Publications by authors named "Yanru Cui"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reciprocal adaptation of rice and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae: cross-species two-dimensional GWAS reveals the underlying genetics.

Plant Cell 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute of Crop Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 12 South Zhong-Guan-Cun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.

A one-/two-dimensional genome-wide association study (GWAS) strategy was adopted to investigate the genetic systems underlying the reciprocal adaptation of rice (Oryza sativa) and its bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) using the whole-genome sequencing and large-scale phenotyping data of 701 rice accessions and 23 diverse Xoo strains. Forty-seven Xoo virulence-related genes and 318 rice quantitative resistance genes (QR-genes) mainly located in 41 genomic regions, and genome-wide interactions between the detected virulence-related genes and QR-genes were identified, including well-known resistance genes/virulence genes plus many previously uncharacterized ones. The relationship between rice and Xoo was characterized by strong differentiation among Xoo races corresponding to the subspecific differentiation of rice, by strong shifts towards increased resistance/virulence of rice/Xoo populations and by rich genetic diversity at the detected rice QR-genes and Xoo virulence genes, and by genome-wide interactions between many rice QR-genes and Xoo virulence genes in a multiple-to-multiple manner, presumably resulting either from direct protein-protein interactions or from genetic epistasis. The observed complex genetic interaction system between rice and Xoo likely exists in other crop-pathogen systems that would maintain high levels of diversity at their QR-loci/virulence-loci, resulting in dynamic coevolutionary consequences during their reciprocal adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab146DOI Listing
June 2021

Boosting predictabilities of agronomic traits in rice using bivariate genomic selection.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May;22(3)

University of California, Riverside, USA.

The multivariate genomic selection (GS) models have not been adequately studied and their potential remains unclear. In this study, we developed a highly efficient bivariate (2D) GS method and demonstrated its significant advantages over the univariate (1D) rival methods using a rice dataset, where four traditional traits (i.e. yield, 1000-grain weight, grain number and tiller number) as well as 1000 metabolomic traits were analyzed. The novelty of the method is the incorporation of the HAT methodology in the 2D BLUP GS model such that the computational efficiency has been dramatically increased by avoiding the conventional cross-validation. The results indicated that (1) the 2D BLUP-HAT GS analysis generally produces higher predictabilities for two traits than those achieved by the analysis of individual traits using 1D GS model, and (2) selected metabolites may be utilized as ancillary traits in the new 2D BLUP-HAT GS method to further boost the predictability of traditional traits, especially for agronomically important traits with low 1D predictabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbaa103DOI Listing
May 2021

Tissue-specific expression of GhnsLTPs identified via GWAS sophisticatedly coordinates disease- and insect-resistance by regulating metabolic flux redirection in cotton.

Plant J 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of North China Crop Improvement and Regulation, North China Key Laboratory for Crop Germplasm Resources of Education Ministry, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071001, China.

Cotton is constantly attacked by pathogens and insects. The most efficient control strategy is to develop resistant varieties using broad-spectrum gene resources. Several resistance loci harboured by elite varieties have been reported through genome-wide association study. However, the key genes and/or loci have not been functionally identified until now. In this study, we identified a locus significantly associated with Verticillium wilt (VW) resistance, and within a 145.5 kb linkage disequilibrium (LD), two nonspecific lipid transfer protein genes (named GhnsLTPsA10) were highly expressed under Verticillium pathogen stress. Expression of GhnsLTPsA10 significantly increased in roots against Verticillium dahliae stress but significantly decreased in leaves under insect attack. Furthermore, GhnsLTPsA10 played antagonistic roles in positively regulating VW and Fusarium wilt resistance and negatively mediating aphid and bollworm resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and VIGS cotton. By combining transcriptomic, histological, and physiological analyses, we determined that GhnsLTPsA10 mediated phenylpropanoid metabolism, which further affected the balance of its downstream metabolic flux of flavonoid and lignin biosynthesis. The divergent expression of GhnsLTPsA10 in roots and leaves coordinated resistance of cotton against fungal pathogens and insects via the redirection of metabolic flux. In addition, GhnsLTPsA10 contributed to ROS accumulation. Therefore, in this study, we elucidated the novel function of GhnsLTP and the molecular association between disease resistance and insect resistance, balanced by GhnsLTPsA10. This broadens our knowledge of the biological function of GhnsLTPsA10 in crops and provides a useful locus for genetic improvement of cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15349DOI Listing
May 2021

The genetic variability, phylogeny and functional significance of E6, E7 and LCR in human papillomavirus type 52 isolates in Sichuan, China.

Virol J 2021 May 3;18(1):94. Epub 2021 May 3.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Variations in human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 have been shown to be closely related to the persistence of the virus and the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Long control region (LCR) of HPV has been shown multiple functions on regulating viral transcription. In recent years, there have been reports on E6/E7/LCR of HPV-16 and HPV-58, but there are few studies on HPV-52, especially for LCR. In this study, we focused on gene polymorphism of the HPV-52 E6/E7/LCR sequences, assessed the effects of variations on the immune recognition of viral E6 and E7 antigens, predicted the effect of LCR variations on transcription factor binding sites and provided more basic date for further study of E6/E7/LCR in Chengdu, China.

