Publications by authors named "Yuan Wang"

2,533 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Programmed intermittent epidural bolus for post-cesarean delivery analgesia: a randomized controlled double-blind trial.

J Anesth 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Xueshi Road 1#, Hangzhou, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of programmed intermittent epidural boluses (PIEB) in postoperative pain management compared with continuous epidural infusion (CEI) after cesarean delivery.

Methods: A total of 58 participants were randomly allocated to receive PIEB (3 mL bolus every 60 min) or CEI (3 mL/h) for postoperative analgesia after undergoing elective cesarean section under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Both groups had the same epidural solution containing ropivacaine 0.2% plus fentanyl 2 µg/mL. The primary outcome was postoperative pain score at rest and mobilization at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. The secondary outcomes were the total amount of ropivacaine used in the 48 h study period and the time to the first PCEA bolus.

Results: Data from 58 women were analyzed. There was a reduction in pain verbal numerical rating scores at 12 h in patients receiving PIEB compared with CEI at rest [2 (1.75-3) vs. 3 (2-4), p = 0.011]; and on movement [4 (3-5) vs. 5 (4-6), p = 0.038]. No differences were found in pain scores at any other time-point up to 48 h. Total ropivacaine consumption at 48 h was less in the PIEB group compared with the CEI group [316 mg (304-321) vs. 336 mg (319-344), p = 0.001].

Conclusion: Postoperative epidural analgesia for patients who underwent cesarean delivery with PIEB compared with CEI resulted in less ropivacaine usage while providing comparable analgesia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00540-021-03002-xDOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical Value and Role of miR-129-5p in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Horm Metab Res 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital,Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

This study was to evaluate the expression of miR-129-5p in non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) patients and its clinical value and explore its regulatory effect on insulin resistance (IR). A total of 117 NAFLD patients and 110 healthy controls were included. The levels of miR-129-5p were detected by qRT-PCR. To assess the diagnostic value of miR-129-5p for NAFLD, the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was established. C57Bl/6 mice were supplied with high-fat diet to establish NAFLD model. Intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT) was carried out to evaluate the effect of miR-129-5p on IR in NAFLD animal model. miR-129-5p was highly expressed in the serum of NAFLD patients, and patients with HOMA-IR ≥2.5 had higher level of miR-129-5p than those with HOMA-IR <2.5. miR-129-5p had the ability to differentiate NAFLD patients from healthy individuals and might be associated with the development of IR. Serum miR-129-5p was positively correlated with the levels of HOMA-IR, BMI, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) in NAFLD patients. Downregulation of miR-129-5p regulates lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in NAFLD mice model. MiR-129-5p was upregulated in NAFLD patients and might be a potential diagnostic biomarker. The regulatory effect of miR-129-5p on NAFLD may function by regulating lipid accumulation and insulin sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1587-9211DOI Listing
September 2021

Transcriptome analysis of pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) intestines and hepatopancreas in response to Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Sep 11:107665. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Key Laboratory of East China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai, 200090, China. Electronic address:

Penaeus vannamei is the most economically important species of shrimp cultured worldwide. Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is an emerging pathogen that severely affects the growth and development of shrimps. In this study, the transcriptome differences between EHP-infected and uninfected shrimp were investigated through next-generation sequencing. The unigenes were assembled with the reads from all the four libraries. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of intestines and hepatopancreas were analyzed. There were 2,884 DEGs in the intestines and 2,096 DEGs in the hepatopancreas. The GO and KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs were significantly enriched in signaling pathways associated with nutritional energy metabolism and mobilizing autoimmunity. Moreover, the results suggested the downregulation of key genes in energy synthesis pathways contributed greatly to shrimp growth retardation; the upregulation of immune-related genes enhanced the resistance of shrimp against EHP infection. This study provided identified genes and pathways associated with EHP infection revealing the molecular mechanisms of growth retardation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2021.107665DOI Listing
September 2021

Ultrasensitive and practical chemiluminescence sensing pesticide residue acetamiprid in agricultural products and environment: Combination of synergistically coupled co-amplifying signal and smart interface engineering.

Talanta 2021 Dec 18;235:122811. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

College of Geology and Environment, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710054, China.

Practical detection of single-component pesticide residue at ultra-low concentrations in agricultural products and environment is very important for assessment of environmental risks and protection of human health. Herein, a practical and highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensing acetamiprid in agricultural products and environmental media was constructed based on the synergistic co-catalysis of graphene oxide (GO)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposites for luminol CL reaction and the smart interface engineering. ss-DNA could inhibit co-catalysis of GO/AuNPs for luminol CL reaction. Once acetamiprid was added, aptamer conformation changed in dimension and synergistically catalytic amplification signal of GO/AuNPs was restored significantly. The limit of detection was 8.9 pM. High sensitivity could be due to strong signal amplification from synergistic catalysis of GO/AuNPs for CL reaction and perfect regulation of composite interface by DNA dimension. Moreover, the used GO/AuNPs could be stably stored for six months, which was superior to previously reported AuNPs (only half a month). The analysis exhibited excellent selectivity for acetamiprid. The detection results for real samples confirmed reliability in practical application. This analysis is an extremely useful method for monitoring pesticide residues in environment and agricultural products. Synergetic co-catalysis of GO/AuNPs and ingenious interface engineering provide important ideas for other biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122811DOI Listing
December 2021

