Publications by authors named "Yuan Liu"

2,850 Publications

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Long Noncoding RNA GAS5 Targeting miR-221-3p/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor 2B Axis Regulates Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Cycle and Proliferation.

Pathobiology 2021 Jun 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Introduction: Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is more aggressive than the most common papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the current research on FTC is less than PTC. Here, we investigated the effects of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 and miR-221-3p in FTC.

Methods: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to detect GAS5 and miR-221-3p expression in the FTC tissues and cells. Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK8 and EdU assays. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the cell cycle. The dual-luciferase reporter assay was employed to validate the binding relationship of GAS5/miR-221-3p and miR-221-3p/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B). Western blot was conducted to measure the protein level of CDKN2B.

Results: Our results displayed that GAS5 was downregulated, while miR-221-3p was upregulated in FTC tissues and cells. What's more, overexpression of GAS5 or miR-221-3p inhibition induced G0/G1 phase arrest and inhibited cell proliferation of FTC cells. GAS5 acted as a sponge of miR-221-3p, and CDKN2B was a target gene of miR-221-3p. Additionally, GAS5 inhibited cell cycle and proliferation of FTC cells via reducing miR-221-3p expression to enhance CDKN2B expression.

Conclusion: GAS5 induced G0/G1 phase arrest and inhibited cell proliferation via targeting miR-221-3p/CDKN2B axis in FTC. Thus, GAS5 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of FTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513338DOI Listing
June 2021

Same-day discharge arthroplasty has a higher overall complications rate than fast-track arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Orthopedics, Orthopedic Research Institute, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guoxue Road, 610041, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Published studies have reported many inconsistent results regarding the comparison of same-day discharge total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and inpatient TJA. More notably, many recent studies comparing same-day discharge TJA with fast-track TJA presented higher rates of complications for same-day discharge TJA, which raises concerns about the safety of same-day discharge TJA.

Methods: We systematically searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases up to June 2020 for studies comparing mortality, readmission, and complications in same-day discharge and inpatient total hip or knee arthroplasty. Studies that used inpatient TJA as the control could be further divided into fast-track inpatient TJA (length of stay [LOS] ≤ 2 days) and traditional inpatient TJA (no restrictions on LOS). Relative risks were pooled to compare the outcomes of the same-day discharge group and the control group.

Results: According to selection criteria and quality assessment, 14 studies including 222,766 cases were identified. There was no significant difference in the risk of mortality (RR = 1.42, CI [0.67, 3.01]) or readmission (RR = 0.93, CI [0.79, 1.10]) between same-day discharge TJA and inpatient TJA. Compared with fast-track TJA, the rate of overall complications in same-day discharge TJA was significantly higher (RR = 1.67, CI [1.45, 1.93]), while the rates of overall complications were similar between same-day discharge and traditional inpatient TJA (RR = 0.83, CI [0.67, 1.03]).

Conclusion: The overall safety of same-day discharge TJA is satisfactory; however, more complications were detected in same-day discharge TJA than that in fast-track TJA. Complications in same-day discharge TJA might be underestimated in some previous studies taking long-staying inpatient TJA as control. Being more cautious about complications is necessary in the care of same-day discharge TJA, and extensive prospective studies are needed to explore the optimized option that weighs both cost and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-03883-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Dissolvable microneedles based on Panax notoginseng polysaccharide for transdermal drug delivery and skin dendritic cell activation.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Sep 18;268:118211. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China; Key Laboratory of Sustainable Utilization of Panax Notoginseng Resources of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650500, China. Electronic address:

This work explored the feasibility of using biological polysaccharide to fabricate dissolvable microneedles (MNs) for the purpose of transdermal drug delivery and skin dendritic cell (DC) activation. Panax notoginseng polysaccharide (PNPS), a naturally derived immunoactive macromolecule, was used to fabricate dissolvable MNs. The prepared PNPS MNs showed a satisfactory mechanical strength and a skin penetration depth. By Franz diffusion cell assay, the PNPS MNs demonstrated a high transdermal delivery amount of model drugs. Furthermore, with the assistance of MNs, PNPS easily penetrated across the stratum corneum and target ear skin DCs, activating the maturation and migration of immunocytes by increasing the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC II of skin DCs. Consequently, the matured DCs migrated to the auricular draining lymph nodes and increased the proportions of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells. Thus, PNPS might be a promising biomaterial for transdermal drug delivery, with adjuvant potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118211DOI Listing
September 2021

Erythropoiesis changes with increasing age in the elderly Chinese.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: Erythropoiesis slowly decreases with increasing age, which may be reflected in red blood cell (RBC) parameters. This multicentre collaborative study aimed to investigate the changes in erythropoiesis with increasing age in a healthy Chinese population.

Methods: A total of 14,591 healthy individuals (6,713 aged at least 60 y and 7,878 aged below 60 y) from seven cities across China were enrolled. K2-EDTA anticoagulant blood samples were analysed. The results are presented as median and 2.5-97.5th percentile.