Methods: LCR/E6/E7 of the HPV-52 were amplified and sequenced to do polymorphic and phylogenetic analysis. Sequences were aligned with the reference sequence by MEGA 7.0 to identify SNP. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed by MEGA 7.0, followed by the secondary structure prediction of the related proteins using PSIPRED 4.0. The selection pressure of E6 and E7 coding regions were estimated by Bayes empirical Bayes analysis of PAML 4.9. The HLA class-I and II binding peptides were predicted by the Immune Epitope Database server. The B cell epitopes were predicted by ABCpred server. Transcription factor binding sites in LCR were predicted by JASPAR database.

Results: 50 SNP sites (6 in E6, 10 in E7, 34 in LCR) were found. From the most variable to the least variable, the nucleotide variations were LCR > E7 > E6. Two deletions were found between the nucleotide sites 7387-7391 (TTATG) and 7698-7700 (CTT) in all samples. A deletion was found between the nucleotide sites 7287-7288 (TG) in 97.56% (40/41) of the samples. The combinations of all the SNP sites and deletions resulted in 12 unique sequences. As shown in the neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree, except for one belonging to sub-lineage C2, others sequences clustered into sub-lineage B2. No positive selection was observed in E6 and E7. 8 non-synonymous amino acid substitutions (including E3Q and K93R in the E6, and T37I, S52D, Y59D, H61Y, D64N and L99R in the E7) were potential affecting multiple putative epitopes for both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and B-cells. A7168G was the most variable site (100%) and the binding sites for transcription factor VAX1 in LCR. In addition, the prediction results showed that LCR had the high probability binding sites for transcription factors SOX9, FOS, RAX, HOXA5, VAX1 and SRY.

Conclusion: This study provides basic data for understanding the relation among E6/E7/LCR mutations, lineages and carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it provides an insight into the intrinsic geographical relatedness and biological differences of the HPV-52 variants, and contributes to further research on the HPV-52 therapeutic vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01565-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091156PMC
May 2021

QTL Mapping and Favorable Allele Mining of Nitrogen Deficiency Tolerance Using an Interconnected Breeding Population in Rice.

Front Genet 2021 6;12:616428. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Crop Sciences, National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for rice growth and development. Breeding of nitrogen deficiency tolerance (NDT) variety is considered to be the most economic measure to solve the constrain of low nitrogen stress on grain yield in rice. An interconnected breeding (IB) population of 497 lines developed using Huanghuazhan (HHZ) as the recurrent parent and eight elite lines as the donor parents were tested for five traits including grain yield, biomass, harvest index, thousand grain weight, and spikelet fertility under two nitrogen treatments in three growing seasons. Association analysis using 7,388 bins generated by sequencing identified a total of 14, 14, and 12 QTLs for the five traits under low nitrogen (LN), normal nitrogen (NN), and LN/NN conditions, respectively, across three seasons. Favorable alleles were dissected for the 40 QTLs at the 10 NDT regions, and OM1723 was considered as the most important parent with the highest frequency of favorable alleles contributing to NDT-related traits. Six superior lines all showed significantly higher GY in LN environments and similar GY under NN environments except for H10. Substitution mapping using near-isogenic introgression lines delimited the , which was identified on chromosome 2 under LN, NN, and LN/NN conditions into two QTLs, which were located in the two regions of about 200 and 350 kb with different favorable alleles. The bins 16, 1301, 1465, 1486, 3464, and 6249 harbored the QTLs for NDT detected in this study, and the QTLs/genes previously identified for NDT or nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) could be used for enhancing NDT and NUE by marker-assisted selection (MAS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.616428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056011PMC
April 2021

Genetic variability of human papillomavirus type 39 based on E6, E7 and L1 genes in Southwest China.

Virol J 2021 Apr 8;18(1):72. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Human papillomavirus type 39 associated with genital intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancers, has a high prevalence in Southwest China. HPV E6, E7 are two main papillomavirus oncoproteins, closely relate to the function of HPV immortalization, cell transformation, and carcinogenesis. L1 is the major capsid protein, can reflect the replication status of the virus in cells and the progression of cervical lesions. The purpose of this study is to reveal the prevalence of HPV 39 and the genetic polymorphisms of HPV39 based on E6, E7 and L1 gene in southwest China.

Methods: Cell samples were collected by cervical scraped for HPV detecting and typing, and HPV39 positive samples were selected out. Important E6, E7 and L1 genes of HPV39 were sequenced and analyzed for the study of HPV39 genetic polymorphisms. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Maximum-likelihood and Kimura 2-parameters methods in Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. The selection pressures of E6, E7 and L1 genes were estimated by Datamonkey web server. The secondary and three-dimensional structure of HPV39 E6, E7 proteins were created by sopma server and SWISS-MODEL software.

Results: 344 HPV39 positive samples were selected from 5718 HPV positive cell samples. Among HPV39 E6-E7 sequences, 20 single nucleotide mutations were detected, including 10 non-synonymous and 10 synonymous mutations; 26 single nucleotide mutations were detected in HPV39 L1 sequences, including 7 non-synonymous and 19 synonymous mutations respectively. 11 novel variants of HPV39 E6-E7 (5 in E6 and 6 in E7) and 14 novel variants of HPV39 L1 were identified in this study. A-branch was the most frequent HPV39 lineage in southwest China during our investigation. Selective pressure analysis showed that codon sites 26, 87, 151 in E6 and 75, 180, 222, 272, 284, 346, 356 in L1 were positively selected sites, as well as codon sites 45, 138, 309, 381 were negative selection sites in L1 gene, E7 has neither positive selection sites nor negative selection sites. A certain degree of secondary and three-dimensional structure dislocation was existed due to the non-synonymous mutations.

