Publications by authors named "Yingying Xie"

72 Publications

Genes associated with grey matter volume reduction in multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol 2021 Aug 29. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Radiology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, School of Medical Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, No. 154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.

There is extensive grey matter volume (GMV) reduction in multiple sclerosis (MS), which may account for cognitive impairment in this disabling disorder. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified hundreds of genes associated with MS, we know little about which genes associated with GMV reduction and cognitive decline in MS. In the present study, we aimed to uncover genes associated with GMV reduction in MS by performing cross-sample (1473 brain tissue samples) partial least squares regression between gene expression from 6 postmortem brains and case-control GMV difference of MS from a meta-analysis of 1391 patients and 1189 controls (discovery phase) and from the intergroup comparison between 69 patients and 70 controls (replication phase). We identified 623 genes whose brain spatial expression profiles were significantly associated with GMV reduction in MS. These genes showed significant enrichment for MS-related genes identified by GWAS; were functionally associated with ion channel, synaptic transmission, axon and neuron projection; and showed more significant cell type-specific expression in neurons than other cell types. More importantly, the identified genes showed significant enrichment for those genes with downregulated rather than upregulated expression in MS. The spatial distribution patterns of the expression of the identified genes showed more significant correlations with brain activation patterns of memory and language tasks. These findings indicate that grey matter atrophy in MS may be resulted from the joint effects of multiple genes that are associated with this disorder, especially genes with downregulated expression in MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10777-2DOI Listing
August 2021

A collaborative strategy for elevated reduction and immobilization of Cr(VI) using nano zero valent iron assisted by schwertmannite: Removal performance and mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 18;422:126952. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

A novel collaborative strategy for enhanced removal of Cr(VI) using nano zero valent iron (nZVI) assisted by schwertmannite (Sch) with two synthesis methods was designed. Batch experiments demonstrated that nZVI/Sch-AP (synthesized by abiotic precipitation of Fe species) exhibited excellent removal performance for Cr(VI) than nZVI/Sch-CO (synthesized by chemical oxidation of Fe species). The results indicated that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI) by nZVI/Sch-AP and nZVI/Sch-CO were highly pH-dependent and achieved to be 99.99% and 98.01% under the optimal conditions of 10 mg L Cr(VI) concentration, a pH of 6.3 and a Fe(0)/Cr(VI) molar ratio of 12. But nZVI/Sch-AP emerged greater k of 0.1097 min than that of nZVI/Sch-CO (0.0485 min). Humic acid exhibited promotion effect on the Cr(VI) removal in low concentration of 1 mg L. Results of XRD and XPS demonstrated that α-FeOOH was the dominant products in both incubations of nZVI/Sch-AP and nZVI/Sch-CO, accompanied with FeCrO and CrFe mixed (oxy)hydroxides, and γ-FeOOH was found alone in the incubations of nZVI/Sch-CO. We proposed a consecutive and simultaneous process involving surface absorption-reduction and co-precipitation/immobilization for the removal. This study provides new insights into the elimination of Cr(VI) from wastewater by nZVI/Sch, especially in acid mine drainage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126952DOI Listing
August 2021

Sulfate migration and transformation characteristics in paddy soil profile affected by acid mine drainage.

Environ Res 2021 09 26;200:111732. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; Guangdong Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Center for Environmental Risk Prevention and Emergency Disposal, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China.

SO, a major component of acid mine drainage (AMD), plays an important role in study environment of AMD. We investigated the distribution and adsorption-desorption mechanisms of SO and the variation of stable isotope of sulfur (δS) values in the soil profile polluted by AMD. Results showed that the species and S values of SO differed significantly among different soil depths. In the surface soil (0-20 cm), native water-soluble SO (WSS) in the range ~85 % total SO was the dominant species. There was a peak of adsorption, which correlated significantly with amorphous oxide Fe, indicating that iron oxides and pH was fundamentally proportional to SO forms. The high concentrations of Cu and Pb also played important roles in form of SO in soil profile. Desorption kinetics of explained three SO-bound forms. The trend mean δS values of WSS and AS in soil vertical profile was very similar with increasing from surface to subsurface, and have lower δS values than those of total sulfur, indicating that mineralization of organic sulfur should produce SO that was more depleted in δS. SO desorbed and trend δS values could provide reasonable explanation for the migration of SO. In the AMD irrigation scope, the higher SO concentration was reserved by immobilized as organic sulfur, and then main approach of SO migration was desorption and organic sulfur mineralize in now stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111732DOI Listing
September 2021

Exosomal miR-193b-5p as a regulator of LPS-induced inflammation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, No. 2 Xinyang Road, Sartu District, Daqing, 163319, People's Republic of China.

Exosomes are a type of extracellular vesicle that act as shuttles, transporting certain genetic information to other cells. MiRNA cargo within exosomes can regulate gene expression at the transcriptional level. The objective of this study was to investigate the exosomal miRNAs that regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in dairy cow mammary alveolar (Mac-T) cells. We found two exosome miRNAs upregulated and five exosomal miRNAs downregulated, respectively, in the LPS-stimulated Mac-T cells. MiR-193b-5p was upregulated 6.3-fold in the LPS-stimulated cell-derived exosome. Target prediction results showed that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor delta (NFKBID), transforming growth factor-beta 1 induced transcript 1 (TGFB1I1), interleukin 22 (IL-22), TNF receptor superfamily member 11b (TNFRSF11B), and Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) might be the main target genes of miR-193b-5p. After treatment of Mac-T cells with the miR-193b-5p mimic, the phosphorylation levels of inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa Bα (IκBα) and p65 were upregulated, the level of IL-6 mRNA was upregulated, and IL-1β, TNF-α, and TGF-β mRNA levels were downregulated. After treatment of Mac-T cells with miR-193b-5p inhibitor, the phosphorylation levels of IκBα and p65 were downregulated. In summary, these findings provide strong evidence that exosomal miR-193b-5p could be a regulator of LPS-induced inflammation in Mac-T cells and reveal a new role of exosomal miRNAs in regulating dairy cow mastitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-021-00596-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Role of Lithium Doping in P2-NaNiMnO for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Chem Mater 2021 Jun 2;33(12):4445-4455. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Micron School of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725, United States.