Antigen Specific Regulatory T Cells in Kidney Transplantation and Other Tolerance Settings.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:717594. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Centre for Kidney Research, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Kidney transplantation is the most common solid organ transplant and the best current therapy for end-stage kidney failure. However, with standard immunosuppression, most transplants develop chronic dysfunction or fail, much of which is due to chronic immune injury. Tregs are a subset of T cells involved in limiting immune activation and preventing autoimmune disease. These cells offer the potential to provide tolerance or to allow reduction in immunosuppression in kidney transplants. The importance of Tregs in kidney transplantation has been shown in a number of seminal mouse and animal studies, including those with T cell receptors (TCRs) transgenic Tregs (TCR-Tregs) or Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Tregs (CAR-Tregs) showing that specificity increases the potency of Treg function. Here we outline the animal and human studies and clinical trials directed at using Tregs in kidney transplantation and other tolerance settings and the various modifications to enhance allo-specific Treg function and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.717594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428972PMC
August 2021

Sex-dependent effects of pair bond interruption on anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in adult mandarin voles.

Behav Processes 2021 Sep 7;192:104497. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Institute of Brain and Behavioral Science, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710119, China; MOE Key Laboratory of Modern Teaching Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710062, China. Electronic address:

Stable and positive social bonds are pretty vital to the development of animals. Instability and disruptions of social bonds, such as maternal separation and social isolation, always produce disastrous influence on physiology, neuroendocrine and behaviors. Pair bond is one of the most important social bonds in adulthood. But the different effects of pair bond interruption between males and females are rarely studied. In the present study, the monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) were used to confirm the time window of pair bond formation. After that, voles were separated from their partner for 1 or 2 weeks. Then anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were investigated by using open field test, light-dark box test, tail suspension test and forced swimming test, respectively. The results showed that: (1) cohabitation for 5 days is sufficient and necessary for mandarin voles to form pair bond; (2) loss of partner is always crucial for the effects of pair bond interruption, while social isolation works in certain behavioral tests.; (3) pair bond interruption for 2 weeks significantly increased the level of anxiety and depression in adult males, but not female mandarin voles. Overall, this research suggested that loss of partner plays a key role in pair bond interruption in male mandarin voles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2021.104497DOI Listing
September 2021

The impact of an URAT1 polymorphism on the losartan treatment of hypertension and hyperuricemia.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Sep 8:e23949. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Medical Laboratory, Shidong Hospital, Shidong Hospital Affiliated to University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Yangpu District, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of polymorphisms in the urate transporter 1 (URAT1) gene on the uricosuric action of losartan therapy in hypertensive patients suffering from hyperuricemia.

Methods: A MassARRAY approach was used to detect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in the URAT1 and CYP2C9 genes (16 and 2 loci, respectively) in 111 patients with hypertension and hyperuricemia taking losartan and in 121 healthy controls. In addition, we compared serum urate (SUA) levels and other key clinical biochemistry indices between these two patient groups.

Results: We detected significant differences between the two patient groups with respect to age, SUA, urea, creatine, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and fasting plasma glucose (all p < 0.05). In addition, we found that hypertensive patients with hyperuricemia were more likely to exhibit the rs3825016(C/T) (36.9% vs 21.5%, p = 0.03), and we determined that a 2-week treatment course with losartan was associated with significant decreases in SUA values (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the URAT1 rs3825016 polymorphism may influence the uricosuric action of losartan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23949DOI Listing
September 2021

An open-label randomized multi-Centre study to evaluate anterior controllable Antedisplacement and fusion versus posterior Laminoplasty in patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: study design and analysis plan (STAR).

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 8;22(1):765. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Spine Centre, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, No. 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai, 200003, People's Republic of China.

Background: In treating patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (COPLL), a novel surgery technique - anterior controllable antedisplacement and fusion (ACAF) suggested promising clinical benefits in recent exploratory studies.

Methods: This is a multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active controlled trial that will compare the clinical benefits of ACAF versus conventional posterior laminoplasty (LAMP) in severe COPLL patients. A total of 164 patients will be enrolled and randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either ACAF or LAMP group. The primary efficacy measure is cervical- Japanese Orthopaedic Association (C-JOA) recovery rate at 12 months post operation, which is to be derived by Hirabayashi's method from JOA data (range, 0 [worst] to 17 [normal condition]). Other important secondary efficacy endpoints include visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score (range, 0 [no pain] to 10 [most severe]), 10-item neck disability index (NDI, a total range of 0 to 50 points, the highest index the worst) and 6-level Nurick disability grade (range, 0 [mild] to 5 [severe]). Safety endpoints including adverse events, perioperative complications, and adverse events of special interest will also be assessed in this study. Full analysis set for baseline and efficacy data analyses according to the intention-to-treat principle will be established as the primary analysis population. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be used to analyze the C-JOA recovery rate, with random stratification factors (if appropriate) and the treatment group as fixed factors, and the baseline level of C-JOA score as covariate.

Discussion: This study is designed to demonstrate the clinical benefits of ACAF as compared to conventional LAMP in COPLL patients. It will provide clinical evidence that the novel surgery technique - ACAF might be more favorable in treating patients with severe cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. (Words: 290).

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04968028 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04645-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425037PMC
September 2021

Effects of different salinity conditions on the transcriptome and antibiotic resistance of two Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from Penaeus vannamei cultured in seawater and freshwater ponds.

J Fish Dis 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Key Laboratory of East China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai, China.