Conclusions: Amino acid substitution affected the secondary and three-dimensional structure of HPV39, and resulting in the differences of carcinogenic potential and biological functions as well as the immune response due to the antigen epitopes difference, the antigen epitopes with stronger adaptability in Southwest will be screened out based on the above research results for the later vaccine development. And gene polymorphism of HPV39 in Southwest China may improve the effectiveness of clinical test and vaccine design, specifically for women in Southwest China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01528-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027298PMC
April 2021

The landscape of gene-CDS-haplotype diversity in rice: Properties, population organization, footprints of domestication and breeding, and implications for genetic improvement.

Mol Plant 2021 May 10;14(5):787-804. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China; College of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui, 230036, China; Shenzhen Branch, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518120, China. Electronic address:

Polymorphisms within gene coding regions represent the most important part of the overall genetic diversity of rice. We characterized the gene-coding sequence-haplotype (gcHap) diversity of 45 963 rice genes in 3010 rice accessions. With an average of 226 ± 390 gcHaps per gene in rice populations, rice genes could be classified into three main categories: 12 865 conserved genes, 10 254 subspecific differentiating genes, and 22 844 remaining genes. We found that 39 218 rice genes carry >255 179 major gcHaps of potential functional importance. Most (87.5%) of the detected gcHaps were specific to subspecies or populations. The inferred proto-ancestors of local landrace populations reconstructed from conserved predominant (ancient) gcHaps correlated strongly with wild rice accessions from the same geographic regions, supporting a multiorigin (domestication) model of Oryza sativa. Past breeding efforts generally increased the gcHap diversity of modern varieties and caused significant frequency shifts in predominant gcHaps of 14 266 genes due to independent selection in the two subspecies. Low frequencies of "favorable" gcHaps at most known genes related to rice yield in modern varieties suggest huge potential for rice improvement by mining and pyramiding of favorable gcHaps. The gcHap data were demonstrated to have greater power than SNPs for the detection of causal genes that affect complex traits. The rice gcHap diversity dataset generated in this study would facilitate rice basic research and improvement in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2021.02.003DOI Listing
May 2021

Simple and Efficient Detection Approach of Quercetin from Biological Matrix by Novel Surface Imprinted Polymer Based Magnetic Halloysite Nanotubes Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method.

J Chromatogr Sci 2021 Jun;59(7):681-695

Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Sciences, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjia Alley, Nanjing 210009, China.

Molecular imprinted polymers coated magnetic halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs-MIPs) were prepared through sol-gel method by using quercetin (Que), APTES and TEOS as template, monomer and cross-linker agent, respectively. The synthesized MHNTs-MIPs were characterized by fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, XRD and vibrating sample magnetometer. Various parameters influencing the binding capacity of the MHNTs-MIPs were investigated with the help of response surface methodology. Selectivity experiments showed that the MHNTs-MIPs exhibited the maximum selective rebinding to Que. Therefore, the MHNTs-MIPs was applied as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the extraction and preconcentration of quercetin and luteolin in serum and urine samples. The limits of detection for quercetin and luteolin range from 0.51 to 1.32 ng mL-1 in serum and from 0.23 to 1.05 ng mL-1 in urine, the recoveries are between 95.20 and 103.73% with the RSD less than 5.77%. While the recovery hardly decreased after several cycles. The designed MHNTs-MIP with high affinity, sensitivity and maximum selectivity toward Que in SPE might recommend a novel method for the extraction of flavonoids in other samples like natural products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmaa120DOI Listing
June 2021

Accurate Prediction of a Quantitative Trait Using the Genes Controlling the Trait for Gene-Based Breeding in Cotton.

Front Plant Sci 2020 9;11:583277. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States.

Accurate phenotype prediction of quantitative traits is paramount to enhanced plant research and breeding. Here, we report the accurate prediction of cotton fiber length, a typical quantitative trait, using 474 cotton ( ssp.) fiber length () genes and nine prediction models. When the SNPs/InDels contained in 226 of the genes or the expressions of all 474 genes was used for fiber length prediction, a prediction accuracy of = 0.83 was obtained, approaching the maximally possible prediction accuracy of a quantitative trait. This has improved by 116%, the prediction accuracies of the fiber length thus far achieved for genomic selection using genome-wide random DNA markers. Moreover, analysis of the genes identified 125 of the genes that are key to accurate prediction of fiber length, with which a prediction accuracy similar to that of all 474 genes was obtained. The fiber lengths of the plants predicted with expressions of the 125 key genes were significantly correlated with those predicted with the SNPs/InDels of the above 226 SNP/InDel-containing genes ( = 0.892, = 0.000). The prediction accuracies of fiber length using both genic datasets were highly consistent across environments or generations. Finally, we found that a training population consisting of 100-120 plants was sufficient to train a model for accurate prediction of a quantitative trait using the genes controlling the trait. Therefore, the genes controlling a quantitative trait are capable of accurately predicting its phenotype, thereby dramatically improving the ability, accuracy, and efficiency of phenotype prediction and promoting gene-based breeding in cotton and other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.583277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690289PMC
November 2020

Extended application of genomic selection to screen multiomics data for prognostic signatures of prostate cancer.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May;22(3)

University of California, Riverside, USA.