Results: RBC parameters showed some differences between the two groups divided by the age of 60 in the Chinese population. The median, 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values of RBC, haemoglobin (HGB) and haematocrit (HCT) in patients aged ≥ 60 y were significantly lower than in those ˂ 60 y. The values of mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and red cell distribution width (RDW) were higher in the group aged ≥ 60 y. Men had significantly higher RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH and RDW indices than women. The prevalence of anaemia gradually increased with age in men and was higher than that in women after 50. The median haemoglobin and MCV in Nanning and Guangzhou were lower than those in other regions.

Conclusion: RBC parameters varied with increasing age and differed between males and females, indicating that erythropoiesis decreases in the elderly Chinese population. Subsequent studies should be conducted for age- and sex-specific reference intervals in healthy elderly Chinese populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13615DOI Listing
June 2021

Different Responses of Soil Bacterial and Fungal Communities to 3 Years of Biochar Amendment in an Alkaline Soybean Soil.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:630418. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Bioengineering, College of Life Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, China.

Biochar as a soil amendment has been regarded as a promising way to improve soil fertility. However, the response of microbial community after biochar and biochar compound fertilizer (BCF) application has not been thoroughly elucidated. This study evaluated the changes in abundance and composition of bacterial and fungal communities using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The field experiment ran for 3 years and comprised five treatments: chemical fertilizer as control (CK), straw-returning combined with chemical fertilizer (CS), low biochar application combined with chemical fertilizer (LB), high biochar application combined with chemical fertilizer (HB) and BCF. The results showed that biochar amendment results no changes in the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the bulk and rhizosphere soils. However, the abundance of soil fungi was significantly increased by biochar amendment (LB and HB). LB treatment significantly increased the fungal alpha diversity, while there was no significant change under HB. Furthermore, the dominant bacterial phyla found in the samples were , , and . Biochar addition increased the relative abundance of in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The dominant fungal phyla were , , and . The relative abundance of significantly decreased, but significantly increased in LB and HB. In addition, redundancy analysis indicated that the changes in bacterial and fungal communities are associated with soil properties such as SOC and TN, which are crucial contributors in regulating the community composition. This study is expected to provide significant theoretical and practical knowledge for the application of biochar in agricultural ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.630418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187762PMC
May 2021

A Chinese CADASIL Family with a Novel Mutation on Exon 10 of Notch3 Gene.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 10;30(8):105674. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), which is caused by the Notch3 gene mutation, has its unique clinical and imaging characteristics. Here we present a Chinese family with a novel mutation on exon 10 of Notch3 gene.

Methods: Clinical and MRI data of the three patients in the family during the 7-year follow-up were collected. The CADASIL Scale Score was calculated to evaluate the disease risk of the three patients at their first admission or clinic visit. Five family members underwent genetic test.

Results: Genetic test confirmed the diagnosis of CADASIL in this family. A novel mutation of p.C533S on exon 10 of Notch3 gene was detected. The CADASIL score of the proband and her sister was both 17 and that of her brother was 14.

Conclusions: Our report not only expands the mutation spectrum of Notch3 gene in CADASIL, but also shows the distinct heterogeneity of CADASIL patients in the same family with the same mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105674DOI Listing
June 2021

Cementless femoral stems with lower canal fill ratio have similar mid-term to long-term outcomes to those with adequate fill ratio in Dorr type C femurs.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Orthopedics, Orthopedic Reseach Institute, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guoxue Road, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Background: Lower canal fill ratio was reported to correlate with aseptic loosening in many studies. However, the most widely used standard of fill ratio seemed inapplicable to Dorr type C femurs. We aimed to adapt the method of measuring the fill ratio in Dorr type C femurs and compare the outcomes among patients with different fill ratios.

Methods: Twenty patients with Corail stems implanted in their Dorr type C femurs received spectrum CT to evaluate the whole-stem's fill ratio. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between the fill ratio in X-ray film and spectrum CT. Then 87 THAs were involved in this study, divided into the fill ratio ≤ 80% group and the fill ratio > 80% group. Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 8.2 years.

Results: Fill ratio at 2 cm below the lesser trochanter in anterior-posterior X-ray film correlated with the whole-stem's fill ratio (r = 0.50, P = 0.02). Survival rate of stem, function scores, and radiological outcomes between the two groups showed no significant difference. In the fill ratio > 80% group, intraoperative fracture was significantly higher (19% VS 5%, P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Patients with lower fill ratios at 2 cm below the lesser trochanter did not have poorer functional scores or more subsidence, but had a lower intraoperative fracture rate. The revision rates of the two groups presented no significant difference, but this result need to be confirmed in larger cohort in the future. In Dorr type C femurs, risk of fracture and the special morphology of the femur should be noted, and high fill ratio is not the most decisive factor for stem size selecting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00402-021-03916-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Metformin inhibition of mitochondrial ATP and DNA synthesis abrogates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pulmonary inflammation.

Immunity 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), an inflammatory condition with high mortality rates, is common in severe COVID-19, whose risk is reduced by metformin rather than other anti-diabetic medications. Detecting of inflammasome assembly in post-mortem COVID-19 lungs, we asked whether and how metformin inhibits inflammasome activation while exerting its anti-inflammatory effect. We show that metformin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1β production in cultured and alveolar macrophages along with inflammasome-independent IL-6 secretion, thus attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS. By targeting electron transport chain complex 1 and independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or NF-κB, metformin blocked LPS-induced and ATP-dependent mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis and generation of oxidized mtDNA, an NLRP3 ligand. Myeloid-specific ablation of LPS-induced cytidine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2), which is rate limiting for mtDNA synthesis, reduced ARDS severity without a direct effect on IL-6. Thus, inhibition of ATP and mtDNA synthesis is sufficient for ARDS amelioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189765PMC
June 2021

Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. Ameliorates Liver Fibrosis by Inducing Autophagy via PI3K/AKT/mTOR/p70S6K Signaling Pathway.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of ethyl acetate fraction Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss. (EDC) in human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in vitro and in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced hepatic fibrosis mouse model in vivo.

