Publications by authors named "Yong Kang Cheah"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Response to Yuan's Capsule Commentary.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 03 11;36(3):807. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 South Marryland Avenue, MC 6092, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06360-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947070PMC
March 2021

Sociodemographic factors associated with consumption of confectionery among obese and non-obese adults: A secondary analysis.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2020 Sep - Oct;14(5):428-436. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

The objective of the present study is to examine sociodemographic factors associated with consumption of confectionery among obese and non-obese adults in Malaysia. Secondary analysis of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2014 was performed. The survey was conducted in urban and rural areas in the 14 states of Malaysia, including the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. Adults aged 18 years and above (n = 2696) were interviewed. The dependent variable was the total servings of confectionery consumed per week. An ordered logistic regression model was used to examine the associated sociodemographic factors in the decision of people to consume 0, 1-2, 3-5 and ≥6 servings of confectionery. Marginal effects of sociodemographic variables on confectionery consumption were calculated. Analyses stratified by bodyweight group were conducted. The results showed that income, education, gender, ethnicity, and employment status were significantly associated with consumption of confectionery. In particular, income, education, gender, ethnicity and employment status affected confectionery consumption, but not the other way around. However, no relationship was evidenced between age, marital status, household location and confectionery consumption. In conclusion, sociodemographic factors were related to consumption of confectionery. Policies aimed at discouraging consumption of confectionery should focus primarily on high income earners, well-educated individuals and Bumiputera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2020.07.008DOI Listing
August 2020

Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, and Health Factors Associated With Depression and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Malaysian Adults.

J Prim Care Community Health 2020 Jan-Dec;11:2150132720921738

International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia.

Lowering the prevalence of mental health illness is one of the main public health concerns. The objective of the present study was to examine factors associated with depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among adults in Malaysia. Data were extracted from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 (NHMS 2011), which is a nationally representative sample collected using a 2-stage stratified sampling method. A bivariate probit model was utilized to examine the influences of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors on the likelihood of suffering from depression and GAD. Age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, and self-rated health were significantly associated with depression and GAD. In particular, there were positive relationships between depression and GAD, and younger adults, females, Indian ethnic group, lower level of education, being unmarried, and self-rated poor health. Sociodemographic and health factors were associated with determining the risks of depression and GAD in Malaysia. With this information, future policies (eg, screening and treatment) could be targeted at those at most risk to develop depression and GAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150132720921738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252371PMC
May 2020

Ethnic Differences in Participation in Medical Check-ups Among the Elderly: Evidence from Malaysia.

J Gen Intern Med 2020 09 17;35(9):2680-2686. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among the elderly in Malaysia.

Objective: To examine ethnic differences in participation in medical check-ups among the elderly.

Design: A nationally representative data set was employed. Multiple logistic regressions were utilised to examine the relationship between ethnicity and the likelihood of undergoing medical check-ups. The regressions were stratified by age, income, marital status, gender, household location, insurance access and health status. These variables were also controlled for in the regressions (including stratified regressions).

Participants: The respondents were required to be residents of Malaysia and not be institutionalised. Overall, 30,806 individuals were selected to be interviewed, but only 28,650 were actually interviewed, equivalent to a 93% response rate. Of those, only 2248 were used in the analyses, because 26,402 were others or below aged 60.

Main Measures: The dependent variable was participation in a medical check-up. The main independent variables were the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian).

Key Results: Among the elderly aged 70-79 years, Chinese (aOR 1.89; 95% CI 1.28, 2.81) and Indians (aOR 2.39; 95% CI 1.20, 4.74) were more likely to undergo medical check-ups than Malays. Among the elderly with monthly incomes of ≤ RM999, Chinese (aOR 1.44; 95% CI 1.12, 1.85) and Indians (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 0.99, 2.28) were more likely to undergo medical check-ups than Malays. Indian males were more likely to undergo medical check-ups than Malay males (aOR 2.32; 95% CI 1.15, 4.67). Chinese with hypercholesterolaemia (aOR 1.45; 95% CI 1.07, 1.98) and hypertension (aOR 1.32; 95% CI 1.02, 1.72) were more likely to undergo medical check-ups than Malays.

Conclusions: There were ethnic differences in participation in medical check-ups among the elderly. These ethnic differences varied across age, income, marital status, gender, household location, insurance access and health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05766-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459043PMC
September 2020

Smoking susceptibility among non-smoking school-going adolescents in Malaysia: findings from a national school-based survey.

BMJ Open 2019 10 28;9(10):e031164. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Malaysia Campus, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia.

Objective: The identification of susceptible non-smoking adolescents is an essential step in reducing smoking initiation among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with smoking susceptibility among non-smoking school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Primary and secondary schools in Malaysia.

