurosurg 2021 07 19;151:e37-e46. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nantong University Affiliated Hospital, Nantong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Gliomas, particularly high-grade gliomas, are the most common primary brain tumors. From the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database, the relationships between the altered molecular pathways and gliomas could be easily observed. A close connection in the occurrence of the pathogenesis exists between the microenvironment, the glioma, and the associated genes.

Methods: Validation of the role of ZNF311 oncogene was confirmed by data from the CGGA dataset on glioblastoma and low-grade glioma. Furthermore, we used CIBERSORT to analyze the correlation between ZNF311 and cancer immune infiltrates.

Results: According to our analysis, ZNF311 was expressed higher in patients with grade-depended glioma with poor prognosis. In addition, we obtained valuable prognostic results between isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and ZNF311 through the analysis of integrated correlations. Similarly, we simultaneously revealed the prognostic results between 1p/19q and ZNF311. In addition, we found that ZNF311 is correlated with a large number of tumor-infiltrating immune cells.

Conclusions: Based on the study findings, we conclude that ZNF311 is potentially a novel biomarker for assessing prognosis and immune infiltration in glioblastoma and diffuse glioma cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.03.064DOI Listing
July 2021

Rate of Entropy Production in Evolving Interfaces and Membranes under Astigmatic Kinematics: Shape Evolution in Geometric-Dissipation Landscapes.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Aug 19;22(9). Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2, Canada.

This paper presents theory and simulation of viscous dissipation in evolving interfaces and membranes under kinematic conditions, known as astigmatic flow, ubiquitous during growth processes in nature. The essential aim is to characterize and explain the underlying connections between curvedness and shape evolution and the rate of entropy production due to viscous bending and torsion rates. The membrane dissipation model used here is known as the Boussinesq-Scriven fluid model. Since the standard approaches in morphological evolution are based on the average, Gaussian and deviatoric curvatures, which comingle shape with curvedness, this paper introduces a novel decoupled approach whereby shape is independent of curvedness. In this curvedness-shape landscape, the entropy production surface under constant homogeneous normal velocity decays with growth but oscillates with shape changes. Saddles and spheres are minima while cylindrical patches are maxima. The astigmatic flow trajectories on the entropy production surface, show that only cylinders and spheres grow under the constant shape. Small deviations from cylindrical shapes evolve towards spheres or saddles depending on the initial condition, where dissipation rates decrease. Taken together the results and analysis provide novel and significant relations between shape evolution and viscous dissipation in deforming viscous membrane and surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22090909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597146PMC
August 2020

Development and Validation of a Clinical Prognostic Model Based on Immune-Related Genes Expressed in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2020 28;10:1496. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Clinical Biobank, Nantong University Affiliated Hospital, Nantong, China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most frequent and terminal subtype of RCC. Reliable markers associated with the immune response are not available to predict the prognosis of patients with ccRCC. We exploited the extensive number of ccRCC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository to perform a comprehensive analysis of immune-related genes (IRGs). Based on TCGA data, we incorporated IRGs and their expression profiles of 72 normal and 539 ccRCC samples. Univariate Cox analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between overall survival (OS) and IRGs expression. The Lasso Cox regression model identified prognostic genes used to establish a clinical immune prognostic model. The TF-IRG network was used to study the potential molecular mechanisms of action and properties of ccRCC-specific IRGs. Multivariate Cox analysis established a clinical prognostic model of IRGs. We found a significant correlation among 15 differentially expressed IRGs with the OS of patients with ccRCC. Gene function enrichment analysis showed that these IRGs are significantly associated with response to receptor ligand activity. Lasso Cox regression analysis identified 10 genes with the greatest prognostic value. A clinical prognostic model based on six IRGs, which performed well for predicting prognosis, revealed significant associations of patients' survival with age, sex, stage, tumor, node, and metastasis. Moreover, these findings reflect the infiltration of tumors by various immune cells. We identified six clinically significant IRGs and incorporated them into a clinical prognostic model with great significance for monitoring and predicting prognosis of ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485294PMC
August 2020

Improved preparation techniques for preparing high-performance GaAs photocathodes.

Appl Opt 2020 Sep;59(27):8147-8151

Efficiency and lifetime are always problems raised with photocathodes during operation. With the purpose of obtaining high-performance GaAs photocathodes with high sensitivity and long operational lifetime, it is necessary to investigate the preparation techniques during both the cleaning and the activation procedure. By comparison with the classical preparation techniques, the improved preparation techniques with an optimized chemical etching method and activation procedure are proposed. The experimental results show that the optimized chemical etching solution is more effective in removing oxide and carbon contamination, which can help photocathodes obtain higher sensitivity. On this basis, better long wavelength response and longer operational lifetime can be obtained with the help of the more competitive activation procedure. The proposed preparation techniques will be useful for applications as a source of spin-polarized electrons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.399446DOI Listing
September 2020

Combining competitive sequestration with nonlinear hybridization chain reaction amplification: an ultra-specific and highly sensitive sensing strategy for single-nucleotide variants.