Prognostic tests using expression profiles of several dozen genes help provide treatment choices for prostate cancer (PCa). However, these tests require improvement to meet the clinical need for resolving overtreatment, which continues to be a pervasive problem in PCa management. Genomic selection (GS) methodology, which utilizes whole-genome markers to predict agronomic traits, was adopted in this study for PCa prognosis. We leveraged The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to evaluate the prediction performance of six GS methods and seven omics data combinations, which showed that the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) model outperformed the other methods regarding predictability and computational efficiency. Leveraging the BLUP-HAT method, an accelerated version of BLUP, we demonstrated that using expression data of a large number of disease-relevant genes and with an integration of other omics data (i.e. miRNAs) significantly increased outcome predictability when compared with panels consisting of a small number of genes. Finally, we developed a novel stepwise forward selection BLUP-HAT method to facilitate searching multiomics data for predictor variables with prognostic potential. The new method was applied to the TCGA data to derive mRNA and miRNA expression signatures for predicting relapse-free survival of PCa, which were validated in six independent cohorts. This is a transdisciplinary adoption of the highly efficient BLUP-HAT method and its derived algorithms to analyze multiomics data for PCa prognosis. The results demonstrated the efficacy and robustness of the new methodology in developing prognostic models in PCa, suggesting a potential utility in managing other types of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbaa197DOI Listing
May 2021

lncRNA MT1JP Suppresses Biological Activities of Breast Cancer Cells in vitro and in vivo by Regulating the miRNA-214/RUNX3 Axis.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 4;13:5033-5046. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The purpose of our research was to evaluate MT1JP in breast cancer.

Material And Methods: For clinical purpose, tissues were collected, and a correlation analysis ofMT1JP and miRNA-214 gene expressions was conducted. Using an in vitro study, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines were used as research objects in our research. Colony, flow cytometry, TUNEL, transwell, adhesion and wound healing assay were used to discuss the biological activities of the cells. In an in vivo study, tumor weight and volume were measured, and cell apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay. The relative mechanism's proteins were evaluated by Western blotting or immunohistochemistry assay.

Results: Compared with adjacent tissues, MT1JP and miRNA-214 gene expressions were significantly different (P<0.001, respectively). By in vitro and in vivo studies, the biological activities of the cells were significantly decreased in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines with MT1JP overexpression. The relative mechanism was correlated with miRNA-214/RUNX3 axis.

Conclusion: The overexpression of MT1JP suppresses the biological activities of breast cancer cells by regulation miRNA-214/RUNX3 axis in vitro and vivo study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S241503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280253PMC
June 2020

Selective recognition and enrichment of sterigmatocystin in wheat by thermo-responsive imprinted polymer based on magnetic halloysite nanotubes.

J Chromatogr A 2020 May 7;1619:460952. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

Two thermo-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers ([email protected] and [email protected]) for the selective extraction of sterigmatocystin have been prepared on the surface of the magnetic halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs) and magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs), respectively. 1, 8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, n-isopropyl acrylamide, methacrylic acid, ethylene dimethacrylate and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as the dummy template, thermo-sensitive functional monomer, co-monomer, cross-linker and porogen, respectively. The magnetic properties, adsorption properties as well as the temperature responsive behaviors of [email protected] and [email protected] were systematically studied and compared for the first time. Enough saturation magnetizations of [email protected] (9.42 emu/g) and [email protected] (10.54 emu/g) were obtained. [email protected] and [email protected] also showed controllable adsorption and release behaviors to sterigmatocystin in response to the temperature change (35 °C and 20 °C). Compared with [email protected], [email protected] had higher adsorption affinity (K = 0.120 L/mg), higher adsorption kinetic (K = 0.0100 g/(mg•min)) and higher imprinting factor (5.22) to sterigmatocystin. These results indicated that [email protected] was favorable adsorbent for the selective separation of sterigmatocystin. Furthermore, the elution conditions of [email protected] were optimized by response surface methodology. Under the optimal conditions, [email protected] coupled with high performance liquid chromatography were successfully applied to the selective recognition, purification, enrichment and detection of sterigmatocystin in wheat samples. The recoveries were calculated from 88.62% to 102.9% with RSDs less than 3.5 % and limit of detection of 1.1 μg/kg. This work provided a suitable carrier for the preparation of imprinted polymers and a practical approach for highly selective recognition and determination of analytes in real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2020.460952DOI Listing
May 2020

Magnetic hyperbranched molecularly imprinted polymers for selective enrichment and determination of zearalenone in wheat proceeded by HPLC-DAD analysis.