Participants: 11 246 non-smoking school-going adolescents.

Outcome Measures: The prevalence and factors associated with smoking susceptibility among non-smoking school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

Results: Approximately 14% of non-smokers were susceptible to smoking, and the prevalence of susceptibility was significantly higher among males, ever-smokers and e-cigarette users. The odds of susceptibility to smoking were higher among males, e-cigarette users, those aged 12 years and under and those who had ever smoked or tried cigarettes. Students from schools with educational programmes on the health effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) and who perceived smoking to be harmful were less likely to be susceptible to smoking.

Conclusion: Smoking susceptibility is prevalent among school-going adolescents. A comprehensive approach that enhances or reinforces health education programmes on the adverse health effects of smoking and SHS among school children, that considers multiple factors and that involves all stakeholders is urgently needed to reduce the prevalence of smoking susceptibility among vulnerable subgroups, as identified from the present findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830643PMC
October 2019

Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home and at the workplace among non-smokers in Malaysia: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2011.

Tob Induc Dis 2018 24;16:49. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Introduction: Understanding the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the associated factors is beneficial for the formulation of effective measures to reduce exposure to SHS. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure at home and workplace, and its associated factors among non-smoker Malaysian adults.

Methods: Data were extracted from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-Malaysia (GATS-M) that involved a representative sample of 5112 Malaysian adults. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between SHS exposure, sociodemographic factors, knowledge on the danger of SHS, and smoking restrictions at home and at work among non-smokers.

Results: Among non-smoker Malaysians, age ≥15 years, 27.9% (equivalent to approximately 4.21 million non-smokers) and 33.9% (equivalent to approximately 1.37 million non-smokers) reported that they were exposed to SHS at home and the workplace, at least once a month, respectively. Women (AOR=2.12, 95% CI: 1.61-2.78), young individuals (AOR=3.06, 95% CI: 1.48-6.33), Malays (AOR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.56-3.64) or other Bumiputra ethnic groups (AOR=2.40, 95% CI: 1.39-4.19) and those who worked as other than government employees were more likely to report SHS exposure at home (non-government employee: AOR=1.88, 95% CI: 1.06-3.36). Respondents with a total smoking restriction at home did not report any SHS exposure at home. Similarly, those whose workplace had smoking restrictions were less likely to report SHS exposure at the work compared to their counterparts whose workplace had partial (AOR=3.08, 95% CI: 1.84-5.15) or no smoking restrictions (AOR=15.33, 95% CI: 6.75-34.86).

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Malaysian adults were exposed to SHS at home and at work. The findings emphasize the need for policies on smoking restrictions at work and the need to promote the adoption of a completely smoke-free home, among the Malaysian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/95188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659505PMC
October 2018

Personal and Family Factors Associated With High-risk Behaviours Among Adolescents in Malaysia.

J Pediatr Nurs 2019 Sep - Oct;48:92-97. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Institute for Medical Research, Malaysia.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between high-risk behaviours and personal and family factors among adolescents in Malaysia.

Methods: A nationwide data set was examined for this secondary data analysis. The dependent variable was the degree of risk, which was measured based on the number of high-risk behaviours in which adolescents participated. Age, gender, ethnicity, self-rated academic performance, family size, parental marital status and parental academic attainment were included as independent variables. Analyses stratified by educational level were conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using ordered logit.

Results: The most common high-risk behaviour among Malaysian adolescents was physical inactivity (35.97%), followed by smoking (13.27%) and alcohol consumption (4.45%). The majority of adolescents had low risks (52.93%), while only a small proportion had high risks (6.08%). Older age was associated with increased odds of having high risks (OR: 1.26). Male adolescents had higher odds of being in a high-risk category compared to female adolescents (OR: 1.28). Compared to Malays, Chinese adolescents had higher odds of being in a high-risk category (OR: 1.71), whereas Indian adolescents had lower odds (OR: 0.65). Excellent academic performance was associated with reduced odds of participating in high-risk behaviours (OR: 0.41).

Conclusion: Personal factors are important determinants of high-risk behaviours. This study provides a better understanding of those adolescent groups that are at greater risk.

Practical Implications: An intervention directed towards reducing participation in high-risk behaviours among adolescents who have both poor academic performance and less-educated parents may yield promising outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2019.07.012DOI Listing
May 2020

Demographic and lifestyle determinants of time spent in physical activity among Malaysian adolescents.

Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med 2018 Jun 2;5(2):49-54. Epub 2018 May 2.

Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background And Objectives: The objective of the present study is to examine factors affecting time spent in physical activity among adolescents in Malaysia.