Methods: For in vitro study, HSCs were pre-treated with platelet-derived growth factor (10 ng/mL) for 2 h to ensure activation and treated with EDC for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The effect of EDC on HSCs was assessed using cell counting kit-8 assay, EdU staining, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot, respectively. For in vivo experiments, mice were intraperitoneally injected with CCl (2 ° L/g, adjusted to a 25% concentration in olive oil), 3 times per week for 6 weeks, to develop a hepatic fibrosis model. Forty 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups using a random number table (n=10), including control, model, positive control and EDC treatment groups. Mice in the EDC and colchicine groups were intragastrically administered EDC (0.5 g/kg) or colchicine (0.2 mg/kg) once per day for 6 weeks. Mice in the control and model groups received an equal volume of saline. Biochemical assays and histological examinations were used to assess liver damage. Protein expression levels of α -smooth muscle actin (α -SMA) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B (LC3B) were measured by Western blot.

Results: EDC reduced pathological damage associated with liver fibrosis, downregulated the expression of α -SMA and upregulated the expression of LC3B (P<0.05), both in HSCs and the CCl-induced liver fibrosis mouse model. The intervention of bafilomycin A1 and rapamycin in HSCs strongly supported the notion that inhibition of autophagy enhanced α -SMA protein expression levels (P<0.01). The results also found that the levels of phosphoinositide (PI3K), p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K all decreased after EDC treatment (P<0.05).

Conclusions: EDC has anti-hepatic fibrosis activity by inducing autophagy and might be a potential drug to be further developed for human liver fibrosis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-021-3298-5DOI Listing
June 2021

High-Density Reconfigurable Synaptic Transistors Targeting a Minimalist Neural Network.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Optoelectronic Display, National & Local United Engineering Lab of Flat Panel Display Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

Enormous synaptic devices are required to build a parallel, precise, and efficient neural computing system. To further improve the energy efficiency of neuromorphic computing, a single high-density synaptic (HDS) device with multiple nonvolatile synaptic states is suggested to reduce the number of synaptic devices in the neural network, although such a powerful synaptic device is rarely demonstrated. Here, a photoisomerism material, namely, diarylethene, whose energy level varies with the wavelength of illumination is first introduced to construct a powerful HDS device. The multiple synaptic states of the HDS device are intrinsically converted under UV-vis regulation and remain nonvolatile after the removal of illumination. More importantly, the conversion is reconfigurable and reversible under different light conditions, and the synaptic characteristics are comprehensively mimicked in each state. Finally, compared with a two-layer multilayer perceptron (MLP) architecture based on static synaptic devices, the HDS device-based architecture reduces the device number by 16 times to achieve a minimalist neural computing structure. The invention of the HDS device opens up a revolutionary paradigm for the establishment of a brain-like network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05484DOI Listing
June 2021

Disrupted communication of the temporoparietal junction in patients with major depressive disorder.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872, China.

Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer impairment in the transmission and integration of internal and external information sources. Accumulating evidence suggests that the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) is important for multiple cognitive and social functions and may act as a key node for the integration of internal and external information. Therefore, the TPJ's aberrant interaction mechanism may underpin MDD psychopathology. To answer this question, we conducted a comprehensive study using resting-state functional magnetic imaging data recorded from 74 patients with MDD and 69 normal controls. First, we examined whether TPJ was the most prominent region with altered functional/effective connectivity with multiple depression-related regions/networks, based on either zero-lag correlations or temporal mutual information (total interdependence and Granger causality) measurements. Accordingly, we derived a network model that depicts alterations of TPJ-connectivity in patients with MDD. Lastly, we performed a cross-approach comparison demonstrating more conducive indicators in delineating the network alteration model. Functional/effective connectivity between the TPJ and major functional networks that govern internal and external-driven information resources was attenuated in patients with MDD. TPJ acts like a key node for information-inflow and integration of multiple information streams. Therefore, dysfunctional connectivity indicators may serve as effective biomarkers for MDD. MDD is associated with the breakdown of the TPJ interaction model and its connections with the default mode network and the task-positive network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-021-00918-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Lipid metabolism disorders associated with dioxin exposure in a cohort of Chinese male workers revealed by a comprehensive lipidomics study.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 4;155:106665. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, Zhuhai, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Electronic address:

Dioxins, environmentally stable and ubiquitous, have been found to induce metabolic changes especially in lipids and be related to multiple diseases. However, limited study is available on lipid alternations related to human exposure to dioxins. This study aims to explore the serum lipidomic characterization and to understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse health risks associated with dioxin exposure. A lipidomic study integrating nontargeted lipidomics, and targeted free fatty acid (FFA) and acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) analyses were conducted to investigate the 94 serum samples from two groups of male workers with remarkably different dioxin concentrations. The obtained results exhibited distinct lipidomic signatures between the high and low exposed groups. A total of 37 lipids were identified with the significant changes. The results revealed that dioxin exposure caused accumulations of triglyceride (TG), ceramide (Cer) and sphingoid (So), remodeling of glycerophospholipid (GP), imbalanced FFA metabolism, as well as upregulation of platelet-activating factor (PAF). These findings implied the associations between dioxin exposure and potential adverse health risks including inflammation, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and liver diseases. This study is the first to explain the associations between dioxin exposure and health effects at the level of lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106665DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Outcomes and Racial Disparities in Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer in the Era of Novel Treatment Options.