P2-structured NaNiMnO (PNNMO) is a promising Na-ion battery cathode material, but its rapid capacity decay during cycling remains a hurdle. Li doping in layered transition-metal oxide (TMO) cathode materials is known to enhance their electrochemical properties. Nevertheless, the influence of Li at different locations in the structure has not been investigated. Here, the crystallographic role and electrochemical impact of lithium on different sites in PNNMO is investigated in Li Na NiMnO (0.00 ≤ ≤ 0.2, = 0, 0.1). Lithium occupancy on prismatic Na sites is promoted in Na-deficient (Na < 0.67) PNNMO, evidenced by and operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Li solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Partial substitution of Na with Li leads to enhanced stability and slightly increased specific capacity compared to PNNMO. In contrast, when lithium is located primarily on octahedral TM sites, capacity is increased but at the cost of stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c00569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276578PMC
June 2021

Downregulation of HIF-2α Enhances Apoptosis and Limits Invasion in Human Placental JEG-3 Trophoblast Cells.

Reprod Sci 2021 09 24;28(9):2710-2717. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Obstetrics, Qinghai University Affiliated Hospital, No. 29, Tongren Road, Chengxi District, Xining, 810000, China.

Pre-eclampsia, one of the major disorders of pregnancy, is characterized by inadequate trophoblast invasion and defective trophoblast-mediated remodeling of placental vasculature. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-2α plays a critical role in regulating cellular function of trophoblasts; however, its role in placental development and in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia remains elusive. CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Invasion assay was performed to determine the effect of HIF-2α on trophoblast function. Flow cytometry was used for detecting apoptosis and cell cycle. The mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-2α, VEGF, iNOS, and ET-1 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot techniques. The roles of HIF-2α in JEG-3 trophoblast cells were examined using siRNA technology. The presence of HIF-2α siRNA reduced the levels of cell viability after 48 h incubation, and the cell viability further reduced at 72 h. Besides, HIF-2α siRNA enhanced trophoblast apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometric measurement. Increased G1-phase and decreased S-phase cell population were induced by HIF-2α siRNA based on the determination of cell cycle distribution using propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, the invasive ability of JEG-3 trophoblasts was significantly reduced by HIF-2α siRNA. In addition, knockdown of the HIF-2α gene significantly decreased VEGF, iNOS, and ET-1 levels in JEG-3 human trophoblasts. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of the functions of HIF-2α in trophoblast biology and suggest that the downregulation of HIF-2α enhances cell apoptosis and limits trophoblast invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00581-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of suspected COVID-19 patients in the isolation ward in Guangzhou, China: a cohort study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):621

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Since there are reports of cases of 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) asymptomatic carriers in China recently and fever is one of the main symptoms, we aimed to distinguish COVID-19 cases from other febrile patients with clinical examinations in this study.

Methods: A total of 134 suspected COVID-19 patients in the isolation ward of the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University were recruited from January 23 to May 23, 2020. We analyze the pathogenic form and clinical characteristics.

Results: Among them, pathogens were identified in only 84 patients (62.7%), including 23 (17.1%) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), 30 (22.3%) with other viruses, 31 (25.0%) with other pathogens and 3 (3.5%) with mixed infections. The commonly observed symptoms of COVID-19 patients were cough, fever, fatigue, and muscle aches, which were significantly different than the symptoms of nonviral infections (P<0.05) but from those of other viral infections (P>0.05). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase and the neutrophil/lymphocyte were found significantly high in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (P<0.05). The most common manifestations of COVID-19 patients were ground-glass opacities (100%) with or without lung consolidation, however, they also often showed involvement of several lobes of both lungs (P<0.05). Due to the clear differential diagnosis, the overall antibiotic use rate was 35.8% (31/87).

Conclusions: When diagnosing COVID-19, infections with other pathogens should not be ignored. Successful pathogen identification will support accurate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-6600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106086PMC
April 2021

Improved extraction of acid-insoluble monosulfide minerals by stannous chloride reduction and its application to the separation of mono- and disulfide minerals in the presence of ferric iron.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 27;785:147367. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Wastes Pollution Control and Recycling, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Metal sulfides, which are important indicators of sulfur cycling, are usually divided into two categories according to sulfur chemical valence: (1) monosulfides (S) and (2) disulfides (S). The two sulfur species are separated and quantified by a sequential-extraction method. Specifically, monosulfides are extracted as acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) using 6 M HCl prior to the extraction of disulfides using acidic CrCl, which is defined as chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS). However, the conventional AVS procedure does not result in the quantitative extraction of S from the acid-insoluble metal monosulfide, copper sulfide (CuS). Consequently, residual sulfur in CuS (CuS-S) may be extracted as CRS resulting in the inaccurate separation of these two sulfur species. In this study, we used stannous chloride (SnCl) to improve CuS-S recovery in the AVS procedure and permit the separate extraction of sulfur from CuS and pyrite (FeS), the most abundant disulfide in nature. Our results show that the addition of SnCl increased the recovery of CuS-S as AVS from less than 36% to as high as 92% in the absence of pyrite and Fe and 89% in the presence of pyrite and Fe. In addition, based on the observed correlation between the concentration of SnCl and the dissolution of FeS, we identified the appropriate concentration of SnCl needed to avoid the dissolution of FeS in the AVS procedure. SnCl also minimized the oxidation of CuS-S by Fe released from ferric minerals during the extraction of AVS. Based on the results of a series of sequential-extraction experiments, we show that an amendment of SnCl in the AVS procedure followed by CRS permits the quantitative separation of CuS-S and FeS-S while also preventing interference by Fe. Our method will find application in research concerned with the fate of metals and the biogeochemistry of sulfur in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147367DOI Listing
September 2021