Anal Chim Acta 2020 Sep 26;1130:107-116. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

MOE Key Laboratory of Material Physics and Chemistry Under Extraordinary Conditions, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710129, China. Electronic address:

Highly specific and sensitive detection of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) is of central importance in disease diagnosis and pharmacogenomics. However, it remains a great challenge to successfully detect very low amounts of mutant SNV sequences in real samples in which a SNV sequence may be surrounded by high levels of closely related wild-type sequences. Herein, we propose an ultra-specific and highly sensitive SNV sensing strategy by combining the competitive sequestration with the nonlinear hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification. The rationally designed sequestration hairpin can effectively sequester the large amount of wild-type sequence and thus dramatically improve the hybridization specificity in recognizing SNVs. To improve the detection sensitivity, a new fluorescent signal probe is fabricated by intercalating SYBR Green I dye into the nonlinear HCR based DNA dendrimer to further bind with SNVs for signal amplification. The hyperbranched DNA dendrimer possesses large numbers of DNA duplexes for dye intercalation, thus the signal probe shows strong fluorescence intensity, leading to large fluorescence signal amplification. Taking advantage of the improved hybridization specificity of the competitive sequestration and the enhanced fluorescence response of the nonlinear HCR amplification, the developed sensing strategy enables ultra-specific and highly sensitive detection of SNVs. Taking human pancreatic cancers and colorectal carcinomas related KRAS gene mutations as models, the developed strategy shows remarkably high specificity against 17 SNVs (discrimination factors ranged from 126 to 1001 with a median of 310), and achieves high sensitivity for 6 KRAS mutations (the best resultant detection limit reached 15 pM for KRAS G13D (c.38G > A)). Notably, combined with PCR amplification, our SNV sensing strategy could detect KRAS G12D (c.35G > A) from extracted human genomic DNA samples at abundance as low as 0.05%. This work expands the rule set of designing specific and sensitive SNV sensing strategies and shows promising potential application in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.07.022DOI Listing
September 2020

Toward Rapid-Charging Sodium-Ion Batteries using Hybrid-Phase Molybdenum Sulfide Selenide-Based Anodes.

Adv Mater 2020 Oct 25;32(40):e2003534. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

To attain both high energy density and power density in sodium-ion (Na ) batteries, the reaction kinetics and structural stability of anodes should be improved by materials optimization. In this work, few-layered molybdenum sulfide selenide (MoSSe) consisting of a mixture of 1T and 2H phases is designed to provide high ionic/electrical conductivities, low Na diffusion barrier, and stable Na storage. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is used as a conductive matrix to form 3D electron transfer paths. The resulting [email protected] anode exhibits high capacity and rate performance in both organic and solid-state electrolytes. The ultrafast Na storage kinetics of the [email protected] anode is attributed to the surface-dominant reaction process and broad Na channels. In situ and ex situ measurements are conducted to reveal the Na storage process in [email protected] It is found that the MoS and MoSe bonds effectively limit the dissolution of the active materials. The favorable Na storage kinetics of the [email protected] electrode are ascribed to its low adsorption energy of -1.997 eV and low diffusion barrier of 0.087 eV. These results reveal that anion doping of metal sulfides is a feasible strategy to develop sodium-ion batteries with high energy and power densities and long life-span.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202003534DOI Listing
October 2020

Neural Networks to Predict Radiographic Brain Injury in Pediatric Patients Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 22;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Children's Health Dallas, Dallas, TX 75201, USA.

Brain injury is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for pediatric patients treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). Our objective was to utilize neural networks to predict radiographic evidence of brain injury in pediatric ECMO-supported patients and identify specific variables that can be explored for future research. Data from 174 ECMO-supported patients were collected up to 24 h prior to, and for the duration of, the ECMO course. Thirty-five variables were collected, including physiological data, markers of end-organ perfusion, acid-base homeostasis, vasoactive infusions, markers of coagulation, and ECMO-machine factors. The primary outcome was the presence of radiologic evidence of moderate to severe brain injury as established by brain CT or MRI. This information was analyzed by a neural network, and results were compared to a logistic regression model as well as clinician judgement. The neural network model was able to predict brain injury with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.76, 73% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. Logistic regression had 62% sensitivity and 61% specificity. Clinician judgment had 39% sensitivity and 69% specificity. Sequential feature group masking demonstrated a relatively greater contribution of physiological data and minor contribution of coagulation factors to the model's performance. These findings lay the foundation for further areas of research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565544PMC
August 2020

In situ synthesis of polyaniline/carbon nanotube composites in a carbonized wood scaffold for high performance supercapacitors.