The transcriptome and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from Penaeus vannamei cultured in seawater (strain HN1)and freshwater (strain SH1) ponds were studied at different salinity (2‰ and 20‰). At different salinity, 623 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly upregulated and 1,559 DEGs significantly downregulated in SH1. In HN1, 466 DEGs significantly upregulated and 1,930 DEGs significantly downregulated, indicating high salinity can lead to the downregulation of most genes. In KEGG analysis, the expression of DEGs annotated to starch and sucrose metabolism pathway was higher at 2‰ salinity than at 20‰ salinity in HN1 and SH1, implying salinity affected bacterial growth mainly through this pathway. In the enrichment analysis of upregulated DEGs, two pathways (Valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation, and Butanoate metabolism) were significantly enriched at different salinity. Antibiotic-susceptibility test discovered that SH1 isolated from P. vannamei cultured in freshwater was resistant to multiple drugs, including kanamycin, gentamicin, medemycin, and azithromycin, at a salinity of 2‰, whereas at 20‰ salinity, SH1 was not resistant to the drugs. The HN1 strain isolated from P. vannamei cultured in mariculture was resistant to polymyxin B and clindamycin at 20‰ salinity. Whereas, HN1 was intermediately susceptible to these two antibiotics at 2‰ salinity. These results indicate that the drug resistance of bacteria was affected by salinity. Furthermore, beta-lactam resistance was significantly enriched in SH1 at different salinity, and the inhibition zone of penicillin G was consistent with the results of a beta-lactam resistance pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13520DOI Listing
September 2021

Protective effects of ischemic postconditioning on skeletal muscle following crush syndrome in the rat.

Acta Cir Bras 2021 3;36(7):e360701. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

MD. Department of Pain - First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital - Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate the effect of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) on skeletal muscle and its optimal protocol.

Methods: This article is about an animal study of rat model of crush syndrome. Sixty rats were randomized into nine different IPostC intervention groups and a control group. The anesthetized rats were subjected to unilateral hindlimb 3-kg compression with a compression device for 6 h, followed by nine different IPostC intervention protocols.

Results: Serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) at 3 h post-crush became 2.3-3.9 times among all 10 groups after crush. At 72 h post-crush, serum CK level was reduced to 0.28-0.53 time in all intervention groups. The creatinine (CREA) level in the control group was elevated to 3.11 times at 3 h post-crush and reduced to1.77 time at 72 h post-crush. The potassium (K+) level in the control group was elevated to 1.65 and 1.41 time at 3 and 72 h post-crush, respectively.

Conclusions: Our IPostC intervention protocols can effectively protect rats from crush-induced elevation of serum CK, CREA, and K+ levels. The timing of IPostC intervention should be as early as possible, to ensure the protective effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ACB360701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428673PMC
September 2021

Comparative Genomic Analysis Provides Insights into the Evolution and Genetic Diversity of Community-Genotype Sequence Type 72 Staphylococcus aureus Isolates.

mSystems 2021 Sep 7:e0098621. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Staphylococcus aureus sequence type (ST) 72, the predominant community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) lineage in South Korea, has emerged as a major cause of bloodstream infection in hospital settings. However, relatively little information is available regarding the genomic characteristics and dissemination of ST72. Here, we characterized the whole-genome sequence of 24 ST72 isolates from China, along with 83 ST72 genomes from global sources. Of these 107 ST72 isolates, 63 were MRSA and 44 were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Phylogenetic analysis revealed four distinct clades (A, B, C, and D), of which clade D contained only MSSA isolates. By characterizing the evolutionary dynamics of the ST72 lineage, we found that the MRSA from China might not have developed from the MSSA in China. Furthermore, we observed both international transmission of ST72 isolates and interregional transmission within China. The distributions of the SCC and types of isolates differed among clades. Additionally, analyses revealed that the distributions of resistance genes, virulence genes, and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) also differed among isolates of the four clades. This was especially true for clade D isolates, which had the lowest level of antimicrobial resistance and had obtained specific virulence genes such as by acquisition of specific MGEs. Notably, ST72 MRSA isolates were more antibiotic resistant than ST72 MSSA isolates, but comparably virulent. Our findings provide insight into the potential transmission and genotypic features of ST72 clones across the globe. Understanding the evolution and dissemination of community-genotype ST72 Staphylococcus aureus isolates is important, as isolates of this lineage have rapidly spread into hospital settings and caused serious health issues. In this study, we first carried out genome-wide analysis of 107 global ST72 isolates to characterize the evolution and genetic diversity of the ST72 lineage. We found that the MSSA lineage in China might have evolved independently from the MRSA isolates from China, and that ST72 isolates have the potential to undergo both international transmission and interregional transmission within China. The diversity of isolates correlated with distinct acquisitions of SCC elements, antibiotic resistance genes, virulence genes, and mobile genetic elements. The comprehensive information on the ST72 lineage emerging from this study will enable improved therapeutic approaches and rapid molecular diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00986-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Integration of Molecular Inflammatory Interactome Analyses Reveals Dynamics of Circulating Cytokines and Extracellular Vesicle Long Non-Coding RNAs and mRNAs in Heroin Addicts During Acute and Protracted Withdrawal.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:730300. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