Simple and fast isolation of circulating exosomes with a chitosan modified shuttle flow microchip for breast cancer diagnosis.

Lab Chip 2021 05;21(9):1759-1770

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China and Institute for Stem Cell and Regeneration, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China and CAS Centre for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Tumor-derived exosomes have been recognized as promising biomarkers for early-stage cancer diagnosis, tumor prognosis monitoring and individual medical treatment. However, it is a huge challenge to separate exosomes from trace biological samples in clinics for disease diagnosis. Herein, we propose a simple, quick, and label-free method for isolating circulating exosomes from serum of patients. The strategy synergistically integrates chitosan electrostatic-adsorption, micro-patterned substrates, and microfluidic shuttle flow control to enable the capture/release of circulating exosomes in a simple manner. Using this microchip, we can isolate exosomes from trace samples (10 μl) with relative purity over 90% and high RNA recovery ratio over 84% within 15 minutes, which is impossible for traditional ultracentrifugation methods. We then validate the application of the microchip using 24 serum samples from clinical breast cancer and breast fibroma patients. The isolated exosomes are subjected to miRNA sequencing and RT-PCR, followed by pathway prediction analysis. The results showed that exosomes were relevant to the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells and hsa-miR-18a-3p might have the potential to become a new biomarker for distinguishing breast cancer from breast fibroma (AUC = 0.83, P value = 0.019). This established method is simple, quick and easy to operate with integration. And it may pave a new way for clinical research on exosomes and tumor relevant diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc01311kDOI Listing
May 2021

Long non‑coding RNA CASC15 facilitates esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tumorigenesis via decreasing SIM2 stability via FTO‑mediated demethylation.

Oncol Rep 2021 03 30;45(3):1059-1071. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Translational Medical Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, P.R. China.

Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progression. However, the function and mechanism of lncRNA cancer susceptibility candidate 15 (CASC15) are poorly defined. In the present study, tumor and normal adjacent tissues were collected from 45 patients with ESCC. Expression levels of CASC15, fat mass and obesity‑associated (FTO) protein and single‑minded 2 (SIM2) were examined via reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blot assays. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated via MTT, flow cytometry and caspase‑3 activity assays, respectively. Additionally, an ESCC mouse xenograft model was used to assess the function of CASC15 in vivo. The interaction between FTO and CASC15/SIM2 was analyzed via RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull‑down assays. The results revealed that CASC15 expression was elevated in ESCC tissues, and patients with ESCC exhibiting high CASC15 expression had a poor prognosis. CASC15‑knockdown inhibited ESCC cell proliferation and facilitated apoptosis. Additionally, CASC15‑knockdown decreased the growth of ESCC xenograft tumors. CASC15 decreased SIM2 stability via FTO‑mediated demethylation. Additionally, FTO loss markedly weakened CASC15‑mediated pro‑proliferative and anti‑apoptotic effects in ESCC cells. SIM2 downregulation weakened the effect of CASC15‑knockdown on cell proliferation and inhibited the increase of the apoptotic rate and caspase‑3 activity induced by CASC15 depletion in ESCC cells. In conclusion, CASC15 promoted ESCC tumorigenesis by decreasing SIM2 stability via FTO‑mediated demethylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860005PMC
March 2021

Bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory constituents from Celtis sinensis leaves.

J Food Biochem 2021 01 16;45(1):e13580. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

Ginkgo acids (GAs) in ginkgo products usually lead to allergies or liver toxicity. In this study, the GA-induced toxicity was attenuated and Con A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited by extracts of Celtis sinensis leaves (ECSL). So, the active ingredients in ECSL were studied to solve the problems caused by GAs. First, the eight components of MeOH extracts were determined by HPLC-DAD/LC-MS. Then, the 12 active ingredients were separated based on the anti-inflammatory activity. Lymphocyte conversion showed that the inhibition rates of apigenin, quercetin, and isovitexin at 100 μM on Con A-activated proliferation of T cells were up to 82.46%, 62.86% and 42.76%, respectively. The inhibition rate on the LPS-induced NO release in RAW 264.7 cells of quercetin, apigenin, isovitexin, and vitexin were exceeding 80% at 100 μM. Taken together, the material foundation for the screen of GAs toxicity-attenuated ingredients were provided here. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Ginkgo biloba extracts (EGBs) have been conducted to develop functional food which could increase blood circulation and enhance memory. Nevertheless, people in consumption of ginkgo products, often caused severe allergic reactions due to the potential allergens identified ginkgolic acids (GAs) of ginkgo products. We first find that the extracts of Celtis sinensis leaves can reduce GAs-induced damage on HepG2 liver cells. Then, the bioactive compounds in C. sinensis leaves were separated and purified based on anti-inflammatory activities against T cells. Quercetin, apigenin, and isovitexin showed well anti-inflammatory activities against Con A-activated T-lymphocytes and LPS activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, quercetin and apigenin are flavones O-glycosides which are rich in Ginkgo biloba. To solve the problems in Ginkgo biloba products caused by GAs, flavone C-glycoside (isovitexin) may be used for the further study in GAs toxicity-reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13580DOI Listing
January 2021

Local dynamic spontaneous brain activity changes in first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with major depressive disorder and their associated gene expression profiles.