Talanta 2020 Mar 13;209:120555. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China; Key Laboratory of Biomedical Functional Materials, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China; Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China. Electronic address:

A novel magnetic surface molecular imprinted polymers with 2, 4, 6-trisacrylamido-3, 5-triazine (TAT) as a functional monomer was successfully synthesized and used for the enrichment and determination of zearalenone. The molecular imprinting is reported herein at first time for application of zearalenone in wheat. The magnetic imprinted materials possessed excellent magnetism and uniform appearance, which were characterized by fourier transform infared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope. The results proved the magnetic molecular imprinted polymers was successfully prepared. The magnetic molecular imprinted polymers exhibited satisfactory sensitivity, stability and potential reusability. The binding affinity was investigated by selectivity experiment, which possessed high selectivity. To obtain the optimal application conditions, the amount of adsorption, extraction time, elution solvent and time were optimized. The limited detection of zearalenone was 0.55 ng g and the recoveries of zearalenone were 92.1-96.0%. The relative standard deviation was lower than 5.4%. This indicated that a simple, efficient and low-cost method was established and successfully applied in spiked wheat sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120555DOI Listing
March 2020

Surface-imprinted β-cyclodextrin-functionalized carbon nitride nanosheets for fluorometric determination of sterigmatomycin.

Mikrochim Acta 2019 11 19;186(12):808. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China.

β-Cyclodextrin-functionalized carbon nitride nanosheets were modified with a molecularly imprinted polymer to obtain a fluorescent probe of type [email protected]β-CD/CNNS which is shown to enable fluorometric determination of sterigmatocystin (STG). The material was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by absorption and emission spectra. The modified CNNSs have a good fluorescence quantum yield (13%), high sorption capacity for STG (86 mg·g), fast adsorption rate (25 min), and superior adsorption selectivity (with an imprint factor 2.56). When used as an optical probe for STG, the CNNSs act as the chromophore, while β-CD and MIP act as the recognition groups. The blue fluorescence of [email protected]β-CD/CNNS (with excitation/emission maxima at 368/432 nm) is quenched by STG. Fluorescence drops linearly in the 0.15 to 3.1 μM STG concentration range. The lower detection limit is 74 nM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of STG in spiked wheat extract. Conceivably, this detection scheme based on a combination of β-CD inclusion and molecular imprinting may be extended to the detection of various other organic compounds. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of the preparation of surface-imprinted β-cyclodextrin-functionalized carbon nitride nanosheets. These are used, along with a molecularly imprinted polymer, for fluorometric determination of sterigmatomycin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3867-xDOI Listing
November 2019

Acupuncture induces adenosine in fibroblasts through energy metabolism and promotes proliferation by activating MAPK signaling pathway via adenosine receptor.

J Cell Physiol 2020 03 25;235(3):2441-2451. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Physiology, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China.

Acupuncture has many advantages in the treatment of certain diseases as opposed to drug therapy. Besides, adenosine has been revealed to affect cellular progression including proliferation. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the mechanism involving acupuncture stress and adenosine in fibroblast proliferation. The fibroblasts from fascia tissues of the acupoint area (Zusanli) were stimulated by different levels of stress, different concentrations of adenosine, and agonist or antagonist of A receptor (A R) to investigate the effect of stress stimulation, adenosine, and adenosine-A R inhibition on fibroblasts. Then, the fibroblasts were treated with stress stimulation of 200 kPa or/and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) blocker. We revealed that stress stimulation and the binding of adenosine and A R promoted fibroblast proliferation in the fascial tissue, increased the expression of immune-related factors, adenosine and A R, and activated the MAPK signaling pathway. MAPK signaling pathway also directly affected the expression of adenosine, A R, and immune-related factors. Stress stimulation and adenosine treatment upregulated A R expression, and then activated the MAPK signaling pathway, which could in turn upregulate expression of adenosine, A R and immune-related factors, and promote cell proliferation. Adenosine is shown to form a positive feedback loop with the MAPK signaling pathway. Collectively, stress stimulation in vitro induces the increase of adenosine in fibroblasts through the energy metabolism and activation of the MAPK signaling pathway through A R, ultimately promoting fibroblast proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29148DOI Listing
March 2020

Mapping quantitative trait loci using binned genotypes.

J Genet Genomics 2019 07 23;46(7):343-352. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA. Electronic address:

Precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is critical for assessing genetic effects and identifying candidate genes for quantitative traits. Interval and composite interval mappings have been the methods of choice for several decades, which have provided tools for identifying genomic regions harboring causal genes for quantitative traits. Historically, the concept was developed on the basis of sparse marker maps where genotypes of loci within intervals could not be observed. Currently, genomes of many organisms have been saturated with markers due to the new sequencing technologies. Genotyping by sequencing usually generates hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which often include the causal polymorphisms. The concept of interval no longer exists, prompting the necessity of a norm change in QTL mapping technology to make use of the high-volume genomic data. Here we developed a statistical method and a software package to map QTLs by binning markers into haplotype blocks, called bins. The new method detects associations of bins with quantitative traits. It borrows the mixed model methodology with a polygenic control from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and can handle all kinds of experimental populations under the linear mixed model (LMM) framework. We tested the method using both simulated data and data from populations of rice. The results showed that this method has higher power than the current methods. An R package named binQTL is available from GitHub.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2019.06.005DOI Listing
July 2019

Organic matter, a critical factor to immobilize phosphorus, copper, and zinc during composting under various initial C/N ratios.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Oct 2;289:121745. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Institute of Rural Energy and Ecology, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130033, PR China.