Patients And Methods: A nationally representative data of adolescents that consists of 25399 respondents is used. The demographic (age, gender, education) and lifestyle (fruits and vegetables consumption, carbonated soft drink consumption, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, sex behaviour, participation in physical education class, obesity) determinants of physical activity are assessed using binomial regression.

Results: The results show that age is negatively associated with time spent in physical activity. However, being male and education levels are positively related to time spent in physical activity. Having unhealthy lifestyle and being obese are associated with low levels of physical activity. Physical education seems to promote participation in physical activity.

Conclusion: In conclusion, demographic and lifestyle factors play an important role in determining levels of physical activity among adolescents. In order to reduce the prevalence of physically inactive adolescents, policy makers should focus primarily on late adolescents, females, adolescents who engage in unhealthy lifestyle and seldom attend physical education classes, as well as obese adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpam.2018.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363248PMC
June 2018

Association between Availability of Neighborhood Fast Food Outlets and Overweight Among 5⁻18 Year-Old Children in Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 02 18;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur 50588, Malaysia.

A growing number of fast-food outlets in close proximity to residential areas raises a question as to its impact on childhood overweight and obesity. This study aimed at determining the relationship between the availability of fast-food outlets that were in close proximity to residential areas and overweight among Malaysian children aged 5 to 18 years. Measurement data on the weight and height of 5544 children (2797 boys, 2747 girls) were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. Overweight (including obesity) is defined as BMI-for-age z-score > +1 SD based on the WHO growth reference. Geographic information system geospatial analysis was performed to determine the number of fast-food outlets within 1000 m radius from the children's residential address. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between the availability of fast-food outlets (none or more than one outlet) and overweight with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, monthly household income, parental educational level, residential area and supermarket density. Our results showed that the prevalence of overweight was 25.0% and there was a statistically significant association between the density of fast-food outlets and overweight (odds ratio: 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.47). Our study suggested that the availability of fast-food outlets with close proximity in residential areas was significantly associated with being overweight among children. Limiting the number of fast-food outlets in residential areas could have a significant effect in reducing the prevalence of overweight among Malaysian children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406246PMC
February 2019

Association between Availability of Neighborhood Fast Food Outlets and Overweight Among 5⁻18 Year-Old Children in Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 02 18;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute for Medical Research, Jalan Pahang, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur 50588, Malaysia.

A growing number of fast-food outlets in close proximity to residential areas raises a question as to its impact on childhood overweight and obesity. This study aimed at determining the relationship between the availability of fast-food outlets that were in close proximity to residential areas and overweight among Malaysian children aged 5 to 18 years. Measurement data on the weight and height of 5544 children (2797 boys, 2747 girls) were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. Overweight (including obesity) is defined as BMI-for-age z-score > +1 SD based on the WHO growth reference. Geographic information system geospatial analysis was performed to determine the number of fast-food outlets within 1000 m radius from the children's residential address. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to examine the association between the availability of fast-food outlets (none or more than one outlet) and overweight with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, monthly household income, parental educational level, residential area and supermarket density. Our results showed that the prevalence of overweight was 25.0% and there was a statistically significant association between the density of fast-food outlets and overweight (odds ratio: 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.47). Our study suggested that the availability of fast-food outlets with close proximity in residential areas was significantly associated with being overweight among children. Limiting the number of fast-food outlets in residential areas could have a significant effect in reducing the prevalence of overweight among Malaysian children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406246PMC
February 2019

Response to Kawada: Factors affecting blood glucose screening in the elderly with special reference to physical activity.

J Diabetes 2017 09 28;9(9):885. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.12568DOI Listing
September 2017

Factors associated with participation in physical activity among adolescents in Malaysia.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2016 Nov;28(4):419-427

Background: The rising prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has become a serious public health issue. Among the multi-factorial drivers behind NCDs are modifiable health risk factors, most notably, physical inactivity.

Objective: In response to the nearly global policy priority of encouraging regular participation in physical activity, the objective of the present study is to examine the factors that determine participation in physical activity among Malaysian adolescents.

Methods: Nationally representative data consisting of a large sample size was used. A censored regression model was developed to estimate the likelihood of participation and time spent on physical activity.

Results: There are significant relationships between physical activity and gender, ethnicity, self-rated academic performance, maternal education, household size and time spent on physical education.

Conclusion: The present study provides new insights into the factors affecting physical activity participation among adolescents. Specifically, self-rated excellent academic performance, household size and physical education can increase the likelihood of being physically active. Evidence of the present study implies that policy makers should pay special attention to females, Chinese, adolescents with self-rated poor academic performance and adolescents who have low maternal education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2015-0030DOI Listing
November 2016

Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia.

Glob Health Promot 2018 Mar 12;25(1):63-72. Epub 2016 Jul 12.