Psychol Med 2020 Oct 30:1-10. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Radiology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin300052, China.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common debilitating disorder characterized by impaired spontaneous brain activity, yet little is known about its alterations in dynamic properties and the molecular mechanisms associated with these changes.

Methods: Based on the resting-state functional MRI data of 65 first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with MDD and 66 healthy controls, we compared dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo) of spontaneous brain activity between the two groups, and we investigated gene expression profiles associated with dReHo alterations in MDD by leveraging transcriptional data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas and weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD consistently showed reduced dReHo in both fusiform gyri and in the right temporal pole and hippocampus. The expression profiles of 16 gene modules were correlated with dReHo alterations in MDD. These gene modules were enriched for various biological process terms, including immune, synaptic signalling, ion channels, mitochondrial function and protein metabolism, and were preferentially expressed in different cell types.

Conclusions: Patients with MDD have reduced dReHo in brain areas associated with emotional and cognitive regulation, and these changes may be related to complex polygenetic and polypathway mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720003876DOI Listing
October 2020

Brain mRNA Expression Associated with Cortical Volume Alterations in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Cell Rep 2020 09;32(11):108137

Department of Radiology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 300052 Tianjin, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Numerous studies report abnormal cerebral cortex volume (CCV) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, genes related to CCV abnormalities in ASD remain largely unknown. Here, we identify genes associated with CCV alterations in ASD by performing spatial correlations between the gene expression of 6 donated brains and neuroimaging data from 1,404 ASD patients and 1,499 controls. Based on spatial correlations between gene expression and CCV differences from two independent meta-analyses and between gene expression and individual CCV distributions of 404 patients and 496 controls, we identify 417 genes associated with both CCV differences and individual CCV distributions. These genes are enriched for genetic association signals and genes downregulated in the ASD post-mortem brain. The expression patterns of these genes are correlated with brain activation patterns of language-related neural processes frequently impaired in ASD. These findings highlight a model whereby genetic risk impacts gene expression (downregulated), which leads to CCV alterations in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108137DOI Listing
September 2020

The Effect of Fibers With Different Degrees of Polymerization on Human Gut Bacteria.

Front Microbiol 2020 15;11:819. Epub 2020 May 15.

Laboratory of Biomanufacturing and Food Engineering, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Human gut bacteria contribute significantly to human health and several studies have evaluated the effects of dietary fibers on human gut bacterial ecology. However, the relationship between different degrees of fiber polymerization and human gut bacteria is unknown. Here, we analyzed three fiber substrates with different degrees of polymerization, namely carboxymethylcellulose, β-glucans, and galactooligosaccharides. To probe the influence of the degree of polymerization of the fiber on human gut bacteria, we measured the pH, air pressure, and short-chain fatty acid content of fecal fermentation supplemented with these fiber substrates, and sequenced the 16S ribosomal RNA genes of the microbial community in the fiber-treated fermentations. The butyric acid concentration was shown to decline with decreasing degree of polymerization of the fiber. Illumina Miseq sequencing indicated that the degree of polymerization might have an influence on human gut microbial diversity and abundance. Principal coordinate analysis unveiled a relationship between the degree of fiber polymerization and the gut bacterial community. Specific microbiota operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the genera , and were proportional to the degree of fiber significantly, whereas OTUs within the genera , , and were inversely correlated with the degree of polymerization. Correlation analysis between the fiber degree of polymerization and gut bacteria may demonstrate the effect of fibers on gut microbiota, and subsequently, on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242623PMC
May 2020

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Astragalin and Chlorogenic Acid on -Induced Inflammation of Sheep Endometrial Epithelium Cells.

Front Vet Sci 2020 30;7:201. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Endometritis is one of the main diseases which harm sheep husbandry. Astragalin and chlorogenic acid (CGA) are common active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with immunoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, sheep endometrial epithelium cells (SEECs) were successfully purified and identified, and the inflammation model of SEECs induced by was successfully established. To explore the effect of astragalin and CGA on the inflammation induced by and its potential mechanism, six groups were set up, namely, group C, M, astragalin, CGA, BAY, and STR. Cells in group C were incubated with DMEM/F12 for 6 h, while cells in group M, astragalin, CGA, BAY, and STR were incubated with DMEM/F12, astragalin, CGA, BAY, and STR for 3 h, respectively, followed by infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 per cell for 3 h. Subsequently, the cells and the supernatant were collected to detect the expression of genes in the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway by ELISA, qPCR, and western blot. The results showed that could induce inflammation of SEECs , while astragalin and CGA could alleviate the inflammatory response induced by via inhibiting the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, which provides a theoretical and experimental foundation for preventing sheep endometritis clinically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205036PMC
April 2020

Arsenic behavior during gallic acid-induced redox transformation of jarosite under acidic conditions.