Oncologist 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Docetaxel (DOC) and abiraterone (ABI) in the upfront setting have separately improved clinical outcomes for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC), but there are no studies comparing drug efficacies or the influence of racial disparities.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective multicenter review from Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University and Georgia Cancer Center for Excellence at Grady Memorial Hospital (2014-2020) for patients with mHSPC treated with either upfront DOC or ABI. Outcomes evaluated were median overall survival (mOS), progression-free survival (PFS), and PSA complete response (CR).

Results: A total of 168 patients were included, consisting of 92 (54.8%) Black patients and 76 (45.2%) non-Black patients (69 White and 7 Asian or Hispanic). Ninety-four (56%) received DOC and 74 (44%) received ABI. Median follow-up time was 22.8 months with data last reviewed June 2020. For mOS, there was no significant difference between ABI versus DOC and Black versus non-Black patients. For PFS, DOC was associated with hazard ratio (HR) 1.7 compared with ABI for all patients based on univariate association and HR 2.27 compared with ABI for Black patients on multivariable analysis. For PSA CR, Black patients were less likely to have a CR (odds ratio 0.27).

Conclusion: ABI and DOC have similar mOS with a trend toward better PFS for ABI in a cohort composed of 54% Black patients. Racial disparities were observed as prolonged PFS for Black patients treated with ABI, more so compared with all patients, and less PSA CR for Black patients. A prospective trial comparing available upfront therapies in a diverse racial population is needed to help guide clinical decision-making in the era of novel treatment options.

Implications For Practice: Median overall survival is similar for abiraterone and docetaxel when used as upfront therapy in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer in a cohort composed of 54% Black patients. There is a trend toward improved progression-free survival for abiraterone in all patients and Black patients. Non-Black patients were more likely to achieve PSA complete response regardless of upfront therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13848DOI Listing
June 2021

Circ-RNA Expression Pattern and circ-RNA-miRNA-mRNA Network in The Pathogenesis of Human Intervertebral Disc Degeneration.

Cell J 2021 Jul 26;23(2):218-224. Epub 2021 May 26.

Clinical Medical College, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053, Shandong, China.

Objective: The present study aimed to screen the differentially expressed (DE) circular RNAs (circ-RNAs) between lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) and normal tissues.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, microarray hybridization was performed to evaluate circ-RNA expression, and the DE circ-RNAs were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Host genes of DE circ-RNAs were predicted, and their functions were evaluated. Further, a competitive endogenesis (ce) RNA network among 4 DE circ-RNAs-miRNA-mRNA was constructed by Cytoscape.

Results: A total of 2636 circ-RNAs were detected in all samples; among them, 89.23% were exonic circ-RNAs. There were 138 DE circ-RNAs, including 134 up-regulated circ-RNAs and 4 downregulated circ-RNAs in IVDD samples. qRT-PCR validation experiments showed that expression trends of hsa_circ_0003239, hsa_circ_0003162, hsa_circ_0005918, and hsa_circ_0005556 were in line with the microarray analysis results. Functional enrichment analysis showed that host genes of DE circ-RNAs significantly disturbed pathways of regulation of actin cytoskeleton, propanoate metabolism, and ErbB signaling pathway. The four DE circ-RNAs related ceRNA network was constructed.

Conclusion: Our results revealed that circ-RNAs can function as miRNA sponges and regulate parent gene expression to affect IVDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2021.6832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181320PMC
July 2021

Distribution and Geochemical Significance of Rearranged Hopanes in Jurassic Source Rocks and Related Oils in the Center of the Sichuan Basin, China.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 19;6(21):13588-13600. Epub 2021 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, College of Geosciences, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis has revealed extremely high abundances of rearranged hopanes in Jurassic source rocks and related crude oils in the center of the Sichuan Basin. The detected rearranged hopanes include 17α(H)-diahopanes (CD and CD), early-eluting rearranged hopanes (CE and CE), and 18α(H)-neohopanes (CTs and Ts). Both the 17α(H)-diahopanes and the early-eluting rearranged hopanes exhibit a distribution pattern similar to that of the 17α(H)-hopane series, with a predominance of the C member and the presence of 22S and 22R epimers of hopanes in the extended series (>C). The results of this study show that the relatively high abundance of rearranged hopanes in Jurassic source rocks in the study area is associated with their depositional environments and with clay-mediated acidic catalysis rather than, as was previously thought, thermal maturity. Shallow lacustrine facies with brackish water and a suboxic to weak reducing sedimentary environment have contributed to the enrichment of rearranged hopanes, and clay-mediated acidic catalysis may also have had a positive influence on their abundance. The distribution patterns of the diahopane series indicate that the oils from Jurassic reservoirs in the Gongshanmiao Oilfield are sourced from Jurassic source rocks. Rearranged hopanes are therefore considered to be effective biomarkers for oil-source correlation in the center of the Sichuan Basin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173552PMC
June 2021

Docking-based generation of antibodies mimicking Cry1A/1B protein binding sites as potential insecticidal agents against diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Key Lab of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province-State Key Laboratory Breeding Base, Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro-product Safety and Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 210014, Nanjing, China.