1. Universiti Utara Malaysia, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975916649135DOI Listing
March 2018

Blood glucose screening among elderly Malaysians: Who to target?

J Diabetes 2017 Jan 15;9(1):85-92. Epub 2016 Apr 15.

Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Early detection of raised blood glucose can reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Despite being a high-risk group, a significant proportion of the elderly population does not undergo blood glucose screening. The aim of the present study was to examine the factors affecting blood glucose screening among the elderly.

Methods: Data from a sample of 2463 respondents in the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 were used. Pearson Chi-squared tests were conducted to find factors associated with screening behavior. A logit model was used to analyze the likelihood of screening.

Results: Income, age, education, ethnicity, employment status, availability of medical coverage, and smoking behavior were significantly associated with blood glucose screening. The likelihood of blood glucose screening was positively correlated with available monthly income and was higher in those aged 60-69 years, those attaining higher education, Malays, and elderly who are medically covered.

Conclusions: The findings of the present study provide insights for health policy formulation for the elderly. As part of their efforts to reduce national health costs, governments should pay particular attention to the elderly, who are likely to be unscreened for blood glucose levels, because they face even larger risk exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.12388DOI Listing
January 2017

Factors influencing consumer purchase decisions for health-promoting goods and services in malaysia.

Authors:
Yong Kang Cheah

Malays J Med Sci 2014 Nov-Dec;21(6):36-44

School of Economics, Finance and Banking, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.

Background: In the context of global increases in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, the objective of the present study is to investigate the factors affecting individuals' decisions to use health-promoting goods and services.

Methods: The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III), consisting of 30992 respondents, was analysed. The Pearson chi-square test was applied to compare the distribution of categorical variables. A binary logistic regression model was used to assess the likelihood of using health-promoting goods and services.

Results: Age, income, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, location of residence, job characteristics, and being diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia were significantly associated with use of health-promoting goods and services. In contrast, young individuals, low income earners, males, Indians and others, the less-educated, single individuals, rural dwellers, the unemployed and individuals with hypercholesterolemia were less likely to use health-promoting goods and services than others.

Conclusion: Socio-demographic and health factors played an important role in affecting the use of health-promoting goods and services. Based on these factors, several intervention measures with the intent of increasing the use of health-promoting goods and services were suggested, if only applicable to Malaysians.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391453PMC
April 2015

The determinants of participation in physical activity in malaysia.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2014 Feb 9;5(1):20-7. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Physical Activity and Energy Metabolism Research Group, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objectives: In light of the importance of physical activity, the aim of the present study is to examine the factors affecting participation in physical activity among adults in Malaysia.

Methods: A logistic regression model and the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey consisting of 30,992 respondents were used.

Results: Age, income, gender, education, marital status, region, house locality, job characteristics, and medical conditions are significantly associated with participation in physical activity. In particular, old individuals, high income earners, females, the well-educated, widowed or divorced individuals, East Malaysians, urban dwellers, the unemployed, and individuals who are not diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia are less likely to be physically active than others.

Conclusion: Because sociodemographic and health factors play an important role in determining physical activity, the government should take them into account when formulating policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064643PMC
February 2014

Determinants of the demand for using preventive medical care among adults in penang, malaysia.

Authors:
Yong Kang Cheah

Malays J Med Sci 2013 Jan;20(1):46-55

Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: In light of the fact that chronic diseases were becoming more prevalent recently, the primary objective of the study was to examine the socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle determinants of the use of preventive medical care in Penang, Malaysia.

Methods: The study used the primary survey data in Penang which had a total of 398 respondents. Respondents were chosen based on convenient sampling, and the survey was carried out in various locations in Penang. During the survey, the designed questionnaires were distributed for self-administration by the respondents between August and October, 2010. The binary logistic regression model was employed for statistical analysis.

Results: Socio-demographic and health factors like income, marital status, education, history of serious family illnesses and self-perceived health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of using preventive medical care. Specifically, being married (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.32), the presence of a history of serious family illnesses (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.37, 3.36), having high income (OR: 8.71; 95% CI: 1.03, 73.59) and self-perceived poor health status (OR: 4.78; 95% CI: 1.09, 21.00) were positively related with using preventive medical care. However, having low educational background (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.95) were inversely related to the probability of using such medical care.

Conclusion: In view of the findings, the individuals' socio-demographic and health profiles were suggested to be given attention by the public health authorities if the goals of increasing the use of preventive medical care in the community were to be achieved.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3629883PMC
January 2013

Exploring factors influencing smoking behaviour in Malaysia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012 ;13(4):1125-30

Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Objective: The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia.

Method: Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking.

Results: Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke.

Conclusion: In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.4.1125DOI Listing
January 2013