The status of heavy metals and the P fractions in compost affects their environmental risk. The present study investigated the effects of different initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios (15, 22, 27) on redistribution of Cu, Zn, and P fractions during composting. The results showed that the composting process transformed Cu, Zn and P from mobile fractions to more stable fractions. Compost with an initial C/N of 22 showed the most effective immobilization of Cu, Zn and P because of yielding greatest degree of polymerization. Multivariate statistical analysis identified organic matter as the most critical factor for explaining the redistribution of Cu, Zn, and P fractions in composting. However, the degree of organic matter degradation (organic matter content and Humic acid/Fulvic acid) better explained the change of bioavailability factor for Cu and the mobility of P during composting. This research provided guidance for providing technology to reduce environmental risk in compost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121745DOI Listing
October 2019

Magnetite nanoparticles modified β-cyclodextrin PolymerCoupled with KMnO oxidation for adsorption and degradation of acetaminophen.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Oct 6;222:114972. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Key Laboratory of Biomedical Functional Materials, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China; Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

Here, a porous superparamagnetic composite material magnetic β-cyclodextrin polymer (MNPs/β-CDP) was prepared and characterized as a adsorbent that may be used for the degradaion of acetaminophen (APAP) in aqueous solution by coupling with potassium permanganate (KMnO) oxidation. The results of adsorption properties investigation showed that the adsorption rate and capacity of MNPs/β-CDP were better than the component materials. When coupled with KMnO oxidation, the degradation efficiency were evaluated with regards to the pseudo-first-order kinetics of 4-CP degradation. As an oxidation reactor, the material effectively alleviated the secondary pollution and water coloration caused by oxidation of KMnO. Moreover, the materials were directly regenerated by the reaction of KMnO with APAP adsorbed in its cavities without additional elution treatment, making it more convenient and environmentally friendly. The repeated degradation experiments demonstrated that MNPs/β-CDP had mechanic stability and reusability. The findings provide novel ideas for the degradation of persistent contaminants in water environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.114972DOI Listing
October 2019

Hybrid breeding of rice via genomic selection.

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 01 26;18(1):57-67. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

Hybrid breeding is the main strategy for improving productivity in many crops, especially in rice and maize. Genomic hybrid breeding is a technology that uses whole-genome markers to predict future hybrids. Predicted superior hybrids are then field evaluated and released as new hybrid cultivars after their superior performances are confirmed. This will increase the opportunity of selecting true superior hybrids with minimum costs. Here, we used genomic best linear unbiased prediction to perform hybrid performance prediction using an existing rice population of 1495 hybrids. Replicated 10-fold cross-validations showed that the prediction abilities on ten agronomic traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.92. Using the 1495 rice hybrids as a training sample, we predicted six agronomic traits of 100 hybrids derived from half diallel crosses involving 21 parents that are different from the parents of the hybrids in the training sample. The prediction abilities were relatively high, varying from 0.54 (yield) to 0.92 (grain length). We concluded that the current population of 1495 hybrids can be used to predict hybrids from seemingly unrelated parents. Eventually, we used this training population to predict all potential hybrids of cytoplasm male sterile lines from 3000 rice varieties from the 3K Rice Genome Project. Using a breeding index combining 10 traits, we identified the top and bottom 200 predicted hybrids. SNP genotypes of the training population and parameters estimated from this training population are available for general uses and further validation in genomic hybrid prediction of all potential hybrids generated from all varieties of rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920338PMC
January 2020

Accurate prediction of maize grain yield using its contributing genes for gene-based breeding.

Genomics 2020 01 28;112(1):225-236. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.. Electronic address:

Accurately predicting the phenotypes of complex traits is crucial to enhanced breeding in plants and livestock, and to enhanced medicine in humans. Here we reports the first study accurately predicting complex traits using their contributing genes, especially their number of favorable alleles (NFAs), genotypes and transcript expressions, with the grain yield of maize, Zea mays L. When the NFAs or genotypes of only 27 SNP/InDel-containing grain yield genes were used, a prediction accuracy of r = 0.52 or 0.49 was obtained. When the expressions of grain yield gene transcripts were used, a plateaued prediction accuracy of r = 0.84 was achieved. When the phenotypes predicted with two or three of the genic datasets were used for progeny selection, the selected lines were completely consistent with those selected by phenotypic selection. Therefore, the genes controlling complex traits enable accurately predicting their phenotypes, thus desirable for gene-based breeding in crop plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2019.02.001DOI Listing
January 2020

Selective recognition and enrichment of carbamazepine in biological samples by magnetic imprinted polymer based on reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.