Chemosphere 2020 Sep 3;255:126938. Epub 2020 May 3.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Jarosite is an important scavenger for arsenic (As) due to its strong adsorption capacity and ability to co-precipitate metal(loid)s in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments. When subjected to natural organic matter (NOM), metastable jarosite may undergo dissolution and transformation, affecting the mobility behavior of As. Therefore, the present study systematically explored the dissolution and transformation of jarosite, and the consequent redistribution of coprecipitated As(V) under anoxic condition in the presence of a common phenolic acid-gallic acid (GA). The results suggested that As(V) incorporating into the jarosite structure stabilized the mineral and inhibited the dissolution process. Jarosite persisted as the dominant mineral phase at pH 2.5 up to 60 d, though a large amount of structural Fe(III) was reduced by GA. However, at pH 5.5, jarosite mainly transformed to ferrohexahydrite (FeSO·6HO) with GA addition, while the principal end-product was goethite in GA-free system. The dissolution process enhanced As(V) mobilization into aqueous and surface-complexed phase at pH 2.5, while co-precipitated fraction of As(V) remained dominant under pH 5.5 condition. Result of XPS indicated that no reduction of As(V) occurred during the interaction between GA and As(V)-bearing jarosite, which would limit the toxicity to the environment. The reductive process involved that GA promoted the dissolution of jarosite via the synergistic effect of ligand and reduction, following by GA and release As(V) competing for active sites on mineral surface. The findings demonstrated that phenolic groups in NOM can exert great influence on the stability of jarosite and partitioning behavior of As(V).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126938DOI Listing
September 2020

Acidity and metallic elements release from AMD-affected river sediments: Effect of AMD standstill and dilution.

Environ Res 2020 07 9;186:109490. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

The Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

In acid mine drainage (AMD) polluted rivers, considerable fraction of potential toxic elements are temporarily sequestered by sediments. There are two main potential environmental hazards associated with the sediments, acidity liberation and re-mobilization of metallic elements, during environmental conditions change. The effects of AMD standstill and water dilution on metallic elements migration were assessed in an AMD standstill test and a dialysis experiment. Maintaining AMD standstill, often occurring in AMD damming process, could induce the occurrence of iron secondary minerals precipitation along with attenuation of dissolved elements and a decrease in water pH value. Both field sediments and lab precipitates were confirmed as being dominant with schwertmannite which was the most important source and sink for acidity and metallic elements. The mechanism of cation heavy metals scavenging implied by FTIR results mostly depended on the exchanging of H from surface hydroxyl groups (-OH) in schwertmannite-rich sediments. For arsenic oxyanion, its adsorption included surface complexation with iron hydroxyl groups at the mineral surface, as well as anion exchange of SO present in the structure. The quantities of acidity release differed significantly from 20 to 3714 mol H/t depending on the iron hydroxyl minerals type and their contents in the corresponding sediments in 35 d dialysis, with the release rate well fitted by the second order model. Slight degree of phase transformation in schwertmannite dominant sediment had resulted in a high risk of metallic element release during the 35 d dilution duration. The significant risk of metallic elements release was ranked in the order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Pb, and with more than 89% of Cd released from FS6 and 82% from LPS1. Relatively, Cu and As in sediments were much more stable. Overall, damming was an effective and low cost pretreatment strategy for AMD pollution control. Knowledge of the characteristics of iron secondary minerals in river sediments is essential premise for both comprehensive assessment of site contamination status and effective remediation strategy decision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109490DOI Listing
July 2020

HBX-induced miR-5188 impairs FOXO1 to stimulate β-catenin nuclear translocation and promotes tumor stemness in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Theranostics 2019 12;9(25):7583-7598. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University; Laboratory of Protein Modification and Degradation, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the key factor in determining cancer recurrence, metastasis, chemoresistance and patient prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The role of miR-5188 in cancer stemness has never been documented. In this study, we investigated the clinical and biological roles of miR-5188 in HCC. MiRNA expression in HCC was analyzed by bioinformatics analysis and hybridization. The biological effect of miR-5188 was demonstrated in both and studies through the ectopic expression of miR-5188. The target gene and molecular pathway of miR-5188 were characterized using bioinformatics tools, dual-luciferase reporter assays, gene knockdown, and rescue experiments. MiR-5188 was shown to be upregulated and confer poor prognosis in HCC patient data from TCGA database. MiR-5188 was subsequently identified as a significant inducer of cancer stemness that promotes HCC pathogenesis. Specifically, the targeting of miR-5188 by its antagomir markedly prolonged the survival time of HCC-bearing mice and improved HCC cell chemosensitivity . Mechanistic analysis indicated that miR-5188 directly targets FOXO1, which interacts with β-catenin in the cytoplasm to reduce the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and promotes the activation of Wnt signaling and downstream tumor stemness, EMT, and c-Jun. Moreover, c-Jun transcriptionally activates miR-5188 expression, forming a positive feedback loop. Interestingly, the miR-5188-FOXO1/β-catenin-c-Jun feedback loop was induced by hepatitis X protein (HBX) through Wnt signaling and participated in the HBX-induced pathogenesis of HCC. Finally, analyses of transcriptomics data and our clinical data supported the significance of the abnormal expression of the miR-5188 pathway in HCC pathogenesis. These findings present the inhibition of miR-5188 as a novel strategy for the efficient elimination of CSCs to prevent tumor metastasis, recurrence and chemoresistance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Our study highlights the importance of miR-5188 as a tumor stemness inducer that acts as a potential target for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.37717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831466PMC
September 2020

Cinobufotalin powerfully reversed EBV-miR-BART22-induced cisplatin resistance via stimulating MAP2K4 to antagonize non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA/glycogen synthase 3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

EBioMedicine 2019 Oct 5;48:386-404. Epub 2019 Oct 5.