Background: Broad use of insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in biopesticides and transgenic crops has resulted in cases of practical field resistance, highlighting the need for novel approaches to insect control. Previously we described an anti-Cry1Ab idiotypic-antibody (B12-scFv) displaying toxicity against rice leafroller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) larvae, supporting the potential of antibodies for pest control. The goal of the present study was to generate insecticidal antibodies against diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae.

Results: Four genetically engineered antibodies (GEAbs) were designed in silico from B12-scFv using 3D structure and docking predictions to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a Cry1Ac receptor in P. xylostella. Among these GEAbs, the GEAb-dV antibody consisting of two light chains had overlapping binding sites with Cry1A and Cry1B proteins and displayed high binding affinity to P. xylostella midgut brush border membrane (BBM) proteins. Proteins in BBM identified by pull-down assays as binding to GEAb-dV included an ABC transporter and V-ATPase subunit A protein. Despite lacking the α-helical structures in Cry1A that are responsible for pore formation, ingestion of GEAb-dV disrupted the P. xylostella larval midgut epithelium and resulted in toxicity. Apoptotic genes were activated in gut cells upon treatment with GEAb-dV .

Conclusion: This study describes the first insecticidal GEAb targeting P. xylostella by mimicking Cry proteins. Data support that GEAb-dV toxicity is associated to activation of intracellular cell death pathways, in contrast to pore-formation associated toxicity of Cry proteins. This work provides a foundation for the design of novel insecticidal antibodies for insect control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6499DOI Listing
June 2021

Rutin Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Necroptosis in the Chicken Liver via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and MAPK/NF-κB Pathway.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development, Department of Preventive Veterinary, College of Veterinary, Northeast Agricultural University, No. 600 Changjiang Street, Harbin, 150030, China.

Cadmium (Cd) is a recognized toxic metal and exerts serious hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. Rutin (RUT) is a dietary bioflavonoid with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. However, little is known about the alleviating effect of RUT against Cd-induced liver necroptosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the ameliorative mechanism of RUT on necroptosis triggered by Cd in chicken liver. One hundred twenty-eight 100-day-old Isa hens were randomly divided into four groups: the control group, RUT group, Cd + RUT cotreated group, and Cd group. Cd exposure prominently elevated Cd accumulation and the activities of liver function indicators (ALT and AST). Furthermore, the histopathological results, the overexpression of genes (RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL) related to the necroptosis pathway, and low Caspase 8 levels in Cd-exposed chicken liver indicated that Cd intoxication induced necroptosis in chicken liver. Meanwhile, Cd administration drastically increased the levels of oxidizing stress biomarkers (ROS production, MDA content, iNOS activity, and NO generation), and obviously reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in chicken liver. Cd treatment promoted the expression of the main members of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways (JNK, ERK, P38, NF-κB, and TNF-α) and activated heat shock proteins (HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90). However, RUT application remarkably alleviated these Cd-induced variations and necroptosis injury. Overall, our study demonstrated that RUT might prevent Cd-induced necroptosis in the chicken liver by inhibiting oxidative stress and MAPK/NF-κB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02764-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Analysis of behavioral problems in children with sleep-disordered breathing and decreased REM sleep.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 May 21;147:110783. Epub 2021 May 21.

Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, 518101, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: REM sleep is known to be closely associated with behavioral problems in children. Our previous study showed that children with decreased REM sleep (REM < 10%) suffered from severe sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). In this study we explored the characteristics of behavioral problems in children with SDB and decreased REM sleep.

Methods: A total of 223 children were enrolled in the study. Sleep was evaluated by Polysomnography (PSG). Behavioral problems were assessed by a Chinese version of Child Behavior Checklist (parent-reported). Parameters of SDB and behavioral problem scores (internalizing, externalizing, and total scores) were compared between the children with decreased REM (REM < 10%) and those with REM ≥ 10% before and after controlling overweight/obesity and obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Parameters of SDB were also compared between the normal behavior group and the abnormal behavior group. The correlation between the behavioral problems and the sleep parameters was analyzed.

Results: The children with decreased REM sleep (<10%) had more severe externalizing and total behavioral problems, even when controlled for overweight/obesity. The abnormal behavior group had significantly shorter total sleep time and REM sleep compared to the normal behavior group.