National Health Commission (NHC) Key Laboratory of Drug Addiction Medicine (Kunming Medical University), The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Heroin addiction and withdrawal influence multiple physiological functions, including immune responses, but the mechanism remains largely elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular inflammatory interactome, particularly the cytokines and transcriptome regulatory network in heroin addicts undergoing withdrawal, compared to healthy controls (HCs). Twenty-seven cytokines were simultaneously assessed in 41 heroin addicts, including 20 at the acute withdrawal (AW) stage and 21 at the protracted withdrawal (PW) stage, and 38 age- and gender-matched HCs. Disturbed T-helper(T)1/T2, T1/T17, and T2/T17 balances, characterized by reduced interleukin (IL)-2, elevated IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17A, but normal TNF-α, were present in the AW subjects. These imbalances were mostly restored to the baseline at the PW stage. However, the cytokines TNF-α, IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, and IL-17A remained dysregulated. This study also profiled exosomal long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and mRNA in the plasma of heroin addicts, constructed co-expression gene regulation networks, and identified lncRNA-mRNA-pathway pairs specifically associated with alterations in cytokine profiles and T1/T2/T17 imbalances. Altogether, a large amount of cytokine and exosomal lncRNA/mRNA expression profiling data relating to heroin withdrawal was obtained, providing a useful experimental and theoretical basis for further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of withdrawal symptoms in heroin addicts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.730300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416766PMC
August 2021

Oxide of porous graphitized carbon as recoverable functional adsorbent that removes toxic metals from water.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 17;606(Pt 2):983-993. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China. Electronic address:

The numerous oxygenated functional groups on graphite oxide (GO) make it a promising adsorbent for toxic heavy metals in water. However, the GO prepared from natural graphite is water-soluble after exfoliation, making its recovery for reuse extremely difficult. In this study, porous graphitized carbon (PGC) was oxidized to fabricate a GO-like material, PGCO. The PGCO showed an O/C molar ratio of 0.63, and 8.4% of the surface carbon species were carboxyl, exhibiting enhanced oxidation degree compared to GO. The small PGCO sheets were intensely aggregated chemically, yielding an insoluble solid easily separable from water by sedimentation or filtration. Batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that the PGCO afforded significantly higher removal efficiencies for heavy metals than GO, owing to the former's greater functionalization with oxygenated groups. An isotherm study suggested that the adsorption obeyed the Langmuir model, and the derived maximum adsorption capacities for Cr, Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Ni were 119.6, 377.1, 99.1, 65.2, 53.0, and 58.1 mg/g, respectively. Furthermore, the spent PGCO was successively regenerated by acid treatment. The results of the study indicate that PGCO could be an alternative adsorbent for remediating toxic metal-contaminated waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.082DOI Listing
August 2021

Genetic Prion Disease: Insight from the Features and Experience of China National Surveillance for Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases (Zhejiang University), National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 102206, China.

Human genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) are directly associated with mutations and insertions in the PRNP (Prion Protein) gene. We collected and analyzed the data of 218 Chinese gPrD patients identified between Jan 2006 and June 2020. Nineteen different subtypes were identified and gPrDs accounted for 10.9% of all diagnosed PrDs within the same period. Some subtypes of gPrDs showed a degree of geographic association. The age at onset of Chinese gPrDs peaked in the 50-59 year group. Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) cases usually displayed clinical symptoms earlier than genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD) patients with point mutations. A family history was more frequently recalled in P105L GSS and D178N FFI patients than T188K and E200K patients. None of the E196A gCJD patients reported a family history. The gCJD cases with point mutations always developed clinical manifestations typical of sporadic CJD (sCJD). EEG examination was not sensitive for gPrDs. sCJD-associated abnormalities on MRI were found in high proportions of GSS and gCJD patients. CSF 14-3-3 positivity was frequently detected in gCJD patients. Increased CSF tau was found in more than half of FFI and T188K gCJD cases, and an even higher proportion of E196A and E200K gCJD patients. 63.6% of P105L GSS cases showed a positive reaction in cerebrospinal fluid RT-QuIC. GSS and FFI cases had longer durations than most subtypes of gCJD. This is one of the largest studies of gPrDs in East Asians, and the illness profile of Chinese gPrDs is clearly distinct. Extremely high proportions of T188K and E196A occur among Chinese gPrDs; these mutations are rarely reported in Caucasians and Japanese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00764-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of surface defects on LaNiO3 perovskite electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction.

Chemistry 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

University of Sydney, School of Chemistry, School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, 2006, Sydney, AUSTRALIA.

Perovskite oxides are regarded as promising electrocatalysts for water splitting due to their cost-effectiveness, high efficiency and durability in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Despite these advantages, a fundamental understanding of how critical structural parameters of perovskite electrocatalysts influences their activity and stability is lacking. Here, we investigate the impact of structural defects on OER performance for representative LaNiO 3 perovskite electrocatalysts. Hydrogen reduction of 700 °C calcined LaNiO 3 induces a high density of surface oxygen vacancies, and confers significantly enhanced OER activity and stability compared to unreduced LaNiO 3 ; the former exhibit a low onset overpotential of 380 mV at 10 mA.cm -2 and a small Tafel slope of 70.8 mV.dec -1 . Oxygen vacancy formation is accompanied by mixed Ni 2+ /Ni 3+ valence states, which quantum-chemical DFT calculations reveal modify the perovskite electronic structure. Surface oxygen vacancy formation is relatively facile, and favoured over lattice vacancy formation, and increases the electronic conductivity of reduced LaNiO 3 , in accordance with the enhanced OER activity observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202102672DOI Listing
September 2021

