Publications by authors named "Zahra Hosseini"

54 Publications

Prognostic implications of calculated Apo-lipoprotein B in patients with segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: Outcome is tied to lower cut-points.

Clin Cardiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Research center at department of Cardiology, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Debates still surround using lipoproteins including Apo-B in risk assessment, management, and prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease. During an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, Apo-B might help to achieve incremental prognostic information.

Objective: We sought to determine the potential prognostic utility of calculated Apo-B in a cohort of patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted enrolling 2,259 patients with a diagnosis of acute STEMI who underwent primary PCI. Apo-B was obtained using a valid equation based on initial lipid measurements. High Apo-B was defined as a level of 65 or higher. Primary endpoint of the study was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).

Results: Mean age of the participants was 59.54 years and 77.9% of them were male. After a Median follow up of 15 (6.2) months, high Apo-B was associated with MACE and the OR (95% CI) was 3.02 (1.07-8.47), p = .036. Odds ratios for prediction of MACE pertaining to LVEF, and smoking were 0.97 (p = .044), and 1.07 (p = .033), respectively. However, High Apo-B was not able to predict suboptimal TIMI flow. Accordingly, the Odds ratio was 0.56 (0.17-1.87), p = 0.349. The power of High LDL-C and Non-HDLC for prediction of MACE were assessed in distinct models. Attained odds ratios were [2.40 (0.90-6.36), p = .077] and [1.80 (0.75-4.35), p = 0.191], respectively.

Conclusion: Calculated Apo-B appears to be a simple tool applicable for prediction of cardiovascular events in patients with STEMI superior to both Non-HDLC and LDL-C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23610DOI Listing
May 2021

Cystic Echinococcosis: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) among Surgically Operated Cases in Fars Province, Southern Iran.

J Parasitol Res 2021 8;2021:9976548. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by with major health and economic burden. The information on how the community members perceive the disease is crucial in order to recommend an effective preventive and control plan. The current study is aimed at finding out knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of surgically operated cases of hydatid cyst in educational hospitals of Shiraz in Fars Province, southern Iran, toward the CE.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 180 CE patients who underwent surgery due to CE. Using a well-designed questionnaire, a telephone-based survey was carried out to collect the data. The contents of the questionnaire included basic personal information and questions related to the participants' knowledge, attitude, and behavioral patterns toward CE. Univariate and then multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the KAP. Unstandardized regression coefficients () and odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to quantify the associations between variables and KAP.

Results: A total of 180 CE patients with a mean age of 35.64 (±17.59) years were recruited. The mean score of participant's knowledge was 8.7 (SD = 2.8, range: 0-17), whereas these scores were 1.3 (SD = 0.7, range 0-2) for attitude and 1.2 (SD = 1.0, range 0-4) for practice. Findings of the study demonstrated that 20 of the participants (11.1%) had good knowledge towards CE, 82 (45.6%) demonstrated a positive attitude, and 57 (47.5%) without having dogs demonstrated a good practice towards CE (score = 2/2), while from 60 dog owners, only 7 (11.6%) participants demonstrated good practice (score 3 and 4/4). Factors that were associated with knowledge were age (OR = -0.49, value = 0.001) and educational level (OR = 0.668, value = 0.001), where higher age was associated with lower knowledge and also higher educational levels were associated with higher knowledge regarding hydatid cyst. Regarding attitude, only living location had a significant association with participants' attitude where those who were living in urban areas demonstrating a more positive attitude towards CE (OR = 0.261, value = 0.022). The practice of the participants was grouped into dog owners and participants with no dogs, in which among participants who did not own a dog, those living in urban areas demonstrating weaker practice towards CE (OR = -0.491, value>0.001). Moreover, a lack of counseling of patients after the surgery on how to prevent reinfection was noticed.

Conclusion: Findings of the study revealed that the CE patients in southern Iran had poor knowledge and attitude toward the disease, and their practice may help in maintaining the disease in the community. Health education is highly needed to increase community awareness and to prevent and control this neglected parasitic infection in the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9976548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049810PMC
April 2021

Warning signals of elevated prediabetes prevalence in the modern Iranian urban population.

Prim Care Diabetes 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Research Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: We sought to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and pre-DM and their associated factors among a sample of the Iranian urban population between 2017 and 2019.

Methods: The present investigation is a sub-study on the HAMRAH cohort study, a longitudinal population-based cohort study to assess the 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases and their related risk factors in the adult population of the Iranian capital, Tehran. Via a multistage cluster randomized sampling method, 2123 adults aged between 30 and 75 years who had no history of cardiovascular diseases were selected for the study. With the aid of the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria for the definition of DM and pre-DM, age and sex-specific prevalence rates were estimated.

Results: The estimated overall prevalence of DM was 14.3% (95% CI: 13.1%-15.8%): 10.4% known DM (95% CI: 9.1%-11.8%) and 4% newly diagnosed DM (95% CI: 3.1%-5.1%). Pre-DM was detected in about 29.2% of the study participants (95% CI: 22.9-36.3%). Our logistic regression analysis revealed that increasing age, higher systolic blood pressure, higher levels of triglycerides, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein were significantly associated with DM.