Conclusion: Children with SDB and decreased REM sleep showed more severe behavioral problems, especially the externalizing behavioral problems. The behavioral problems can be aggravated by insufficient total sleep. Decreased REM sleep in children may be an independent parameter that is associated with the behavioral problems in children with SDB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2021.110783DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparison of physicochemical and umami characterization of aqueous and ethanolic Takifugu obscurus muscle extracts.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 1;154:112317. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Food Science & Technology, School of Agriculture & Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Most umami substances were developed in aqueous extracts. In this study, we compared the molecular weight distributions and sensory characteristics of ethanol and aqueous Takifugu obscurus muscle extracts, and assessed their taste-related metabolites and peptide profile (<3 kDa) using nuclear magnetic resonance and nano liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The potential antioxidant peptide in ethanolic fraction was screened using Peptide Ranker, BIOPEP and quantum chemical simulations. The results indicated that 60% ethanolic extract fraction (60%-F) had the highest umami intensity and more palatable overall taste among all pufferfish extracts. It can be caused by more umami enhancing components such as Asp, Asn, Ala and 5'-AMP, and considerable umami-potential smaller peptides in 60%-F. 60%-F also showed an antioxidant activity, and several antioxidant peptides was screened. The present study indicated the relationship between extract solution and taste characterization, which provided more possibility for the exploitation of umami substances and screening potential activity peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112317DOI Listing
June 2021

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based nomogram for predicting lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer: a node-for-node comparative study of MRI and histopathology.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jun;11(6):2586-2597

Department of Radiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential risk factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to construct and validate a nomogram to predict its occurrence with node-for-node histopathological validation.

Methods: Our prediction model was developed between March 2015 and August 2016 using a prospective primary cohort (32 patients, mean age: 57.3 years) that included 324 lymph nodes (LNs) from MR images with node-for-node histopathological validation. We evaluated multiple MRI variables, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to develop the predictive nomogram. The performance of the nomogram was assessed with respect to its calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. The performance of the nomogram in predicting LNM was validated in an independent clinical validation cohort comprising 182 consecutive patients.

Results: The predictors included in the individualized prediction nomogram were chemical shift effect (CSE), nodal border, short-axis diameter of nodes, and minimum distance to rectal cancer or rectal wall. The nomogram showed good discrimination (C-index: 0.947; 95% confidence interval: 0.920-0.974) and good calibration in the primary cohort. Decision curve analysis confirmed the clinical usefulness of the nomogram in predicting the status of each LN. For the prediction of LN status in the clinical validation cohort by readers 1 and 2, the areas under the curves using the nomogram were 0.890 and 0.841, and the areas under the curves of readers using their experience were 0.754 and 0.704, respectively. Diagnostic efficiency was significantly improved by using the nomogram (P<0.001).

Conclusions: The nomogram, which incorporates CSE, nodal location, short-axis diameter, and minimum distance to rectal cancer or rectal wall, can be conveniently applied in clinical practice to facilitate the prediction of LNM in patients with rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-1049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107309PMC
June 2021

A new role of GRP75-USP1-SIX1 protein complex in driving prostate cancer progression and castration resistance.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Affiliated Cancer Hospital & institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer with limited treatment option in males. Although the reactivation of embryonic signals in adult cells is one of the characteristics of cancer, the underlying protein degradation mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that the molecular chaperone GRP75 is a key player in PC cells by maintaining the protein stability of SIX1, a transcription factor for embryonic development. Mechanistically, GRP75 provides a platform to recruit the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 to inhibit K48-linked polyubiquitination of SIX1. Structurally, the C-terminus of GRP75 (433-679 aa) contains a peptide binding domain, which is required for the formation of GRP75-USP1-SIX1 protein complex. Functionally, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the GRP75-USP1-SIX1 protein complex suppresses tumor growth and overcomes the castration resistance of PC cells in vitro and in xenograft mouse models. Clinically, the protein expression of SIX1 in PC tumor tissues is positively correlated with the expression of GRP75 and USP1. These new findings not only enhance our understanding of the protein degradation mechanism, but also may provide a potential way to enhance the anti-cancer activity of androgen suppression therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01851-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Simulation of the Parameters Effecting the Water Quality Evolution of Xuanwu Lake, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 27;18(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

After years of water environment improvement, China's water quality has improved to some extent in recent years. However, different water areas have different characteristics of water pollution. The paper used mathematical models to investigate the influence of different parameters on the water quality of Xuanwu Lake, China. The predominant focus was on the nutrients concentration due to changing the amount of pollutants, degradation coefficient, water diversion discharge and diffusion coefficient. The results showed that the amount of pollutants had the most significant impact, followed by the degradation coefficient. The total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations of Xuanwu Lake increased with the increase of the amount of pollutants. The water quality of Xuanwu Lake decreased significantly with the increase of degradation coefficient. Increasing the water diversion discharge will not only make a big difference in water quality, but it will also worsen the water quality. The effect of the amount of pollutants on Xuanwu Lake total phosphorus and total nitrogen is 4.1 and 5.7 times that of water diversion discharge. The influence of total phosphorus and total nitrogen in the degradation coefficient scheme is 3.5 and 6.2 times that of the water diversion discharge scheme. The diffusion coefficient has almost no effect on the water quality of Xuanwu Lake. From the practical difficulty and implementation effect of water environment improvement, the order of water quality improvement effect from good to bad is as follows: the amount of pollutants scheme, degradation coefficient scheme, water diversion scheme, diffusion coefficient scheme. Under the circumstance of limited water diversion, the lake will effectively improve the water quality. Reducing the discharge of pollutants is the fundamental measure to control water environment problems, and water diversion is an auxiliary measure to improve the water ecology. It will become a trend to combine the reduction of pollutant discharge and water transfer for water environment improvement. This paper is of significance for improving the water quality of Xuanwu Lake, and it also provides a scientific method for water environment improvement of water diversion projects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198726PMC
May 2021