Higher Serum Lysophosphatidic Acids Predict Left Ventricular Reverse Remodeling in Pediatric Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Front Pediatr 2021 16;9:710720. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung, and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The prognosis of pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (PDCM) is highly variable, ranging from death to cardiac function recovery. Left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR) represents a favorable prognosis in PDCM. Disturbance of lipid metabolism is associated with the change of cardiac function, but no studies have examined lipidomics data and LVRR. Discovery analyses were based on 540 targeted lipids in an observational, prospective China-AOCC (An Integrative-Omics Study of Cardiomyopathy Patients for Diagnosis and Prognosis in China) study. The OPLS-DA and random forest (RF) analysis were used to screen the candidate lipids. Associations of the candidate lipids were examined in Cox proportional hazards regression models. Furthermore, we developed a risk score comprising the significant lipids, with each attributed a score of 1 when the concentration was above the median. All significant findings were replicated in a validation set of the China-AOCC study. There were 59 patients in the discovery set and 24 patients in the validation set. LVRR was observed in 27 patients (32.5%). After adjusting for age, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) z-score, lysophosphatidic acids (LysoPA) 16:0, LysoPA 18:2, LysoPA 18:1, and LysoPA 18:0 were significantly associated with LVRR in the discovery set, and hazard ratios (HRs) were 2.793 (95% CI, 1.545-5.048), 2.812 (95% CI, 1.542-5.128), 2.831 (95% CI, 1.555-5.154), and 2.782 (95% CI, 1.548-5.002), respectively. We developed a LysoPA score comprising the four LysoPA. When the LysoPA score reached 4, LVRR was more likely to be observed in both sets. The AUC increased with the addition of the LysoPA score to the LVEDD z-score (from 0.693 to 0.875 in the discovery set, from 0.708 to 0.854 in the validation set) for prediction of LVRR. Serum LysoPA can predict LVRR in PDCM patients. When the LysoPA score was combined with the LVEDD z-score, it may help in ascertaining the prognosis and monitoring effects of anti-heart failure pharmacotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.710720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415784PMC
August 2021

Development and Validation of a Forensic Multiplex System With 38 X-InDel Loci.

Front Genet 2021 17;12:670482. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

In the present study, a novel multiplex system, AGCU X-InDel 38 kit, was designed to amplify 38 X-InDel markers and amelogenin in a single Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). To demonstrate the suitability and efficiency for forensic applications, a series of validation experiments were conducted, including sensitivity, species specificity, reproducibility, stability, case samples, balance of peak height, size precision, as well as allele frequency and forensic parameter analysis. The results showed that AGCU X-InDel 38 kit was capable to get full profiles even with 62.5 pg of template DNA, and full profiles can be obtained when hematin concentration ≤25 μmol/L, or hemoglobin concentration ≤50 μmol/L, showing good tolerance to six common inhibitors. Moreover, the analyzed case samples indicated that AGCU X-InDel 38 kit had better performance for degraded and trace DNA samples. The 200 unrelated males from Guangdong Han population showed that the combined PD and PD were both more than 0.999999999, and the combined MEC, MEC, and MEC were 0.999369481, 0.999999917, and 0.999941556, respectively. Robust discrimination capability of this novel multiplex system could be demonstrated through the high values of forensic parameters. In conclusion, AGCU X-InDel 38 kit is sensitive, precise, reproducible, and highly informative and could be used as a complementary tool for complex and challenging kinship cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.670482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416044PMC
August 2021

General fabrication of RuM (M = Ni and Co) nanoclusters for boosting hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalysis.

Nanoscale 2021 Aug 22;13(30):13042-13047. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, P.R. China.

Rational design and fabrication of highly active electrocatalysts toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are of paramount significance in industrial hydrogen production via water electrolysis. Herein, by taking advantage of the high surface-to-volume ratio, maximized atom-utilization efficiency, and quantum size effect, we have successfully fabricated an innovative class of Ru-based alloy nanoclusters. Impressively, carbon fiber cloth (CFC) supported RuNi nanoclusters could exhibit outstanding electrocatalytic performance toward the HER, in which the optimal composition RuNi/CFC could achieve a current density of 10 mA cm with an overpotential of merely 43.0 mV in 1 M KOH electrolyte, as well as a low Tafel slope of 30.4 mF dec. In addition to the high HER activity in alkaline media, such Ru-based alloy nanoclusters are also demonstrated to be highly active and stable in acidic solution. Mechanistic studies reveal that the alloying effect facilitates water dissociation and optimizes hydrogen adsorption and desorption, thereby contributing to the outstanding HER performance. This work paves a new way for the rational fabrication of advanced electrocatalysts for boosting the HER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02752bDOI Listing
August 2021

Long non-coding RNA NR2F1-AS1 induces breast cancer lung metastatic dormancy by regulating NR2F1 and ΔNp63.

Nat Commun 2021 09 2;12(1):5232. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tissue Microenvironment and Tumor, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Disseminated tumor cells often fall into a long term of dormant stage, characterized by decreased proliferation but sustained survival, in distant organs before awakening for metastatic growth. However, the regulatory mechanism of metastatic dormancy and awakening is largely unknown. Here, we show that the epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like subpopulations of breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs) demonstrate different levels of dormancy and tumorigenicity in lungs. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) NR2F1-AS1 (NAS1) is up-regulated in the dormant mesenchymal-like BCSCs, and functionally promotes tumor dissemination but reduces proliferation in lungs. Mechanistically, NAS1 binds to NR2F1 mRNA and recruits the RNA-binding protein PTBP1 to promote internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated NR2F1 translation, thus leading to suppression of ΔNp63 transcription by NR2F1. Furthermore, ΔNp63 downregulation results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, reduced tumorigenicity and enhanced dormancy of cancer cells in lungs. Overall, the study links BCSC plasticity with metastatic dormancy, and reveals the lncRNA as an important regulator of both processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25552-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Attenuated activation of pulmonary immune cells in mRNA-1273 vaccinated hamsters after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Clin Invest 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, United States of America.