Conclusions: DM and pre-DM follow a notable incremental pattern among the Iranian urban population. This finding underscores the significance of the need to improve prevention and screening strategies in the Iranian urban population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Which nurses are victims of bullying: the role of negative affect, core self-evaluations, role conflict and bullying in the nursing staff.

BMC Nurs 2021 Apr 9;20(1):57. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Health Education and Promotion, Health School, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: Bullying among nurses is a universally recognized problem that has important consequences for nurses, patients and health institutions. This research was conducted with the aim of studying the relationship between role conflict, negative affect and core self-evaluations with bullying in nurses.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 329 nurses were selected by census method. Data were collected using PANAS Scale (negative affect), role conflict questionnaire, Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES), and the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R). Data were analyzed using t-test, one way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis with SPSS software (v. 22).

Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference between the mean bullying scores in according to gender and ward of affiliation. The influence of other variables (marital status, education level, years of experience, age group and work position) was not meaningful. Pearson correlation analysis results indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between role conflict (r = 0.47) and negative affect (r = 0.56) with bullying. Also there is a significant negative relationship between core self-evaluations and bullying (r = - 0.39). Moreover, regression analysis results revealed that negative affect, role conflict and gender can predict 44% of bullying variance significantly.

Conclusions: Based on these findings, core self-evaluations, negative affect and role conflict are good factors in predicting bullying among nurses. Consequently, hiring nurses with low negative affect and high core self-evaluations, improving nurses' self-esteem and self-efficacy and changing workplace conditions in order to reducing role conflict can be useful in reducing workplace bullying.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00578-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034186PMC
April 2021

Barriers to using a helmet among motorcyclist students: a qualitative study.

J Inj Violence Res 2021 Apr 7;13(2). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: Helmet use rates among motorcyclists are low and various factors are involved. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the use of helmet in motorcycle students in Iran (Bandar Abbas city) in 2019.

Methods: The research was qualitative and data were collected through individual interviews and observations and were interpreted by content analysis method. Participants were 15 motorcyclist students studying in public health (6), nursing (4), dentistry (2), medicine (1), health education (1) and biochemistry (1). They were purposefully included in the study and sampling continued until data saturation. The main tool for data collection was deep semi-structured interviews with open answers which lasted for 20 to 60 minutes. Finally, 15 interviews were collected in this study.

Results: The five main categories (economic, family, socio-cultural, individual, and riding rules) were extracted from the data that each had a subclass.

Conclusions: Different factors in micro and macro dimensions play a role in the use of helmets among motorcyclists. Consideration of these factors by the relevant organizations in the field of traffic can increase the use of helmets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5249/jivr.v13i2.1543DOI Listing
April 2021

Spectral Wavelet-feature Analysis and Classification Assisted Denoising for enhancing magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

NMR Biomed 2021 Mar 9:e4497. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of revealing important biochemical and metabolic information of tissues noninvasively. However, the low concentrations of metabolites often lead to poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a long acquisition time. Therefore, the applications of MRS in detection and quantitative measurements of metabolites in vivo remain limited. Reducing or even eliminating noise can improve SNR sufficiently to obtain high quality spectra in addition to increasing the number of signal averaging (NSA) or the field strength, both of which are limited in clinical applications. We present a Spectral Wavelet-feature ANalysis and Classification Assisted Denoising (SWANCAD) approach to differentiate signal and noise peaks in magnetic resonance spectra based on their respective wavelet features, followed by removing the identified noise components to improve SNR. The performance of this new denoising approach was evaluated by measuring and comparing SNRs and quantified metabolite levels of low NSA spectra (e.g. NSA = 8) before and after denoising using the SWANCAD approach or by conventional spectral fitting and denoising methods, such as LCModel and wavelet threshold methods, as well as the high NSA spectra (e.g. NSA = 192) recorded in the same sampling volumes. The results demonstrated that SWANCAD offers a more effective way to detect the signals and improve SNR by removing noise from the noisy spectra collected with low NSA or in the subminute scan time (e.g. NSA = 8 or 16 s). The potential applications of SWANCAD include using low NSA to accelerate MRS acquisition while maintaining adequate spectroscopic information for detection and quantification of the metabolites of interest when a limited time is available for an MRS examination in the clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4497DOI Listing
March 2021

Multi-component relaxation modelling in human Achilles tendon: Quantifying chemical shift information in ultra-short echo time imaging.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Jul 15;86(1):415-428. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Radiology & Imaging Sciences, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Purpose: To examine multi-component relaxation modelling for quantification of on- and off-resonance relaxation signals in multi-echo ultra-short echo time (UTE) data of human Achilles tendon (AT) and compare bias and dispersion errors of model parameters to that of the bi-component model.

Theory And Methods: Multi-component modelling is demonstrated for quantitative multi-echo UTE analysis of AT and supported using a novel method for determining number of MR-visible off-resonance components, UTE data from six healthy volunteers, and analysis of proton NMR measurements from ex vivo bovine AT. Cramer-Rao lower bound expressions are presented for multi- and bi-component models and parameter estimate variances are compared. Bias error in bi-component estimates is characterized numerically.