Cancer Center, Integrated Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related tumor. The role of EBV-encoding miR-BART22 is still unclear in NPC. This study aimed to identify the detailed mechanisms by which EBV-miR-BART22 functions as a tumor-promoting factor and evaluate the action of cinobufotalin in treating EBV-miR-BART22-overexpressing NPC cells.

Methods: Using real-time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and In situ hybridization, we detected the expression of miR-BART22 and MAP2K4 in tissues and cells, as well as evaluated their clinical relevance in NPC patients. The effects of miR-BART22 on cell metastasis, stemness and DDP chemoresistance were examined by sphere formation assay, side population analysis, transwell, boyden, in vivo xenograft tumor mouse model et al. Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, luciferase reporter assay, ChIP, EMSA and Co-IP assay et al. were performed to explore the detailed molecular mechanism of EBV-miR-BART22 in NPC. Finally, we estimated the effects and molecular basis of Cinobufotalin on EBV-miR-BART22-overexpressing NPC cells in vitro and in vivo assays.

Findings: We observed that EBV-miR-BART22 not only promoted tumor stemness and metastasis, but also enhanced the resistance to Cisplatin (DDP) in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic analysis indicated that EBV-miR-BART22 directly targeted the MAP2K4 and upregulated non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYH9) expression by PI3K/AKT/c-Jun-induced transcription. Further, MYH9 interacted with glycogen synthase 3β(GSK3β) protein and induced its ubiquitin degradation by activating PI3K/AKT/c-Jun-induced ubiquitin transcription and the latter combined with increased TRAF6 E3 ligase, which further bound to GSK3β protein. Reductions in the GSK3β protein thus promoted β-catenin expression and nuclear translocation, which induced tumor stemness and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signals. Furthermore, we observed that cinobufotalin, a new chemically synthesized compound, significantly suppressed EBV-miR-BART22-induced DDP chemoresistance by upregulating MAP2K4 to suppress MYH9/GSK3β/β-catenin and its downstream tumor stemness and EMT signals in NPC. Finally, clinical data revealed that increased miR-BART22 and reduced MAP2K4 expression caused the poor prognoses of NPC patients.

Interpretation: Our study provides a novel mechanism that cinobufotalin reversed the DDP chemoresistance and EMT induced by EBV-miR-BART22 in NPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6838365PMC
October 2019

Cytotoxicity of Cichorium intybus L. metabolites (Review).

Oncol Rep 2019 Dec 24;42(6):2196-2212. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Laboratory of Biomanufacturing and Food Engineering, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, P.R. China.

Cichorium intybus L. (Chicory) is a widely distributed, edible, perennial, herbaceous member of the Asteraceae family. Besides its use in modern Chinese herbal medicine, its ethnomedicinal use is evident in the text from ancient Greece, Egypt and China. It is also used as a food and coffee substitute, which is mainly responsible for its extensive domestication. In recent decades, cytotoxic studies of C. intybus extracts have shown its antitumor potential. These studies also identified metabolite constituents including guaianolides, 6‑methoxyflavone, eudesmanolides, germacranolides, polyacetylene, sterol, anthocyanin, delphinidin, 3,4‑dihydroxyphenethyl and other novel compounds. Many of these phytometabolites have shown positive cytotoxic activities in vitro, and antitumor action in vivo and in clinical trials, demonstrating the potential of C. intybus metabolites as antitumor drugs. Structural activity relationship studies have further confirmed these bioactivities. In this review, we focused on the phytochemicals of C. intybus with reported cytotoxicity and potential antitumor properties. We also discuss their specificity towards tumor cells, structural activity relationship, the involved signaling pathways and molecular mechanism, with the expectation of the future development of efficient and targeted antitumor therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2019.7336DOI Listing
December 2019

Toll-like receptors and high mobility group box 1 in granulosa cells during bovine follicle maturation.

J Cell Physiol 2020 04 23;235(4):3447-3462. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Engineering & Technology Research Center of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are present in the ovaries and reproductive tract of various mammals. The biological function of TLR during ovulation is one of the main contents in the research of reproductive immunology. In this study, we found that messenger RNA levels of TLR1-TLR10 in granulosa cells were different, and TLRs and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in granulosa cells of large follicles were significantly higher than those of small and middle follicles. Coimmunoprecipitation results showed that HMGB1 interacts with TLR2 in granulosa cells, especially large follicles. The result of immunohistochemistry showed that TLRs and HMGB1 were present in granulosa cell layer of ovarian follicles. We also found 25 mIU/ml follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) significantly upregulated the expression of TLRs and HMGB1. These results suggest that TLR2/4 and HMGB1 in granulosa cells may be involved in the ovarian innate immune and ovarian follicular maturation, regulated by FSH. However, further research of the function and mechanisms of TLRs and HMGB1 in granulosa cells are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29234DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of β-glucosidase and α-rhamnosidase on the Contents of Flavonoids, Ginkgolides, and Aroma Components in Ginkgo Tea Drink.