The mRNA-1273 vaccine is effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was granted emergency use authorization by the Food and Drug Administration . Clinical studies, however, cannot provide the controlled response to infection and complex immunological insight that are only possible with preclinical studies. Hamsters are the only model that reliably exhibit severe SARS-CoV-2 disease similar to hospitalized patients, making them pertinent for vaccine evaluation. We demonstrate that prime or prime-boost administration of mRNA-1273 in hamsters elicited robust neutralizing antibodies, ameliorated weight loss, suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in the airways, and better protected against disease at the highest prime-boost dose. Unlike in mice and non-human primates, low level virus replication in mRNA-1273 vaccinated hamsters coincided with an anamnestic response. Single-cell RNA sequencing of lung tissue permitted high resolution analysis which is not possible in vaccinated humans. mRNA-1273 prevented inflammatory cell infiltration and the reduction of lymphocyte proportions, but enabled antiviral responses conducive to lung homeostasis. Surprisingly, infection triggered transcriptome programs in some types of immune cells from vaccinated hamsters that were shared, albeit attenuated, with mock-vaccinated hamsters. Our results support the use of mRNA-1273 in a two-dose schedule and provide insight into the potential responses within the lungs of vaccinated humans who are exposed to SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI148036DOI Listing
August 2021

ZDHHC19 Is Dispensable for Spermatogenesis, but Is Essential for Sperm Functions in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 18;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China.

Spermatogenesis is a complicated process involving mitotically proliferating spermatogonial cells, meiotically dividing spermatocytes, and spermatid going through maturation into spermatozoa. The post-translational modifications of proteins play important roles in this biological process. -palmitoylation is one type of protein modifications catalyzed by zinc finger Asp-His-His-Cys (ZDHHC)-family palmitoyl -acyltransferases. There are 23 mammalian ZDHHCs that have been identified in mouse. Among them, is highly expressed in adult testis. However, the in vivo function of in mouse spermatogenesis and fertility remains unknown. In this study, we knocked out the gene by generating a 2609 bp deletion from exon 3 to exon 6 in mice. No differences were found in testis morphology and testis/body weight ratios upon deletion. Spermatogenesis was not disrupted in knockout mice, in which properly developed TRA98+ germ cells, SYCP3+ spermatocytes, and TNP1+ spermatids/spermatozoa were detected in seminiferous tubules. Nevertheless, knockout mice were male infertile. deficient spermatozoa exhibited multiple defects including abnormal morphology of sperm tails and heads, decreased motility, and disturbed acrosome reaction. All of these led to the inability of mutant sperm to fertilize oocytes in IVF assays. Taken together, our results support the fact that is a testis enriched gene dispensable for spermatogenesis, but is essential for sperm functions in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396176PMC
August 2021

Determination of Methylene Blue and Its Metabolite Residues in Aquatic Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Molecules 2021 Aug 17;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090, China.

A sensitive and reliable method was developed to determine methylene blue (MB) and its metabolite residues, including azure A (AZA), azure B (AZB), and azure C (AZC) in aquatic products by HPLC-MS/MS. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile and cleaned up by alumina-neutral (ALN) cartridges. The analytes were separated on a Sunfire C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 µm). The method was validated according to the European criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Good linearity between 1-500 µg/L was obtained with correlation coefficients () greater than 0.99. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.0 µg/kg. The average recoveries at three levels of each compound (1, 5, and 10 µg/kg) were demonstrated to be in the range of 71.8-97.5%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 1.05% to 8.63%. This method was suitable for the detection of methylene blue and its metabolite residues in aquatic products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401997PMC
August 2021

Microbial Regulation of Deterioration and Preservation of Salted Kelp under Different Temperature and Salinity Conditions.

Foods 2021 Jul 26;10(8). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

High salinity is an effective measure to preserve kelp, but salted kelp can still deteriorate after long-term preservation. In order to clarify the key conditions and microbial behavior of salted kelp preservation, 10% (S10), 20% (S20), and 30% (S30) salt concentrations were evaluated at 25 °C (T25) and 4 °C (T4). After 30 days storage, these salted kelps showed different states including rot (T25S10), softening (T25S20), and undamaged (other samples). By detecting polysaccharide lyase activity and performing high-throughput sequencing of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA sequence and metagenome, we found that deteriorated kelps (T25S10 and T25S20) had significantly higher alginate lyase activity and bacterial relative abundance than other undamaged samples. , , , , , , and were annotated with genes encoding endonuclease-type alginate lyases, while and were annotated as the exonuclease type. Additionally, no alginate lyase activity was detected in undamaged kelps, whose dominant microorganisms were halophilic archaea without alginate lyase-encoding genes. These results indicated that room-temperature storage may promote salted kelp deterioration due to the secretion of bacterial alginate lyase, while ultra-high-salinity and low-temperature storage can inhibit bacterial alginate lyase and promote the growth of halophilic archaea without alginate lyase, thus achieving the preservation of salted kelp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10081723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394645PMC
July 2021