Results: Two off-resonance components were consistently detected in all six volunteers and in bovine AT data. Multi-component model exhibited superior quality of fit, with a marginal increase in estimate variance, when compared to the bi-component model. Bi-component estimates exhibited notable bias particularly in in the presence of off-resonance components.

Conclusion: Multi-component modelling more reliably quantifies tendon matrix water components while also providing quantitation of additional non-water matrix constituents. Further work is needed to interpret the origin of the observed off-resonance signals with preliminary assignments made to chemical groups in lipids and proteoglycans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28686DOI Listing
July 2021

Differences in overweight/obesity prevalence by demographic characteristics and self-weight misperception status.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 Feb 2;41:249-253. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Increasing the prevalence of overweight and obesity is one of the main concerns of health systems of the world. This research was conducted to estimate the prevalence of overweight/obesity and its related factors in the Eastern part of Iran.

Methods: An analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted among 1048 inhabitants aged between 15 and 64 years who lived in Gonabad and Bajestan, two districts locating in the East of Iran, in 2016. A probability proportional to size stratified sampling was used to select the participants. We applied a checklist to collect the required data. Analyzing the data, we used t-test, χ2, and ANOVA. A significant level of 0.05 was considered in this study.

Results: Total prevalence of overweight/obesity was 43.8%. There were significant associations between overweight/obesity and age (P < 0.001), sex (P = 0.008 in Gonabad, P = 0.004 in Bajestan), marital status (P < 0.001, in Gonabad, P = 0.001 in Bajestan), and job (P < 0.001). There was also a discrepancy between the participants' self-perception of weight and their real weight status.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among women, government employees, and married individuals. Therefore, focusing on these groups in implementing weight control interventions is recommended. According to the high prevalence of obesity in housewives as well as the role of women to control the normal weight of their family members via providing healthy food, it seems that one of the most effective groups in the programs would be housewives. Besides, strengthening health literacy is recommended to eliminate self-weight misperception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.12.005DOI Listing
February 2021

Persistent Complete Heart Block in a Patient with COVID-19 Infection: a Case Report.

SN Compr Clin Med 2021 Jan 6:1-4. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Cardiology, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

The pandemic of COVID-19 as a global concern has emerged the need for data aggregation about various clinical pictures particularly cardiovascular complications. Although the incidence of advanced atrioventricular block (AVB) in these patients is not well established, few cases have been reported. We have reported a 48-year-old man with COVID-19 infection who presented with prodromal symptoms for 5 days preceding complete AVB found at the emergency department. Pulmonary involvement and PCR confirmed the diagnosis. The block persisted after recovery of the patient for more than 1 month. Pathophysiology of advanced AVB following COVID-19 infection is not well understood. Several factors including inflammatory response, immune system over activity, myocarditis, and medications have been underlined. Although conservative management may lead to spontaneous recovery of AVB, pacemaker implantation is reasonable in case of persistent conduction defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00712-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787236PMC
January 2021

New Horizon of Intervention in Congenital Heart Disease: AFR in a Complex Cyanotic Patient.

Case Rep Cardiol 2020 23;2020:8897101. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Institute of Basic and Clinical Physiology Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences Kerman, Iran.

Double-inlet left ventricle (DILV) is the commonest form of the anatomic univentricular heart which has different ventriculoarterial connection; generally, the most prevalent type is DILV with the hypoplastic right ventricle on the left side. The disease is associated with several heart defects, and the treatment method is different based on the anatomy of the heart, but treatment methods are almost always palliative. In this paper, we described one adult patient with DILV and severe left AV (atrioventricular valve) stenosis who is managed with a novel palliative intervention; it means AFR (atrial flow regulator) device implantation for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8897101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773472PMC
December 2020

Monophosphoramide derivatives: synthesis and crystal structure, theoretical and experimental studies of their biological effects.

Mol Divers 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Synthesizing new chemical compounds and studying their biological applications have been important issues in scientific research. In this investigation, we synthesized and characterized ten new N-acetyl phosphoramidate compounds and explored the crystal structure of three others. Furthermore, not only were some kinetic inhibition parameters measured, like IC, K, k, K for 7 compounds on human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), but also their hydrophobic parameter was determined by shake-flask technique. All compounds (number 1-10) were investigated for anti-bacterial activity against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria, while chloramphenicol was used as a standard antibiotic. In order to find new insecticide, toxicities of 13 acephate (Ace)-derived compounds (number 20-32) were bioassayed on third larval instar of elm leaf beetle and Xanthogaleruca luteola. Additionally, screening in vivo tests revealed that two compounds had had the greatest insecticidal potential in comparison with others. It means these ones inhibited AChE (with mixed mechanisms) and general esterase more than the rest. According to ChE-QSAR models, the inhibitory potency for enzyme and bacteria is directly influenced by the electronic parameters versus structural descriptors. AChE-QSPR model of fluorescence assay indicated that the inhibitory power of AChE is primarily influenced by a set of electronic factors with the priority of: E > PL > δ(P) versus structural descriptor (SA and Mv). Synthesizing new chemical compounds and studying their biological applications have been important issues in scientific research. Toxicities of 13 acephate (Ace)-derived compounds (number 20-32) were bioassayed on third larval instar of elm leaf beetle and Xanthogaleruca luteola. Insect-QSAR equations of these compounds, based on MLR and PCA, showed that non-descriptor net charge nitrogen atom (which was affected by the polarization of N-H group) had the greatest effect on insecticidal potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-020-10160-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Lipid-Lowering Effects of Concurrent Training and Green Tea Consumption in Overweight Women.