A C-Type Lectin Highly Expressed in Intestine Functions in AMP Regulation and Prophenoloxidase Activation.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

A C-type lectin (PtCLec2) from was identified for characterization of its role in defense and innate immunity. PtCLec2 contains a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) with a conserved QPD motif, which was predicted to have galactose specificity. The mRNA expression of PtCLec2 was predominantly detected in intestine and increased rapidly and significantly upon pathogen challenge. The recombinant PtCLec2 (rPtCLec2) could bind various microorganisms and PAMPs with weak binding ability to yeast and PGN. It agglutinated the tested Gram-negative bacteria ( and ), Gram-positive bacteria ( and ), and rabbit erythrocytes in the presence of exogenous Ca, and these agglutination activities were suppressed by LPS, d-galactose, and d-mannose. Further, rPtCLec2 enhanced phagocytosis and clearance of , and displayed inhibitory activities against the tested bacteria. Knockdown of PtCLec2 decreased the transcription of two phagocytosis genes (PtArp and PtMyosin), three prophenoloxidase (proPO) system-related genes (PtPPAF, PtcSP1, and PtproPO), six antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) (PtALF4-7, PtCrustin1, and PtCrustin3), and PtRelish but upregulated the expression levels of PtJNK, PtPelle, and PtTLR. These results collectively indicate that PtCLec2 might perform its immune recognition function via binding and agglutination, and mediate pathogen elimination via regulating hemocyte phagocytosis, AMP synthesis, and proPO activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10050541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151143PMC
May 2021

Potential roles for microRNAs in facilitating physiological adaptation to low-temperature stress in Penaeus vannamei.

J Fish Dis 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, College of Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

Water temperature is one of the most common physiological stressors in aquaculture. Previous studies demonstrate that organisms require miRNA activity for survival in various unfavourable environmental conditions. However, the detailed role of miRNA in response to low-temperature stress is still unclear. This study was conducted to construct a comprehensive miRNA dataset for the Penaeus vannamei after low-temperature stress. A total of 329 known miRNAs and 60 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 17 miRNAs were identified with the most significant differences, and they were found to be involved in stimulation or stress processes. The main enriched target pathways of the 17 miRNAs were the Hippo signalling pathway, autophagy, apoptosis and MAPK signalling. In addition, all the 17 miRNAs identified were up-regulated, suggesting that miRNA by inhibiting the expression of target genes constitutes an effective strategy for Penaeus vannamei to cope with low-temperature stress. The 35-putative target of the 17 miRNAs was related to apoptosis and autophagy-related proteins, such as Pxt, DRAM2, cytochrome c, ATG2B, JNK, ATG4 and API5. The analysis of miRNA expression profiles contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of low-temperature tolerance in Penaeus vannamei. This study's findings enrich current miRNA resources and offer the possibility to validate the involvement of 17 miRNAs in the response of shrimp to low-temperature stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13379DOI Listing
June 2021

Taste compounds generation and variation of broth in pork meat braised processing by chemical analysis and an electronic tongue system.

J Food Biochem 2021 May 31:e13766. Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Food Science & Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, P.R. China.

The aim was to unveil the generation and variation rule of the main taste components in braised broth for 10 quantitative repeated braising cycles. The major taste compounds of three groups (MS, broth cooked with meat and spices; M, broth cooked with meat; and S, broth cooked with spices) were systematically analyzed by the state-of-art chromatography and electronic sensory technology. As braising cycles progressed, contents of free 5'-nucleotides and amino acids were increased in MS and M, while those nucleotides were not detected in S. A significant discrimination of taste in MS and M was revealed by electronic tongue evaluation during the process. As the formation rates (FR) of taste compounds and the transformation rates (TR) of taste compounds to volatile compounds were mainly accounting for the generation and variation of flavor in broth, a hypothesis was proposed to illustrate the whole variation of taste compounds in the process integrally that the ratio of FR/TR dividing the process into three stages, Degradation, Balance, and Accumulation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The traditional braising process and formula are empirical and extensive, which impede the increase in meat products output. Nowadays, the industry of braising products is facing a problem of standardization and quality control, and needs to carry out scientific and quantitative process improvement efficiently. Therefore, the developed comprehensive approach demonstrates great potential for braised meat broth flavor monitoring and quality control in an objective and holistic manner. It provides data support and new ideas of technology development for quality control in the process of meat braising.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13766DOI Listing
May 2021

Targeted Therapeutic Strategies in the Battle Against Pathogenic Bacteria.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:673239. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