A deep-red lysosome-targetable fluorescent probe for detection of hypochlorous acid in pure water and its imaging application in living cells and zebrafish.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Aug 12;264:120270. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Detection, College of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Xuchang University, 461000, PR China; College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, PR China. Electronic address:

Hypochlorite plays a significant role in physiological processes, particularly regulation of lysosomal functions, and is involved in various diseases. Thus, it is crucial to develop highly sensitive and selective molecule tools to detect HClO in lysosomes. Herein, a novel 2H-benzo[h]chromene-pyridine derivative (1) was synthesized through condensation reaction, which exhibited a notable deep-red emission at 640 nm in pure water. This deep-red emission was specifically quenched by adding ClO. The response of probe 1 toward ClO was rapid (within 10 s), sensitive (detection limit of 0.012 μM), and effective over a wide range of pH (1.0-12.0). Due to the existence of morpholine as the lysosome-targeting unit, the probe was successfully utilized to monitor lysosomal ClO. Moreover, the probe 1 was also applied to detecting ClO in zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120270DOI Listing
August 2021

Atrazine Promoted Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells Proliferation and Metastasis by Inducing Low Dose Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS).

Iran J Biotechnol 2021 Apr 1;19(2):e2623. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, China.

Background: Atrazine (ATZ) is a triazine herbicide that is widely used in agriculture and has been detected in surface and underground water. Recently, laboratory and epidemiological research have found that the bioaccumulation of ATZ in the environment leads to biotoxicity in the human immune and endocrine systems and results in tumor development.

Objective: To investigate the effects of ATZ exposure on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and elucidate the potential mechanisms governing these effects.

Materials And Methods: The human EOC cell lines Skov3 and A2780 were used in this study to explore the effects and mechanisms of ATZ exposure on EOC. The mouse embryonic osteoblastic precursor MC3T3-E1 cells served as the control cells to determine the effects of ATZ on cancer cell lines. After exposure to ATZ, the MTT assay, flow cytometry, the colony formation assay, immunohistochemical staining, the cell scratch assay, and the Transwell assay were used to evaluate the proliferative activity, invasion, and migration capabilities of EOC cell lines. Moreover, flow cytometry was also applied to detect the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these two EOC cell lines, as well as the MC3T3-E1 cells. To further illustrate the underlying mechanisms governing the effect of ATZ on EOC, real-time PCR and Western blotting were employed to assess the transcription and the expression level of Stat3 signaling pathway-related genes in Skov3 and MC3T3-E1 cells.

Results: The results showed that following ATZ treatment, the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion potencies of Skov3 and A2780 cells were increased compared to those of the control group. Meanwhile, the ROS levels of EOC and MC3T3-E1 cells were notably elevated after ATZ treatment. In Skov3 cells, the expression levels of p53 and p21 were downregulated, while those of Cyclin E, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2), MMP9, signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3), and p-Stat3 were upregulated by ATZ treatment. In MC3T3-E1 cells, however, ATZ treatment did not affect the level of p53/p21 mRNA compared to the control groups. Moreover, there was no significant change in the expression levels of Stat3 and p-Stat3 in MC3T3-E1 cells exposed to ATZ. This phenomenon was observed while the proliferation rate was enhanced in MC3T3-E1 cells by ATZ.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that ATZ effectively promotes the proliferation and metastasis of EOC cells through the Stat3 signaling pathway by inducing low levels of ROS. Additionally, although ATZ might also induce proliferative potential in normal cells, the mechanisms governing its effects in these cells might be different from those in EOC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30498/IJB.2021.2623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358173PMC
April 2021

Topological signal processing and inference of event-related potential response.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Aug 21;363:109324. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of South Carolina, USA.

Background: Topological signal processing is a novel approach for decoding multiscale features of signals recorded through electroencephalography (EEG) based on topological data analysis (TDA). New method: We establish stability properties of the TDA descriptor persistence landscape (PL) in event-related potential (ERP) across multi-trial EEG signals, state algorithms for computing PL, and propose an exact inference framework on persistence and PLs.

Results: We apply the topological signal processing and inference framework to compare ERPs between individuals with post-stroke aphasia and healthy controls under a speech altered auditory feedback (AAF) paradigm. Results show significant PL difference in the ERP response of aphasic individuals and healthy controls over the parietal-occipital and occipital regions with respect to speech onset, and no significant PL difference in any regions with respect to the two pitch-shift stimuli. Comparison with existing methods: In comparison, spatial patterns of difference between aphasic individuals and healthy controls by persistence, local variance, and spectral powers are much more diffuse than the PL patterns. In simulation results, the exact test on persistence and PLs has more robust performance than the baseline tests on local variance and spectral powers.

Conclusions: Persistence features provide a more robust EEG marker than local variance, and spectral powers. It could be a potentially powerful tool for comparing electrophysiological correlates in neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109324DOI Listing
August 2021

Treatment during a developmental window prevents NF1-associated optic pathway gliomas by targeting Erk-dependent migrating glial progenitors.