J Obes Metab Syndr 2020 Dec;29(4):313-319

Department of Sport Physiology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran.

Background: Exercise conducted simultaneously with the consumption of herbal supplements is one of the suggested methods for controlling obesity and its complications. The present study sought to investigate the lipid-lowering effects of concurrent training and green tea (GT) consumption in overweight women.

Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 40 overweight women were selected and stratified into four groups: control (C), GT, concurrent training+placebo (TP), and concurrent training+GT (three tablets containing 500 mg of GT per week; T+GT) groups. Both the TP and T+GT groups performed exercise three sessions per week for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected before and 48 hours after the last training session.

Results: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the T+GT (=0.03) and TP (=0.001) groups were significantly decreased relative to in the GT group and were significantly decreased in the T+GT group relative to in the TP group (=0.001). Meanwhile, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the T+GT group were significantly increased as compared with in the GT (=0.01), TP (=0.03), and C (=0.04) groups. Finally, total cholesterol levels in the T+GT group were decreased significantly as compared with in the TP, GT, and C groups (=0.001) and triglyceride levels in the T+GT, TP, and GT groups were significantly increased as compared with in the C group (=0.001).

Conclusion: Exercise performed simultaneously with GT consumption in comparison with either alone has a greater effect on improving the lipid profile in overweight women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7570/jomes20023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789026PMC
December 2020

Role of stent oversizing in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. An open-labeled randomized controlled trial.

Minerva Cardioangiol 2020 Dec 1. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Cardiovascular Intervention Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical, and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran -

Background: In patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the treatment of choice. Stent undersizing might occur due to catecholamine release and coronary spasm. Although routine oversizing has been promising in several investigations, it has never been tested in randomized clinical trials. In this single-center open-label randomized clinical trial, we evaluated the role of stent oversizing in PPCI.

Methods: Candidates for PPCI were randomly divided into oversized and non-oversized groups. In the oversized group, the stent was oversized by 10% according to the mean lumen diameter, retrieved from the quantitative coronary analysis. Primary composite endpoints were defined as the occurrence of complete total ST-segment (STR)resolution and postprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade III.

Results: The study population was comprised of 122 patients, allocated to the oversized group (n = 61) and the non-oversized group (n = 61). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding the final TIMI flow grade. Complete STR was marginally more favorable in the non-oversized group (56.05 ± 55.12 vs 64.64 ± 23.28; P = 0.056). The troponin ratio, CK-MB ratio, and 6-month follow up outcome-defined as target lesion revascularization, heart failure, and cardiovascular death-were comparable between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: Our study showed that routine oversizing in patients undergoing PPCI had no benefit regarding ST-segment resolution and the final TIMI flow, as well as hard cardiac events, during the follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4725.20.05396-7DOI Listing
December 2020

The significance of coronary artery calcium score as a predictor of coronary artery stenosis in individuals referred for CT angiography.

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2020 3;12(3):203-208. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Cardiovascular Intervention Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD), are among the most common causes of death in the elderly population. Recent studies have found that coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a strong independent predictor of CAD. Here we aimed to investigate the association between CACS and demographic, clinical, laboratory, and CT angiographic findings inpatients with suspected CAD. From June 2008 to August 2018, we retrospectively reviewed 219 consecutive patients suspected with CAD who were referred for CT angiography in Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical, and Research Center. Medical records were reviewed, and relevant demographic, clinical, laboratory and imaging were collected. A total of 219 patients with an average age of 62.64±12.39 were included. Twelve patients(5.5%) had normal coronary angiography, and 50.2% had mild CAD. An obstructive CAD was found in97 patients (44.3%). The median CACS was 76.4 (IQR, 13.0-289.1). The frequency of obstructive CAD was 28.1% in the CACS <100 group, and 67.0% in CACS >100 group ( < 0.001). On multiple logistic regression analysis, age (OR=1.04 [1.01-1.07], = 0.006), CACS (OR= 4.31 [2.33-7.98], < 0.001), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (OR = 0.82 [0.68-0.98], = 0.027) were independent predictors of obstructive CAD. We found a direct association between higher CACS and obstructive patterns in coronary CT angiography. Our findings indicate that the possibility of the presence of obstructive CAD was higher among symptomatic patients with older age, lower NLR, and CACS >100.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jcvtr.2020.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581835PMC
September 2020

Paradigm Shift in the Management of Isolated Interrupted Aortic Arch in Adulthood.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2021 Mar 24;46(3):100717. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

An interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare type of congenital heart disease, and few patients survived into the adulthood. Surgical reconstruction is still the recommended approach, despite its complexity and considerable complication. In addition, patients with IAA usually suffer from several other important congenital heart anomalies, which increase the complexity of surgical management of IAA. Although endovascular therapy has replaced surgery in the treatment of the majority of non-IAA, its applicability in IAA is still matter of debate. In the present review, we have discussed about various therapeutic solutions of IAA, and present a stepwise approach for its endovascular management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2020.100717DOI Listing
March 2021

Determinants factors to Pap smear screening among married women in a city of South Iran: applying the BASNEF model.