J Chromatogr A 2019 Apr 26;1591:62-70. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China; Vocational and Technical College of Guizhou Minzu University, Guiyang, Guizhou, 550025, China; State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China; Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China. Electronic address:

A well-defined molecularly imprinted polymer ([email protected]@MIP) was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for magnetic solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector to detect carbamazepine (CBZ) in biological samples. The composition of [email protected]@MIP was selected by a two-step screening method. 4-vinyl pyridine, divinylbenzene and dimethylformamide were chosen as the functional monomer, cross-linker and porogen, respectively. The imprinted layer was coated on the surface of the chain transfer agent-modified magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. The prepared [email protected]@MIP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurement and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results indicated that [email protected]@MIP had a large surface area (265.8 m/g), high saturation magnetization (19.88 emu/g) and uniform structure. Besides, the binding property of the [email protected]@MIP was studied in detail. The [email protected]@MIP showed high imprinting factor (IF = 4.83) and desirable adsorption capacity (323.10 μmol/g) to CBZ. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method exhibited excellent linearity (R>0.999) in the range of 0.01-0.5 mg/L and 1.0-30.0 mg/L, and the limits of detection were 1.0 μg/L and 9.6 μg/L for the urine and serum samples, respectively. Good recoveries (88.22%-101.18%) were obtained with relative standard deviations less than 4.83%. This work provided a practical approach for the selective extraction and detection of CBZ in real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.01.057DOI Listing
April 2019

The Application of Multi-Locus GWAS for the Detection of Salt-Tolerance Loci in Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2018 4;9:1464. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Institute of Crop Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Improving the salt-tolerance of direct-seeding rice at the seed germination stage is a major goal of breeders. Efficiently identifying salt tolerance loci will help researchers develop effective rice breeding strategies. In this study, six multi-locus genome-wide association studies (GWAS) methods (mrMLM, FASTmrMLM, FASTmrEMMA, pLARmEB, pKWmEB, and ISIS EM-BLASSO) were applied to identify quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) for the salt tolerance traits of 478 rice accessions with 162,529 SNPs at the seed germination stage. Among the 371 QTNs detected by the six methods, 56 were identified by at least three methods. Among these 56 QTNs, 12, 6, 7, 4, 13, 12, and 12 were found to be associated with SSI-GI, SSI-VI, SSI-MGT, SSI-IR-24h, SSI-IR-48h, SSI-GR-5d, and SSI-GR-10d, respectively. Additionally, 66 candidate genes were identified in the vicinity of the 56 QTNs, and two of these genes (LOC_Os01g45760 and LOC_Os10g04860) are involved in auxin biosynthesis according to the enriched GO terms and KEGG pathways. This information will be useful for identifying the genes responsible for rice salt tolerance. A comparison of the six methods revealed that ISIS EM-BLASSO identified the most co-detected QTNs and performed best, with the smallest residual errors and highest computing speed, followed by FASTmrMLM, pLARmEB, mrMLM, pKWmEB, and FASTmrEMMA. Although multi-locus GWAS methods are superior to single-locus GWAS methods, their utility for identifying QTNs may be enhanced by adding a bin analysis to the models or by developing a hybrid method that merges the results from different methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6180169PMC
October 2018

QTL and QTL networks for cold tolerance at the reproductive stage detected using selective introgression in rice.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(9):e0200846. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Low temperature stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity of Geng (japonica) rice grown the temperate regions as well as in tropical high lands worldwide. To develop rice varieties with improved cold tolerance (CT) at the reproductive stage, 84 BC2 CT introgression lines (ILs) were developed from five populations through backcross breeding. These CT ILs plus 310 random ILs from the same BC populations were used for dissecting genetic networks underlying CT in rice by detecting QTLs and functional genetic units (FGUs) contributing to CT. Seventeen major QTLs for CT were identified using five selective introgression populations and the method of segregation distortion. Of them, three QTLs were confirmed using the random populations and seven others locate in the regions with previously reported CT QTLs/genes. Using multi-locus probability tests and linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses, 46 functional genetic units (FGUs) (37 single loci and 9 association groups or AGs) distributed in 37 bins (~20%) across the rice genome for CT were detected. Together, each of the CT loci (bins) was detected in 1.7 populations, including 18 loci detected in two or more populations. Putative genetic networks (multi-locus structures) underlying CT were constructed based on strong non-random associations between or among donor alleles at the unlinked CT loci/FGUs identified in the CT ILs, suggesting the presence of strong epistasis among the detected CT loci. Our results demonstrated the power and usefulness of using selective introgression for simultaneous improvement and genetic dissection of complex traits such as CT in rice.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200846PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141068PMC
February 2019

Simultaneous Improvement and Genetic Dissection of Drought Tolerance Using Selected Breeding Populations of Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2018 15;9:320. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Institute of Crop Sciences, National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Drought is the most important factor limiting rice yield in most rainfed areas of Asia and Africa. Four large BCF populations consisted of 3,200 individuals, which were derived from crosses between an elite variety, Jigeng88, and four donors from three different countries, were screened and progeny tested under severe drought stress, resulting in the development of 72 introgression lines (ILs) with significantly improved yield compared to the recurrent parent Jigeng88. These DT ILs plus four random populations (without drought selection population) from the same crosses were evaluated in replicated trials under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in two environments, and characterized with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to understand how directional selection was operating on the genetic variation of DT of rice. Thirteen DT QTLs of large effect were identified based on the significant allelic and genotypic frequency shits in the DT ILs by using the joint segregation distortion method. The 13 QTLs were validated by the genotypic differences at individual QTL in the random populations. Putative genetic networks consisting of 30 loci in 29 functional genetic units underlying DT were detected by tests and non-random associations between or among DT loci in DT ILs from the four populations. Most large-effect DT QTLs were previously reported and located in the upstream of the genetic networks as putative regulators, and were either mapped to important regulatory genes for DT or drought responsiveness reported previously. In our study, five promising ILs with significantly improved yield were selected under both drought and normal irrigated conditions. The QTLs and their genetic networks underlying DT detected provided useful genetic information for further improving DT and yield using designed QTL pyramiding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5862857PMC
March 2018