Nanoscale 2020 Sep 21;12(34):17738-17745. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P.R. China.

Carbonized and activated wood scraps are appealing scaffolds upon which to host active materials for supercapacitors, realizing the transformation of waste into a valuable device. However, the active material when loaded on the inner walls of the wood tracheids can be easily peeled off, resulting in poor cycling stability of the capacitor and low energy density. Here, we designed a novel composite electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors based on a polyaniline/carbon nanotube composite material with a core-shell structure synthesized in situ in a carbonized wood scaffold. Carbon nanotubes with excellent conductivity were first synthesized in situ on the inner walls of the tracheids via chemical vapor deposition, which were stably embedded in the wood tracheids to increase the specific surface area and active material loading active sites. Then, a layer of polyaniline was deposited on the outer surface of each carbon nanotube via electrochemical deposition to form a core-shell nanostructure. The composite material as a single electrode has high specific capacitances of 240.0 F cm and 1019.5 F g at 10 mA cm. Finally, the asymmetric supercapacitor based on the carbon nanotubes/carbonized wood scaffold as the anode and polyaniline/carbon nanotubes/carbonized wood scaffold as the cathode exhibited a high energy density of 40.5 W h kg at 162.5 W kg and a high capacity retention rate of 93.74% after 10 000 charge and discharge cycles at a current density of 20 mA cm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr04617eDOI Listing
September 2020

Mechanogeometry of nanowrinkling in cholesteric liquid crystal surfaces.

Phys Rev E 2020 Jun;101(6-1):062705

Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montréal, Québec H3A 0C5, Canada.

Biological plywoods are multifunctional fibrous composites materials, ubiquitous in nature. The chiral fibrous organization is found in chitin (insects), cellulosics (plants), and collagen I (cornea and bone of mammals) and is a solid analog of that of cholesteric liquid crystals. The surface and interfaces of plywoods are distinguished by hierarchical topographies and nanowrinkling. In this paper, we present a theory to model the emergence of these surfaces and interfaces using liquid crystal-based shape equations that directly connect material properties with geometric wrinkling. The model applies to liquid crystal precursors of the plywood solid analoges. We focus on wrinkling geometry, wrinkling mechanics, and the mechanogeometry relationships that underlie multifunctionality ubiquitous in biological surfaces. Scaling wrinkling laws that connect mechanical pressures and stresses to folding and bending are formulated and quantified. A synthesis of the connections between mechanics and geometry is achieved using the topology of stress curves and curvature of the wrinkles. Taken together the results show that anchoring is a versatile surface morphing mechanism with a rich surface bending stress field, two ingredients behind many potential multifunctionalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.101.062705DOI Listing
June 2020

Filtration of microplastic spheres by biochar: removal efficiency and immobilisation mechanisms.

Water Res 2020 Oct 10;184:116165. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Lecturer, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom.

Extensive presence of microplastic pollution in the aquatic environment has recently been identified as a critical global challenge. A large proportion of the microplastic in aquatic environments originates from the effluent discharges from wastewater treatment plants and urban runoff. We present an experimental study on the removal of microplastic spheres using biochar as potential low-cost material for integration in sand filter systems to improve their efficiency for removing microbeads in wastewater treatment plants. Based on the results of a series of filtration tests and microscopic characterisation, the major mechanisms of interactions between the microplastic spheres and biochar and immobilisation processes are presented. The results of leaching column tests on three biochar samples produced at three different temperatures from corn straw and a hardwood biochar are compared. The results show that the biochar filters provide significant capacity for the removal and immobilisation of 10 µm diameter microplastic spheres (above 95%) which is much larger than that of similar grain-sized sand filter studied. The extensive ESEM microscopic examination on the samples retrieved after the leaching tests show that the microplastic spheres were immobilised through three morphologically controlled mechanisms which are conceptualised to be 'Stuck', 'Trapped' and 'Entangled' whilst the microplastic spheres only 'Stuck' in sand filter. The presence of abundant honeycomb structures and thin chips to the high removal and immobilisation capacity of corn straw biochar produced at 500 °C and the hardwood biochar. In this study, we demonstrate that biochar can offer extensive potential for immobilisation of microplastic spheres (microbeads). This capacity can in principle be investigated and utilised to improve the efficiency of sand filters to remove microplastic in wastewater treatment plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116165DOI Listing
October 2020

RELL1, a novel oncogene, accelerates tumor progression and regulates immune infiltrates in glioma.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Oct 16;87:106707. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Cancer Chemotherapy, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Diffuse gliomas are the most prevalent primary brain tumors. The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases provide evidence of the relationships between gliomas and altered molecular pathways. In glioma pathogenesis, the microenvironment has emerged as a potential indicator of tumor progression.