BMC Womens Health 2020 10 20;20(1):237. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: Cervical cancer is known to be preventable because of the long pre-invasion period and the availability of appropriate screening methods. Pap smear is a selective screening approach, which is not taken seriously enough by many women.

Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was performed using electronic health records of 202 women visiting the health centers chosen through the systematic sampling method. The data collection tool contained items on demographic information, awareness regarding cervical cancer, and the beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, and enabling factors (BASNEF) model constructs. Data were analyzed using the linear regression analysis, logistic regression, and multivariate regression analysis with backward selection in SPSS, version 18.

Results: Based on the results, more than half of the women had never had a Pap smear test. Of the 202 women, only 14.8% had repeated the Pap smear test at the standard interval. Attitudes and subjective norms predicted the intention to have a Pap smear test among the eligible women. Overall, 10% of the changes in behavioral intention were explained by attitudes and subjective norms. In the BASNEF model, the behavioral intention was one of the most important factors that affected compliance with the Pap smear test among the eligible women.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is possible to improve screening behaviors among women through proper planning to increase awareness and improve attitudes, subjective norms, enabling factors, and behavioral intention. Pap smear plays an important role in controlling cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-01102-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576855PMC
October 2020

Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid antisolvent precipitation for extraction of polar organic compounds in water.

Anal Chim Acta 2020 Oct 20;1135:91-98. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

This paper reports on the development of an extraction method called "ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid antisolvent precipitation (UA-DLAP)". The developed method is a combination of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid antisolvent precipitation (LAP) methods. Unlike DLLME, the extraction solvent in UA-DLAP is replaced with a bad solvent for the analyte which has a low affinity toward the analyte (antisolvent). Unlike LAP, in UA-DLAP the analyte is dissolved in water, the antisolvent is water-immiscible and denser than water, and the needed volume of the antisolvent is in microliter range. In UA-DLAP, after the addition of a mixture of the antisolvent and a disperser solvent to the sample solution under sonication, a cloudy mixture containing the antisolvent micro/nanodroplets appears. After centrifugation of the mixture, three phases appear (a water-rich phase in the top, an analyte rich precipitate phase in middle, and an antisolvent rich phase in the bottom). Finally, the analyte rich precipitate phase is separated and dissolved in a back-extraction solvent. To evaluate the efficiency of the UA-DLAP method and its possible mechanism of action, three model polar organic compounds in water were extracted by UA-DLAP and determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that the precipitate phase for all of the investigated analytes was nanostructured. The limits of detection were 22 ng mL, 11 ng mL, and 3.9 ng mL for doxorubicin, methylene blue, and Congo red, respectively. Respective experimental enrichment factors were 18.3, 27.8, and 31.1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.08.027DOI Listing
October 2020

Cardiovascular patients in COVID-19 era, a case series, an experience from a tertiary cardiovascular center in Tehran, Iran.

Clin Case Rep 2020 Jul 23. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center Iran University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

Different cardiovascular presentations of coronavirus disease 2019 can be seen because of the systemic involvement. Considering its new presentations, there is need for further studies regarding the mechanistic pathways involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405101PMC
July 2020

Still careless: findings from a cross-sectional study of young pedestrians' risky road crossing behaviors.

Arch Public Health 2020 18;78:44. Epub 2020 May 18.

5Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Hormozgan Health Institute, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: Pedestrian-vehicle collision is one of the most common traffic injuries worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of pedestrians' road crossing beliefs and behaviors in potentially risky situations using the Theory of Planned Behavior among Iranian young adults.

Methods: This was a population-based study on a sample of 562 young adults aged 18 to 25 years living in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected by using a self-administered validated questionnaire including constructs of the theory of planned behavior and items of perceived risk and severity. The data were analyzed using independent t-test, analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance.

Results: From all the respondents, 17.8% reported that they had previous experience of vehicle-collision. Among the participants, those who had previous experience of vehicle-collision reported less safety behaviors in crossing the road than those who had not experience an accident. It was found significant differences between participants with and without a history of vehicle-collision for perceived risk (mean difference, adjusted multivariate -value: - 5.77, 0.027) and perceived severity (- 6.08, 0.003), attitude toward traffic regulations (- 6.34, 0.006), attitude toward behavior (- 7.56, 0.005), perceived behavioral control (- 5.20, 0.018), behavioral intention (- 5.35, 0.046) and road crossing behavior in potentially risky situations (- 5.37, 0.004).