Dev Cell 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Gilbert Family Neurofibromatosis Institute, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA; Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA; Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC 20010, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; GW Cancer Center, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052. Electronic address:

The mechanism of vulnerability to pediatric low-grade gliomas (pLGGs)-the most common brain tumor in children-during development remains largely unknown. Using mouse models of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated pLGGs in the optic pathway (NF1-OPG), we demonstrate that NF1-OPG arose from the vulnerability to the dependency of Mek-Erk/MAPK signaling during gliogenesis of one of the two developmentally transient precursor populations in the optic nerve, brain-derived migrating glial progenitors (GPs), but not local progenitors. Hyperactive Erk/MAPK signaling by Nf1 loss overproduced GPs by disrupting the balance between stem-cell maintenance and gliogenesis of hypothalamic ventricular zone radial glia (RG). Persistence of RG-like GPs initiated NF1-OPG, causing Bax-dependent apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells. Removal of three Mek1/Mek2 alleles or transient post-natal treatment with a low-dose MEK inhibitor normalized differentiation of Nf1 RG-like GPs, preventing NF1-OPG formation and neuronal degeneration. We provide the proof-of-concept evidence for preventing pLGGs before tumor-associated neurological damage enters an irreversible phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2021.08.004DOI Listing
August 2021

Nanopore chip with self-aligned transverse tunneling junction for DNA detection.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Aug 9;193:113552. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, United States; Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, 85287, United States. Electronic address:

To achieve better signal quality and resolution in nanopore sequencing, there has been strong interest in quantum tunneling based detection which requires integration of tunneling junctions in nanopores. However, there has been very limited success due to precision and reproducibility issues. Here we report a new strategy based on feedback-controlled electrochemical processes in a confined nanoscale space to construct nanopore devices with self-aligned transverse tunneling junctions, all embedded on a nanofluidic chip. We demonstrate high-yield (>93%) correlated detection of translocating DNAs from both the ionic channel and the tunneling junction with enriched event rate. We also observed events attributed to non-translocating DNA making contact with the transverse electrodes. Existing challenges for precise sequencing are discussed, including fast translocation speed, and interference from transient electrostatic signals from fast-moving DNAs. Our work can serve as a first step to provide an accessible, and reproducible platform enabling further optimizations for tunneling-based DNA detection, and potentially sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113552DOI Listing
August 2021

[Nitrogen and Phosphorus Leaching Characteristics and Adsorption Properties of Hardwood Biochar in Stormwater Runoff].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Sep;42(9):4332-4340

College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

At present, the fillers used in bioremanent systems are limited by problems such as unstable leaching and adsorption of nitrogen and phosphorus. To assess the feasibility of using hardwood biochar as a filter filler material in bioretention systems, it was compared to traditional filter filler materials, namely coconut chaff, compost, ceramsite, and volcanic stone. Experiments and tests were conducted to study the physico-chemical properties, leaching, and adsorption characteristics of hardwood biochar, and to explore the optimizing effect and mechanism of hardwood biochar in bioretention systems. Hardwood biochar created through high temperature pyrolysis was found to be porous and loose, with a saturated moisture content of 195.65% and good water retention capacity. After pyrolysis, the nitrogen and phosphorus elements on the hardwood biochar surface were converted into stable compounds. In a batch leaching experiment, the quantity of leached nitrogen was low, and the leaching speed was fast; phosphorus leaching was slow, although the linear negative value increased during artificial rainwater runoff leaching, and the adsorption effect was stable. When exposed to typical nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations in rainwater runoff (2 mg·L of NH and 2 mg·L of PO), hardwood biochar adsorbed 34.6 mg·kg NH and 59.5 mg·kg PO, showing outstanding comprehensive adsorption capacity. After reaching adsorption equilibrium, the average desorption rates of the hardwood biochar in deionized water were 21.23% and 17.43%, proving that the adsorption effect was stable. In conclusion, the application of hardwood biochar can mitigate excessive leaching of nutrients from fillers, as it has a better adsorption capacity for nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, hardwood biochar can be used as the filler material in bioretention systems, to reduce pollution associated with rainwater runoff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202101264DOI Listing
September 2021

Tissue Renin-Angiotensin System (tRAS) Induce Intervertebral Disc Degeneration by Activating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 6;2021:3225439. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Navy Medical University (Second Military Medical University), No. 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003, China.

Lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) has been the major contributor to low back pain (LBP). IDD is an chronic inflammation process, with the activation of plentiful inflammation-related cytokines and ECM degradation-related enzymes. In the past few years, hypertension has been reported to correlate with LBP. In addition, the local tissue renin-angiotensin system (tRAS) has been identified in multiple tissues, including the spinal cord, skin, kidney, heart, and bone. Recently, tRAS has also been established in both bovine and human intervertebral disc tissues, especially in the degenerated disc tissue. However, the exact of tRAS and IDD remains unknown. In this present study, proteomic analysis, molecular biology analysis, and animal model were all used. Firstly, we revealed that tRAS was excessively activated in the human degenerated intervertebral disc tissue via proteomic analysis and molecular biology analysis. Then, in vitro experiment suggested that Ang II could decrease the cell viability of human NP cells and promote NP cell apoptosis, senescence, oxidative stress, and NLRP3 activation in human NP cells. In addition, Ang II could also trigger degeneration and fibrosis phenotype in human NP cells. Finally, the animal model demonstrated that the local activated ACE/Ang II axis in the NP tissue could accelerate IDD in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Collectively, the degenerated intervertebral disc tissue showed excessively activated tRAS, and local activated tRAS could induce NP cell senescence, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory reaction to promote IDD. These biological effects of Ang II on human NP cells may provide novel insight into further treatment of IDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3225439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369181PMC
August 2021
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