Genetic Dissection and Simultaneous Improvement of Drought and Low Nitrogen Tolerances by Designed QTL Pyramiding in Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2018 9;9:306. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Institute of Crop Sciences, National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Drought and low nitrogen are the most common abiotic stresses limiting rice productivity in the rainfed rice areas of Asia and Africa. Development and adoption of green super rice (GSR) varieties with greatly improved drought tolerance (DT) and low nitrogen tolerance (LNT) are the most efficient way to resolve this problem. In this study, using three sets of trait-specific introgression lines (ILs) in a variety Huanghuazhan (HHZ) background, we identified nine DT-QTL and seven LNT-QTL by a segregation distortion approach and a genome-wide association study, respectively. Based on performances of DT and LNT and genotypes at the detected QTL, two ILs M79 and M387 with DT and LNT were selected for cross-making to validate the identified QTL and to develop DT and LNT rice lines by pyramiding two DT-QTL ( and and two LNT-QTL and ). Using four pairs of kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) SNP markers, we selected 66 F individuals with different combinations of the target DT- and LNT-QTL favorable alleles and they showed expected improvement in DT and/or LNT, which were further validated by the significant improvement in DT and/or LNT of their F progeny testing. Based on evaluation of pyramiding lines in F lines under drought, low nitrogen (LN) and normal conditions, four promising pyramiding lines having different QTL favorable alleles were selected, which showed significantly improved tolerances to drought and/or LN than HHZ and their IL parents. Our results demonstrated that trait-specific ILs could effectively connect QTL mapping and QTL pyramiding breeding, and designed QTL pyramiding (DQP) using ILs could be more effective in molecular rice breeding for complex quantitative traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5855007PMC
March 2018

Complete Genome Sequence of GQJK49, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium with Antifungal Activity.

Genome Announc 2017 Aug 31;5(35). Epub 2017 Aug 31.

College of Life Sciences/Shandong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology/National Engineering Laboratory for Efficient Utilization of Soil and Fertilizer Resources, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China

GQJK49 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with antifungal activity, which was isolated from L. rhizosphere. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of GQJK49. Twelve gene clusters related to its biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including antifungal and antibacterial antibiotics, were predicted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00922-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5578859PMC
August 2017

Identification of salt-tolerant QTLs with strong genetic background effect using two sets of reciprocal introgression lines in rice.

Genome 2012 Jan 19;55(1):45-55. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

Institute of Crop Sciences, National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Effect of genetic background on detection of quantitative trait locus (QTL) governing salinity tolerance (ST) was studied using two sets of reciprocal introgression lines (ILs) derived from a cross between a moderately salinity tolerant japonica variety, Xiushui09 from China, and a drought tolerant but salinity susceptible indica breeding line, IR2061-520-6-9 from the Philippines. Salt toxicity symptoms (SST) on leaves, days to seedling survival (DSS), and sodium and potassium uptake by shoots were measured under salinity stress of 140 mmol/L of NaCl. A total of 47 QTLs, including 26 main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) and 21 epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs), were identified from the two sets of reciprocal ILs. Among the 26 M-QTLs, only four (15.4%) were shared in the reciprocal backgrounds while no shared E-QTLs were detected, indicating that ST QTLs, especially E-QTLs, were very specific to the genetic background. Further, 78.6% of the M-QTLs for SST and DSS identified in the reciprocal ILs were also detected in the recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the same cross, which clearly brings out the background effect on ST QTL detection and its utilization in ST breeding. The detection of ILs with various levels of pyramiding of nonallelic M-QTL alleles for ST from Xiushui09 into IR2061-520-6-9 allowed us to further improve the ST in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/g11-075DOI Listing
January 2012

L-arginine promotes DNA repair in cultured bronchial epithelial cells exposed to ozone: involvement of the ATM pathway.

Cell Biol Int 2011 Mar;35(3):273-80

Department of Physiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Ozone may lead to DNA breaks in airway epithelial cells. p-ATM (phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated) plays a pivotal role in DNA repair. Derivatives of NO (nitric oxide) are regulators of the phosphorylation, and NO is increased under oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to study the effect of NO donor L-arg (L-arginine) on DNA damage repair in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to ozone and the potential mechanisms involved. HBECs (human bronchial epithelial cells) were cultured with or without ozone (1.5 ppm, 30 min), DNA breaks were measured with a comet assay and agarose gel electrophoresis, cell cycling was determined by flow cytometry and p-ATM was measured by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Data were analysed by ANOVA (analysis of variance). P<0.05 was considered as significant. Ozone induced marked DNA breaks, G1-phase arrest and increased expression of p-ATM in HBECs, while wortmannin reduced the levels of p-ATM induced by ozone; the NO donor, L-arg, minimized the effects of ozone-induced DNA breaks and increased the level of p-ATM, while the NO synthase inhibitor, L-NMMA [N(G)-minomethyl-L-arginine], restrained those effects of L-arg. The effect of L-arg on DNA repair is NO-mediated, and p-ATM is implicated in the processes of DNA repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CBI20090252DOI Listing
March 2011