Conclusions: Previous unpleasant experience of vehicle-collision is not the only determinant of self-protective behaviors in road- crossing which indicate the role of cognitive and motivational factors such as, subjective norms, attitudes towards risk, feelings of invulnerability in case of facing with vehicle collision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-020-00421-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236260PMC
May 2020

Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Management of Patients With ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction in a Tertiary Cardiovascular Center.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2021 03;20(1):53-55

From the Cardiovascular Intervention Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical, and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; and.

Background: In the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the appropriate reperfusion strategy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unclear.

Methods: This retrospective single-center study consecutively enrolled patients who presented with STEMI and scheduled for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) during the outbreak of COVID-19. Due to the delay in the reporting of the polymerase chain reaction test results, our postprocedural triage regarding COVID-19, followed by the isolation strategy, was based on lung computerized tomography scan results.

Results: Forty-eight patients with STEMI referred to our center. PPCI was done for 44 (91%) of these patients. The mean symptom-to-device time was 490.93 ± 454.608 minutes, and the mean first medical contact-to-device time was and 154.12 ± 36.27 minutes. Nine (18%) patients with STEMI were diagnosed as having typical/indeterminate features indicating COVID-19 involvement. During hospitalization, 1 (2.0%) patient died of cardiogenic shock. The study population was followed for 35.9 ± 12.7 days. Two patients expired in another centers due to COVID-19. No cardiac catheterization laboratory staff members were infected by COVID-19 during the study period.

Conclusions: Our small report indicates that by taking the recommended safety measures and using appropriate PPE, we can continue PPCI as the main reperfusion strategy safely and effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288762PMC
March 2021

Psychometric Properties of the Persian Translation of Video Gaming Addiction Test.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2019 Sep-Oct;10(5):469-474. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Brain and Cogntive Clinic, Insitute for Cognitive Sciences Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The current study aims to measure the validity, reliability, and psychometric properties of the Persian translation of the Video Gaming Addiction Test (VAT).

Methods: A total of 280 young men (14-20 years old) (Mean±SD age: 17.22±1.8 years), including excessive gamers and normal subjects, entered the study. They answered VAT, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The VAT was translated and then back-translated. For testing reliability, we used the Cronbach alpha, split-half method, and Guttman method. Also, convergent and discriminant validity were tested to examine the construct validity of the translated version of VAT.

Results: The Cronbach alpha for the total scale was 0.81. Also, after splitting questions in half, the Cronbach alpha values for these halves were 0.71 and 0.69. Six Guttman lambdas were calculated with 0.75 minimum and 0.82 maximum, all showing good reliability of the test. Convergent validity was tested by testing the correlation between VAT and VAS. The Pearson correlation was fond 0.73, showing a strong relationship between the two factors (P<0.001). For testing discriminant validity, the association of VAT with CD-RISC was tested, showing no correlation between these scales (r=-0.157; P=0.09).

Conclusion: The Persian translation of the VAT is valid and reliable, and it is appropriate for research and clinical use with acceptable properties, similar to the original version.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/bcn.9.10.345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149960PMC
September 2019

Esophageal epithelium modeling based on globally coupled map: an approach toward precancerous lesion diagnosis.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2020 Jun 1;58(6):1297-1308. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Complex Systems and Cybernetic Control Lab, Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 1591634311, Tehran, Iran.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is the most predominant malignancy of the esophagus. Its histological precursors (dysplasia) emerge in the esophageal epithelium that their progression into the underlying layers leads to cancer. The epithelium is the origin of many solid cancers and, accordingly, the focus of numerous computational models. In this work, we proposed a framework to establish a two-dimensional, globally coupled map to model the epithelium dynamics. The model aims at diagnosing the early stage of dysplasia based on microscopic images of endoscopic biopsies. We used the logistic map as a black-box model for the epithelial cells. By relating between the structure and dynamic of the epithelium, we defined the coupling function and proposed a case-dependent model in which the parameters were adjusted based on fractal geometry of each pathological image. Thus, by assigning different attractors to the cells' behavior, the lattice dynamic was investigated by the Lyapunov exponent. The decreasing pattern of Lyapunov exponent variations across the epithelium thickness had reasonable performance in diagnosing the normal specimens from the low-grade dysplasia ones. The results showed that there could be a direct relationship between the structural complexity of this system and its uncertainty of dynamics. Graphical abstract The modeling process of the esophageal epithelium to classify the experimental data at normal and LGD stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-020-02151-7DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluating the effect of a herb on the control of blood glucose and insulin-resistance in patients with advanced type 2 diabetes (a double-blind clinical trial).

Caspian J Intern Med 2020 ;11(1):12-20

Gastroenterology & Hepatology Disease Research Center, Qom University of Medical Science, Qom, Iran.

Background: Different benefits of various herbal medicines in decreasing blood sugar have been reported in different clinical trials so far. Considering the growing tendency toward these combinations and the booming market, inappropriate advice is growing accordingly. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the effects and possible complications of such combinations on health status and blood glucose control.