Molecules 2019 May 25;24(10). Epub 2019 May 25.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

Ginkgo tea is a kind of health food produced from leaves. The market of Ginkgo tea encountered many difficulties because of its bad palatability and vague function statement. In this study, two kinds of glycosidase were used to improve the flavor of Ginkgo tea, and three kinds of bioactivities were selected to investigate the health care function of the tea infusion. The aroma components extracted by headspace absorb (HSA) method during the making of Ginkgo tea were analyzed by GC-MS. The flavonoids and ginkgolides released into the tea infusion were studied by HPLC. A combination of β-glucosidase (β-G) and α-rhamnosidase (α-R) was applied during the making of the tea. The contents of characteristic aroma components and the release of total flavonoids and ginkgolides were increased significantly by adding β-G and α-R. The composition of flavone glycosides was changed greatly. The free radical scavenging, inhibition of inflammatory cell activation, and tumor cytotoxicity activities of the tea were demonstrably improved. According to the release of active components, Ginkgo tea can be brewed repeatedly for at least three times. The enzymes used here show potential application prospects in the making of Ginkgo tea or tea drink to get higher contents of flavonoids, ginkgolides, and aroma components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24102009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572456PMC
May 2019

Dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction by native microbial communities using lactate and citrate as carbon sources and electron donors.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jun 9;174:524-531. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Hanshan Normal University, Chaozhou 521041, China. Electronic address:

The bacterial (dissimilatory) iron and sulfate reduction (BIR and BSR) are intimately linked to the biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe, and S in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments. This study examined the response of native microbial communities to the reduction of iron and sulfate in bench experimental systems. Results showed that the reduction of ferric iron and sulfate took place when the electron acceptors coexist. Existence of Fe(III) can postpone the reduction of sulfate, but can enhance the reduction rate. Cultures grown in the presence of 10 mM iron can reach the final level of sulfate bio-reduction rate (~100%) after 35 days incubation. 16 S rDNA -based microbial community analysis revealed that the three genera Anaeromusa, Acinetobacter and Bacteroides were dominated in the ferric-reducing conditions. SRB (Desulfobulbus, Desulfosporosinus and Desulfovibrio) were dominated in the sulfate reduction process. Results in this study highlighted the highly coupled nature of C, Fe, and S biogeochemical cycles in AMD and provided insights into the potential of environmental remediation by native microbial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.03.005DOI Listing
June 2019

Effect of phosphate on amorphous iron mineral generation and arsenic behavior in paddy soils.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 6;657:644-656. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; The Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As) contamination was detected in paddy soils of Guangdong, China due to mining and weathering processes. Furthermore, As may be released into the soil and irrigation water during the application of phosphate (P). In this study, As behavior was assessed in three paddy soils (S6, S8 and TR) along the Hengshi river using batch and circular flow experiments with different phosphate application doses (0, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 mg/L). The results indicate that pH variation (3-7) and higher phosphate concentrations in solution, can induce the release of As, with total As release ranked in the order: S6 > S8 > TR. In addition, As was the main state affected by phosphate in the circular soil solution. In particular, after 7 days of P application, the highest As concentration in S6, S8 and TR soil solutions reached 2298.4, 829.9 and 153.9 μg/L respectively, with the As state accounting for 93%, 97% and 18% of As. Some minerals were found to be generated in the middle container, most of which were amorphous iron or aluminum oxides and hydroxides, as confirmed by XRD. With mineral generation, the As concentration in soil solutions decreased to 314.2, 98.1 and 34.1 μg/L. The SEM results indicate that the minerals became more fine (<100 nm) when more P was applied. In addition, XPS, SEM-eds and elemental analysis results also revealed that As distribution was closely associated with iron minerals. Along with soil depth, P influenced the state and distribution of iron minerals and As in the topsoil, while phosphate increased the available As and reduced the amorphous iron mineral content in the soil. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate As behavior in paddy soils, to monitor and avoid potential food security risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.063DOI Listing
March 2019

Identifying Active Sites for Parasitic Reactions at the Cathode-Electrolyte Interface.

J Phys Chem Lett 2019 Feb 25;10(3):589-594. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division , Argonne National Laboratory , 9700 South Cass Avenue , Lemont , Illinois 60439 , United States.

Nickel-rich transition metal oxides are the most promising high-voltage and high-capacity cathode materials for high-energy-density lithium batteries. Improving the chemical/electrochemical stability of the cathode-electrolyte interface has been the major technical focus to enable this class of cathode materials. In this work, LiCoO is adopted as the model cathode material to investigate the active sites for parasitic reactions between the delithiated cathode and the nonaqueous electrolyte. Both ab initio calculations and experimental results clearly show that the partially coordinated transition metal atoms at the surface are responsible for the parasitic reactions at the cathode-electrolyte interface. This finding lays out fundamental support for rational interfacial engineering to further improve the life and safety characteristics of nickel-rich cathode materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b03592DOI Listing
February 2019

Amorphous phosphorus-doped MoS catalyst for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction.

Nanotechnology 2019 May 18;30(20):205401. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, People's Republic of China. Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Non-ferrous Materials Science and Engineering, Changsha 410083, People's Republic of China.

Splitting water is an important method for producing clean and sustainable hydrogen to replace finite fossil fuels in future energy systems. MoS is reported as a promising catalyst without noble metallic elements to accelerate the rate of the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction. However, there is a real need and strong demand for further improvement of the MoS-based catalyst. In the present study, a novel amorphous phosphorus-doped MoS nanocomposite (P-MoS) is prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Compared with crystalline molybdenum disulfide, the amorphous P-doped MoS catalyst exhibits much better activity with a smaller Tafel slope of 39 mV dec. Moreover, good stability is also demonstrated over the P-MoS catalyst in acidic electrolyte. This highly active amorphous P-doped MoS catalyst is a promising candidate to facilitate the development of economical hydrogen production systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aafff2DOI Listing
May 2019

Methods for operando coherent X-ray diffraction of battery materials at the Advanced Photon Source.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2019 Jan 1;26(Pt 1):220-229. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439, USA.

Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging has become valuable for visualization of the structural, morphological and strain evolution of crystals in operando electrode materials. As the electrode material particles (either in a single-crystal form or an aggregation form of single crystals) are evenly dispersed and randomly oriented in the electrode laminate, the submicrometer-sized coherentX-ray beam can be used to probe the local properties of electrode material crystals using two approaches. Coherent multi-crystal diffraction provides collective structural information of phase transitions in tens of crystals simultaneously as well as the individual behavior from single crystals, which are oriented at the Bragg condition in the X-ray illumination volume. Bragg coherent diffractive imaging enables one to monitor the evolution of the morphology and strain in individual crystals. This work explores and highlights the Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction measurements of battery electrode materials in operando conditions at the 34-ID-C beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The experiment is demonstrated with NaNiFeMnO, a sodium-ion cathode material loaded in a half cell. The paper will discuss, in detail, the beamline setup, sample mounting and handling, alignment strategies and the data acquisition protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577518016697DOI Listing
January 2019

Effects of surfactant on the degradation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by nanoscale Ag/Fe particles: Kinetics, mechanisms and intermediates.

Environ Pollut 2019 Feb 23;245:780-788. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Surfactants are known to enhance the degradation of halogenated organics by nanoscale zerovalent iron (n-ZVI) or n-ZVI-based bimetallic particles, but the mechanism of the promotion is not well understood. In this study, we used nanoscale Ag/Fe particles (n-Ag/Fe) to degrade 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in different surfactant solutions. The results show that the nonionic surfactant TX-100 had the best promoting effect, which might be attributed to the decrease in particle agglomeration and improvement of mass transfer efficiency after the adsorption of TX-100 on n-Ag/Fe. The distribution analysis of BDE-47 in solid and liquid phases indicates that when the concentration of TX-100 in aqueous solution was above critical micelle concentration, BDE-47 started to dissolve in the liquid phase. Thus, TX-100 micelles can enhance the mass transfer efficiency of BDE-47. However, a too high concentration of TX-100 (above 1.0 mM) would influence the promotion effect of BDE-47 degration, which might be attributed to the excessive and thicker micelles of TX-100 hindering the contact between BDE-47 and n-Ag/Fe. We also studied the degradation pathway of BDE-47 and its products, and found that surfactants did not change the degradation pathway of BDE-47.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.11.064DOI Listing
February 2019

Citrus sinensis MYB transcription factors CsMYB330 and CsMYB308 regulate fruit juice sac lignification through fine-tuning expression of the Cs4CL1 gene.

Plant Sci 2018 Dec 10;277:334-343. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Key Laboratory of Agro-products Quality and Safety Control in Storage and Transport Process, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs/Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing 100193, China; Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment on Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Lignin is one of the most important components of the plant cell wall, and the expression and transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis-related genes have been studied widely in Arabidopsis and other plants. Citrus fruit juice sacs often undergo lignification, particularly during fruit ripening and storage periods; however, the underlying genetic mechanisms have been little investigated. In this study, we isolated and identified CsMYB330 and CsMYB308 transcription factors, and found that their expression levels are significantly altered during the lignification of citrus fruit juice sacs. We found that CsMYB330 and CsMYB308 can recognize and bind AC elements in the Cs4CL1 promoter and finely regulate expression of the Cs4CL1 gene. In this regulatory process, CsMYB330 was identified as a transcriptional activator, whereas CsMYB308 appears to be a transcriptional repressor. In addition, using a transient assay, we demonstrated that expression of the Cs4CL1 gene is significantly altered in fruit juice sacs overexpressing these two transcription factors. These results indicate that the transcription factors CsMYB330 and CsMYB308 play important roles in the lignification of citrus fruit juice sacs and provide novel insights into the transcriptional regulation associated with fruit juice sac lignification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2018.10.006DOI Listing
December 2018

4-Octyl Itaconate Activates Nrf2 Signaling to Inhibit Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 22;51(2):979-990. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Nephrology, Kidney and Urology Center, the Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen,

Background/aims: Increased production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, plays an essential pathogenic role in the progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have characterized itaconate as a novel and potent nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activator that activates Nrf2 signaling by alkylating cysteine residues on Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1).

Methods: THP-1 human macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients were treated with 4-octyl itaconate (OI). Nrf2 signaling activation was tested by qPCR assay and western blotting. mRNA expression and the production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines were tested by qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was tested by the p65 DNA-binding assay.

Results: We demonstrated that OI, the cell-permeable derivative of itaconate, induced Keap1-Nrf2 dissociation, Nrf2 protein accumulation, and nuclear translocation, which enabled the transcription and expression of multiple Nrf2-dependentantioxidant enzymes (heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, and glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit) in THP-1 human macrophages. OI also induced significant Nrf2 activation in SLE patient-derived PBMCs. OI pretreatment inhibited mRNA expression and the production of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in SLE patient-derived PBMCs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated THP-1 cells. OI potently inhibited NF-κB activation in SLE patient-derived PBMCs and LPS-activated THP-1 cells. Importantly, Nrf2 silencing (by targeted short hairpin RNA) or knockout (by CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing method) almost abolished OI-induced anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in SLE patient-derived PBMCs and LPS-activated THP-1 cells.

Conclusion: OI activates Nrf2 signaling to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages and SLE patient-derived PBMCs. OI and itaconate could have important therapeutic value for the treatment of SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495400DOI Listing
December 2018
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