Methods: We investigated and confirmed the role of RELT-like 1 (RELL1) oncogene in glioblastoma and low-grade glioma by data mining large cohorts of TCGA and the CGGA. Correlations between immune cells and RELL1 were verified using the CIBERSORT algorithm.

Results: Our analysis revealed that RELL1 expression was much higher in grade-dependent glioma patients with poor prognosis. Comparable prognostic values for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and RELL1 were observed during in-depth analyses of the integrated correlations. Moreover, RELL1 was found to be associated with numerous tumor-infiltrating immune cells in glioma-affected patients.

Conclusion: We conclude that RELL1 might serve as a potential therapeutic target or prognostic marker in glioblastoma and diffuse glioma cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106707DOI Listing
October 2020

A Mixed Modified Layer Formed In Situ to Protect and Guide Lithium Plating/Stripping Behavior.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jul 1;12(28):31411-31418. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, PR China.

Uncontrolled lithium (Li) plating/stripping is one of the most fatal problems of lithium metal batteries (LMBs). Herein, we modified a copper (Cu) foil current collector surface with an indium nitride (InN) thin film, which regulated the Li plating/stripping process through in situ lithiation. That is, InN transformed into a lithium nitride (LiN)/Li-In alloy phase (LiIn)-mixed protection layer during the first Li plating process. LiN is an efficient Li conductor and is stable to Li, whereas LiIn possesses fast Li diffusion kinetics. The synergistic effect of these two species simultaneously caused the mixed protective layer to display fast Li diffusion, inhibited the rapid growth of Li dendrites, and induced bottom Li deposition under the protective layer. Li∥Cu cells exhibited higher Coulombic efficiency and a more stable lithium plating/stripping process than a control cell without an InN layer. Moreover, when an InN thin film was transplanted onto the surface of a Li metal sheet using the same method, the resulting Li∥Li symmetrical cell delivered extraordinary performance. This in situ formation of a multifunctional modified layer by a facile preparation process could be an effective way to inhibit dendrite growth and accelerate the application of LMBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06546DOI Listing
July 2020

Mechanical robustness of monolayer nanoparticle-covered liquid marbles.

Soft Matter 2020 May 6;16(19):4632-4639. Epub 2020 May 6.

School of Physical Science and Technology, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Condensed Matter Structures and Properties, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, 710129, China.

Powder-derived liquid marbles (LMs) are versatile nonwetting systems but are confronted with many limitations in application, as their surface particles are usually large and agglomerated. Recently, sol-gel film-derived LMs have come on the scene that are termed monolayer nanoparticle-covered (mNPc) LMs based on their unique characteristics, revealing great application potential but also generating many questions. Here, mechanical robustness, a very important yet to be addressed property, of mNPc LMs was systematically studied. Rolling, pendant contact, and compression experiments were designed using bare and coated glasses with water contact angles (WCAs) ranging from 23° to 157°. With rupture as a quality criteria, the mechanical robustness of mNPc LMs enhanced with the hydrophobicity of solid surfaces that exerted pressure on them, but maintained much weaker than typical powder LMs until the solid surface was superhydrophobic. In particular, when contacting hydrophilic surfaces of WCAs ≤53°, an mNPc LM did not have the capacity for nonwetting and ruptured immediately, even if the pressure approached zero. This was distinct from powder LMs and indicated that a particle shell as thin as ∼20 nm could not prevent intermolecular attractions between the internal liquid and external solid surface. An interface scenario consisting of solid surface microroughness was proposed to address this issue. On the other hand, mNPc LMs remained unruptured on superhydrophobic surfaces but presented degraded elasticity under extreme compression. Uncovering these properties could be of much help for developments of mNPc LMs and their counterparts, the mNPc liquid plasticines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sm00496kDOI Listing
May 2020

SYT16 is a prognostic biomarker and correlated with immune infiltrates in glioma: A study based on TCGA data.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jul 11;84:106490. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Orthopaedics, Qidong Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Nantong, Jiangsu 226200, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Glioma is the most lethal primary brain tumor. Lower-grade glioma (LGG) is the crucial pathological type of Glioma. Immune-infiltration of the tumor microenvironment positively associated with overall survival in LGG. SYT16 is a gene has not been reported in cancer. We assess the role of SYT16 in LGG, via the publicly available TCGA database.