Methods: Two 38-subject groups were formed and a 12-week treatment program was administered for both groups. The inclusion criteria were failure to control blood glucose with two oral medicines, unwillingness to inject insulin. The medicine was prepared in capsules by Booali Company. Each capsule weighed 750 mg and contained nettle leaf 20% (w/w), berry leaf 10% (w/w), onion and garlic 20% (w/w), fenugreek seed 20% (w/w), walnut leaf 20% (w/w), and cinnamon bark 10% (w/w) all in powder.

Results: At the beginning of the study, there was no significant difference between the subjects regarding the evaluated parameters, but after the intervention, the level of glucose was significantly lower in fasting (P=0.0001) and 2-hour postprandial (P=0.002) levels. The level of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (P=0.0001) also decreased from 0.33±9.72 % to 0.20±8.39 %. Finally, the level of insulin resistance reduced from 1.9±4.1 to 1.4±2.6 (P=0.001) after consuming herbal medicine.

Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, the herbal combination was effective in controlling blood sugar, and considering the reduction of HbA1c by 1.31 %, it seems that the herbal combination is an effective medicine to treat diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.11.1.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992722PMC
January 2020

Correction to: Psychometric properties of the scale for non-adherence to antiretroviral medication (NAME) among HIV-infected patients.

Arch Public Health 2019;77:57. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

6Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13690-019-0382-9.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-019-0386-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937778PMC
December 2019

Psychometric properties of the scale for non-adherence to antiretroviral medication (NAME) among HIV-infected patients.

Arch Public Health 2019 6;77:54. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

School of Nursing and Allied Medical Sciences Maragheh Faculty of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

Background: Adherence to HIV medication is necessary for long-term HIV disease management. The objective of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale for measuring the barriers of antiretroviral medication adherence among Iranian Patients.

Method: This was a sequential, exploratory mixed methods investigation composed of two phases. In the qualitative phase, item pool generation and questionnaire designing was carried out through in-depth individual interviews and group discussions; in the quantitative phase, psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed. In both phases, the participants were people who were living with HIV/AIDS and were taking antiretroviral medications.

Results: In the first phase, an item pool containing 181 statements related to barriers of adherence to antiretroviral medication was generated. In the second phase, item reduction was applied, and a questionnaire containing 30 items was developed. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were assessed, which indicated good validity and reliability of the instrument. In exploratory factor analysis, the items were loaded on six factors that altogether explain for 61.98 of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha and the intra class correlation coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.91 and 0.80, respectively.

Conclusion: This study provided a reliable and valid instrument to identify the barriers of adherence to antiretroviral medication in patients with HIV/AIDS. Identify these barriers and design of interventions to eliminate or reduce of barriers can be an effective means of enhancing adherence to antiretroviral medication among these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-019-0382-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896284PMC
December 2019

Effect of A Mobile-Phone Mediated Based Education on Self-Care Behaviors of Patients With Thalassemia Major.

J Caring Sci 2019 Sep 1;8(3):149-155. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Department of Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

One way to improve the quality of life of the patients with thalassemia major is to enable them through education. The present research aimed to explore the effects of an educational intervention through mobile phones on self-care behaviors of the patients with thalassemia major In this quasi experimental study, which was done from May to January in 2017, 91 patients were enrolled who were suffering from thalassemia major.The census sampling method was performed with random allocation of interventional and control groups. Educational intervention was only applied to the intervention group. The study instrument was a questionnaire which was filled out by the patients before and two months after the educational intervention. For data analysis, statistical tests including independent samples t-test, paired-samples t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon test, were used through SPSS ver.13 software. Prior to the intervention, the mean scores of knowledge, attitude and self-care behaviors were not significantly different between the intervention and control groups. After the intervention, , however, there was a statistically significant increase in the aforementioned scores in the intervention group, but there was no statistically significant increase in scores of the control group. The present findings showed the positive effect of the mobile-phone mediated education on knowledge, attitude and self-care behaviors of the patients with thalassemia major. Therefore, the use of mobile phone is recommended as an effective way of transferring instructional material as related to self-care to patients with thalassemia major particularly when access to them is limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jcs.2019.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785655PMC
September 2019

Periodontal Assessment of Permanent Molar Teeth Restored with Stainless Steel Crown in Terms of Pocket Depth, Bleeding on Probing, Gingival Color and Inflammation.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019 Mar-Apr;12(2):116-119

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: This study assessed the gingival health of permanent first molars before and 6 months after restoration with stainless steel crowns (SSCs).

Materials And Methods: This study was conducted on 23 children aged 6 to 12 years who required SSCs for their permanent first molars in one quadrant and had a contralateral first molar without SSC. Gingival color, inflammation, bleeding on probing (BOP), and probing pocket depth (PPD) were measured around both teeth. SSC was placed and, 6 months later, the same parameters were measured at both sides.