The emergence and rapid spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria constitute a global threat for public health. Despite ongoing efforts to confront this crisis, the pace of finding new potent antimicrobials is far slower than the evolution of drug resistance. The abuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics not only accelerates the formation of resistance but also imposes a burden on the intestinal microbiota, which acts a critical role in human homeostasis. As such, innovative therapeutic strategies with precision are pressingly warranted and highly anticipated. Recently, target therapies have achieved some breakthroughs by the aid of modern technology. In this review, we provide an insightful illustration of current and future medical targeted strategies, including narrow-spectrum agents, engineered probiotics, nanotechnology, phage therapy, and CRISPR-Cas9 technology. We discuss the recent advances and potential hurdles of these strategies. Meanwhile, the possibilities to mitigate the spread of resistance in these approaches are also mentioned. Altogether, a better understanding of the advantages, disadvantages, and mechanisms of action of these targeted therapies will be conducive to broadening our horizons and optimizing the existing antibacterial approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.673239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149751PMC
May 2021

Cathepsin K deficiency promotes alveolar bone regeneration by promoting jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells proliferation and differentiation via glycolysis pathway.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 30:e13058. Epub 2021 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Objectives: To clarify the possible role and mechanism of Cathepsin K (CTSK) in alveolar bone regeneration mediated by jaw bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (JBMMSC).

Materials And Methods: Tooth extraction models of Ctsk knockout mice (Ctsk ) and their wildtype (WT) littermates were used to investigate the effect of CTSK on alveolar bone regeneration. The influences of deletion or inhibition of CTSK by odanacatib (ODN) on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of JBMMSC were assessed by CCK-8, Western blot and alizarin red staining. To explore the differently expressed genes, RNA from WT and Ctsk JBMMSC was sent to RNA-seq. ECAR, glucose consumption and lactate production were measured to identify the effect of Ctsk deficiency or inhibition on glycolysis. At last, we explored whether Ctsk deficiency or inhibition promoted JBMMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation through glycolysis.

Results: We found out that Ctsk knockout could promote alveolar bone regeneration in vivo. In vitro, we confirmed that both Ctsk knockout and inhibition by ODN could promote proliferation of JBMMSC, up-regulate expression of Runx2 and ALP, and enhance matrix mineralization. RNA-seq results showed that coding genes of key enzymes in glycolysis were significantly up-regulated in Ctsk JBMMSC, and Ctsk deficiency or inhibition could promote glycolysis in JBMMSC. After blocking glycolysis by 3PO, the effect of Ctsk deficiency or inhibition on JBMMSC's regeneration was blocked subsequently.

Conclusions: Our findings revealed that Ctsk knockout or inhibition could promote alveolar bone regeneration by enhancing JBMMSC regeneration via glycolysis. These results shed new lights on the regulatory mechanism of CTSK on bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.13058DOI Listing
May 2021

Boron-nitrogen-doped carbon dots on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for efficient electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reactions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 18;600:865-871. Epub 2021 May 18.

Green Catalysis Center, College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, No. 100 Science Avenue, Zhengzhou City 450001, China. Electronic address:

Cost-effective production of metal-free catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR), to supersede Pt-based catalysts, is challenging. Here, a three-dimensional nanocatalyst was prepared by compounding multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with easily modified and doped carbon dots (CDs) as sources of B and N. The catalyst has high conductivity and a large specific surface area similar to the MWCNTs, allowing exposure of many CDs with rich edge active sites and enhancing electron transfer. The catalyst exhibits excellent ORR performance, with 0.92 V of E vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). The E value exhibits a reduction of 50 mV compared with that of Pt/C (0.85 V) with a limited current density of 5.95 mA cm. The enhanced catalytic performance is attributed to the synergy of pyridine N and BC. This work describes a simple and economical strategy for metal-free catalysts, and promotes the development of such catalysts for metal-air batteries and fuel cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.089DOI Listing
May 2021

Intratumoral SIRPα-deficient macrophages activate tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells under radiotherapy.

Nat Commun 2021 05 28;12(1):3229. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center of Diagnostics and Therapeutics, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Radiotherapy (RT)-induced tumoricidal immunity is severely limited when tumors are well-established. Here, we report that depleting SIRPα on intratumoral macrophages augments efficacy of RT to eliminate otherwise large, treatment-resistant colorectal (MC38) and pancreatic (Pan02 and KPC) tumors, inducing complete abscopal remission and long-lasting humoral and cellular immunity that prevent recurrence. SIRPα macrophages activated by irradiated tumor-released DAMPs exhibit robust efficacy and orchestrate an anti-tumor response that controls late-stage tumors. Upon RT-mediated activation, intratumoral SIRPα macrophages acquire potent proinflammatory features and conduct immunogenic antigen presentation that confer a tumoricidal microenvironment highly infiltrated by tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and inflammatory neutrophils, but with limited immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells and post-radiation wound-healing. The results demonstrate that SIRPα is a master regulator underlying tumor resistance to RT and provide proof-of-principle for SIRPα macrophage-based therapies to treat a broad spectrum of cancers, including those at advanced stages with low immunogenicity and metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23442-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163884PMC
May 2021

Decreased dengue cases attributable to the effect of COVID-19 in Guangzhou in 2020.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 05 26;15(5):e0009441. Epub 2021 May 26.

Epidemiology Department, Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Baiyunqu Qidelu 1, Guangdong, China.

The dengue fever epidemic in Guangzhou may have been affected by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of dengue cases dropped drastically in 2020, and there have been only 2 local cases, suggesting that dengue has not become endemic in Guangzhou.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153456PMC
May 2021