Methods: Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) was used to analyze the expression of SYT16 in LGG. We evaluated the influence of SYT16 on survival of LGG patients by survival module. Then, datasets of LGG were downloaded from TCGA. The correlations between the clinical information and SYT16 expression were analyzed using logistic regression. Univariable survival and Multivariate Cox analysis was used to compare several clinical characteristics with survival. we also explore the correlation between SYT16 and cancer immune infiltrates using CIBERSORT and correlation module of GEPIA. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed using the TCGA dataset. In addition, we use TIMER to explore the collection of SYT16 Expression and Immune Infiltration Level in LGG and to explore cumulative survival in LGG.

Results: The univariate analysis using logistic regression, indicated that increased SYT16 expression significantly correlated with the tumor grade. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that the up-regulated SYT16 expression is an independent prognostic factor for good prognosis. Specifically, SYT16 expression level has significant negative correlations with infiltrating levels of B cell, CD4+ T cells, Macrophages, Neutrophils and DCs in LGG. In addition, GSEA identified ingle organism behavior, gated channel activity, cognition, transporter complex and ligand gated channel activity  in Gene Ontology (GO) were differentially enriched in the high SYT16 expression phenotype pathway. Neuroactive ligand receptor interaction, calcium signaling pathway, long term potentiation, type II diabetes mellitus and long term depression were identified as differentially enriched  pathway in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG).

Conclusion: SYT16 is a Prognostic Biomarker and Correlated with Immune Infiltrates in LGG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106490DOI Listing
July 2020

Low expression of RGL4 is associated with a poor prognosis and immune infiltration in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jun 4;83:106454. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Oncology, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, PR China. Electronic address:

Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a frequently diagnosed histologic subtype with increasing morbidity and mortality. RalGDS-Like 4 (RGL4) has not been reported to be associated with cancer risk, prognosis, immunotherapy or any other treatments. We perform a bioinformatics analysis on data downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-LUAD, and we find that low expression of RGL4 is accompanied by worse outcomes and prognosis in LUAD patients. As a promising predictor, the potential influence and mechanisms of RGL4 on overall survival are worth exploring. Moreover, RGL4 expression is significantly associated with a variety of tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs), particularly memory B cells, CD8T cells and neutrophils. Subsequently, we evaluated the most notable KEGG pathways, including glycolysis gluconeogenesis, the P53 signaling pathway, RNA degradation, and the B cell receptor signaling pathway, among others. Our findings provide evidence that the decreased expression of RGL4 is significantly associated with poor prognosis and immune cell infiltration in patients with LUAD and highlight the use of RGL4 as a novel predictive biomarker for the prognosis of LUAD and other cancers. RGL4 may also be used in combination with immune checkpoints to identify the benefits of immunotherapy. Subjects: Bioinformatics, Genomics, Oncology, Thoracic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106454DOI Listing
June 2020

Dysfunction of Tregs contributes to FGR pathogenesis via regulating Smads signalling pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 03 14;24(6):3647-3655. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China.

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is ranked number two of most common complication of abnormal pregnancy worldwide. The pathogenesis of FGR is complicated due to multiple aetiologies and the exact mechanism for FGR development is currently unknown. T regulatory cells (Tregs) are proven to play central roles in the maintenance of normal pregnancy. Peripheral blood samples of 102 pregnant human were collected analysed using flow cytometry to identify Tregs. We found that reduced Tregs and down-regulation of Foxp3 were observed in peripheral blood of FGR patients. In FGR mouse model, we have found that Tregs were not only reduced in spleen but also in placenta. In vitro, Foxp3 and its transcription regulatory signalling molecules, including P-Smad2, P-Smad3 and Smad4, were diminished as well. Inhibition on Foxp3 expression was partially reversed by overexpression of Smad2 and Smad4. In FGR patients, Western blot results revealed that Foxp3, P-Smad2, P-Smad3 and Smad4 expression was inhibited in placenta. Our preliminary result suggests that maternal-foetal immune tolerance mediated by Tregs plays an essential role in the development of FGR. The inhibited expression of Foxp3 and down-regulated Smad2/Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway were involved in the FGR pathogenesis. Targeting maternal-foetal immune tolerance through Tregs might represent a novel therapeutic option for FGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7131912PMC
March 2020
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