Results: Gingival color significantly improved and PPD, BOP, and inflammation in mesiobuccal and mesiolingual areas around the first molars restored with SSC significantly decreased after 6 months ( < 0.05). However, in distobuccal and distolingual areas, no significant change occurred in these indices 6 months after placement of SSC ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: The results showed that SSCs with proper fit have no adverse effect on gingiva of permanent first molars given that the patient maintains a good oral hygiene.

How To Cite This Article: Heidari A, Shahrabi M, Periodontal Assessment of Permanent Molar Teeth Restored with Stainless Steel Crown in Terms of Pocket Depth, Bleeding on Probing, Gingival Color and Inflammation. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019;12(2):116-119.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6749877PMC
October 2019

Assessment of photobiomodulation therapy by an 8l0-nm diode laser on the reversal of soft tissue local anesthesia in pediatric dentistry: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

Lasers Med Sci 2020 Mar 2;35(2):465-471. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

During the injection of local anesthesia in pediatric dental procedures, from the injection time until the elimination of tissue anesthesia, inevitable problems were reported. According to the encouraging results of previous studies addressing the positive effects of laser therapy on increasing the microcirculation, we aimed to investigate the clinical effect of photobiomodulation therapy on the reversal of soft tissue anesthesia in children. Using a split-mouth design, 34 children aged 4 to 8 years old, candidate for receiving local infiltration injection at both right and left side in mandible, were enrolled in the study. The mandibular right and left quadrants were randomly assigned to groups of laser or sham laser: in laser side, patients received 810-nm laser irradiation, and in the sham laser group, the patients had the laser in off mode at 45 min after injection with an interval of 7-10 days between two sessions of each quadrant treatments. The degree of anesthesia was evaluated using the palpation technique alternately every 15 min. Data were analyzed using paired sample t test and multiple linear regression test. The mean duration of anesthesia expressed in minutes was equal to 145.15 ± 23.27 and 188.82 ± 12.31 for the laser group and sham laser group, respectively. There was a significant difference in duration of anesthesia between two groups (P < 0.001). Considering the results and limitations of the present study, photobiomodulation therapy by 810-nm diode laser can be proposed as a non-invasive method in order to reduce the duration of anesthesia in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-019-02850-0DOI Listing
March 2020

-Hydroxy--Methylbutyrate Free Acid Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced by a Single Bout of Plyometric Exercise.

Front Physiol 2019 25;10:776. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) ingestion on oxidative stress and leukocyte responses to plyometric exercise.

Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled design, physically active males were assigned to the HMB-FA ( = 8) or placebo ( = 8) groups that consumed either 1 g of HMB-FA or placebo 30 min prior to performing an acute plyometric exercise protocol (15 sets of 10 repetitions of maximal-effort vertical jumps). Blood was obtained pre-(T1), post-(T2), and 1-h post-(T3) exercise to determine changes in serum levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), and white blood cells (WBC).

Results: The exercise protocol significantly elevated 8-OHdG (HMB-FA, T2 9.5 and T3 12.6%; placebo, T2 18.2 and T3 36.5%), MDA (HMB-FA, T2 11.6 and T3 25.2%; placebo, T2 11.8 and T3 41%) and PC (HMB-FA, T2 6.9 and T3 25%; placebo, T2 23.4 and T3 55.3%) at post- and 1-h post-exercise, respectively. However, at 1-h post-exercise, greater increases in oxidative stress markers (8-OHdG 36.5 vs. 12.6%; MDA 41 vs. 25.1% and PC 55.3 vs. 25%) were observed in the placebo group compared to the HMB-FA group ( < 0.05). In addition, the WBC level was greater for the placebo group in comparison to the HMB-FA group at post-exercise.

Conclusion: HMB-FA attenuated oxidative stress and leukocyte responses to plyometric exercise compared with placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6603230PMC
June 2019

Synthesis, crystal structure, insecticidal activities, molecular docking and QSAR studies of some new phospho guanidines and phospho pyrazines as cholinesterase inhibitors.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2019 Jun 16;157:122-137. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Novel phospho guanidine and phospho pyrazine derivatives were synthesized and characterized by P, C, HNMR and IR spectroscopy to obtain novel and human-safe insecticides. Compound 35 [(CHNNH)P(O)(CH)] was investigated by X-ray crystallography. The inhibitory effects of synthesized compounds were evaluated on human and insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using in vitro Ellman method. A few of these compounds, which had low human toxicity, were selected for assessing the killing effects (in vivo) on the elm leaf beetle (X.luteola). The in vitro and in vivo results indicated that compounds bearing both phosphoryl groups and aromatic systems were found to possess a good selectivity for the inhibition of insect AChE over human AChE; up to 550-fold selectivity was achieved for compound 19. Docking studies were performed to explain reasons for the selective behavior of AChE inhibitors. Additionally, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and density functional theory (DFT) results of AChEs demonstrated that the size, shape, dipole moment, and ability to form hydrogen bond played the main role in both models. In addition, the aromatic π - π interactions and charge of the amide nitrogen had a major effect on insecticidal activity of the compounds. The present research can be helpful to gain a better understanding of the interactions between the insect AChE and its inhibitors and introduces compounds which are capable of becoming human-safe insecticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.03.010DOI Listing
June 2019