Publications by authors named "Xuesong Zhang"

173 Publications

The α2δ-1/NMDA receptor complex is involved in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No. 215 Hepingxi Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000, China.

Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a common cerebrovascular disease, seriously threatens human health and has severe secondary injuries, while existing treatment methods have many limitations. α2δ-1 is a subunit of voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs) and can act on glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) to relieve neuropathic pain.

Methods: We first performed ICH modeling on WT mice and Cacna2d1 knockout (KO) mice. The expression levels of GluN1 and α2δ-1 were measured by Western blot and q-PCR, and the interaction between the two proteins was evaluated by co-precipitation. The neuronal apoptosis was detected by the TUNEL assay, and the expression levels of inflammatory factors were assessed by ELISA. The nerve functions of mice were evaluated using behavioral experiments including corner turn test and forelimb use asymmetry. Cerebral hematoma was indicated by brain water content and lesion volume.

Results: ICH up-regulated the expression levels of α2δ-1 and GluN1. KO of Cacna2d1 significantly reduced the ICH-induced apoptosis. The treatment of gabapentin on α2δ-1 also significantly reduced the occurrence of apoptosis. KO of Cacna2d1 also reduced the ICH-induced levels of inflammatory factors. Furthermore, neural functions were also significantly improved.

Conclusion: Cacna2d1 KO alleviates cerebral hematoma in ICH mice, exhibits a significant regulating effect on its secondary injuries such as neuronal apoptosis and inflammation, and restores the nerve functions of ICH mice. Loss of Cacna2d1 can provide useful therapeutic clues for ICH treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51372DOI Listing
May 2021

Application of transverse tibial bone transport and microcirculation reconstruction in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Medical Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Affiliated Hospital of Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China.

Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a common complication in the advanced stages of diabetes mellitus. DFU in these individuals cannot heal properly over time due to microcirculatory changes that hinder and stagnate the healing process. There is a wide range of therapeutic strategies for DFU, but only minimal efficacy has been found in limited published studies. Transverse tibial bone transport (TTBT) is a new strategy for DFU, which based on Ilizarov technology. We present a case of a 45-year-old female with longstanding type 2 diabetes complicated with slowly expanding ulceration to her right foot. According to the symptoms, signs, and medical history, she was diagnosed as DFU with osteomyelitis. After sufficient preoperative preparation, including tight blood glucose control, wound dressing, and anti-infection therapy, the ulcer was treated with Ilizarov TTBT. Under these interventions, the ulcer gradually improved. The patient's foot ulcer was completely healed seven months after surgery, and foot function was well preserved. No complications were observed during the follow-up. For patients with refractory DFU, TTBT should be considered a promising treatment option for maintaining the foot's shape and function. The present study's findings indicate that further studies should focus on the mechanism of microcirculation reconstruction for the treatment of DFU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2053DOI Listing
April 2021

Use of Network Pharmacology to Explore the Mechanism of Gegen ( Radix) in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Hyperlipidemia.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 16;2021:6633402. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cardiology, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Rapid increases in metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia, are becoming a substantial challenge to worldwide public health. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history and abundant experience in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and Radix (known as Gegen in Chinese) is one of the most prevalent Chinese herbs applied to treat these diseases. The underlying mechanism by which Gegen simultaneously treats diabetes and hyperlipidemia, however, has not been clearly elucidated to date. Therefore, we systematically explored the potential mechanism of Gegen in the treatment of T2DM complicated with hyperlipidemia based on network pharmacology. We screened the potential targets of Gegen, T2DM, and hyperlipidemia in several online databases. Then, the hub targets were analyzed by performing protein-protein interaction, Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment assays, and finally, the complicated connections among compounds, targets, and pathways were visualized in Cytoscape. We found that isoflavones, including daidzein, genistein, and puerarin, as well as -sitosterol, are the key active ingredients of Gegen responsible for its antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemia effects, which mainly target AKR1B1, EGFR, ESR, TNF, NOS3, MAPK3, PPAR, CYP19A1, INS, IL6, and SORD and multiple pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway; the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, fluid shear stress, and atherosclerosis; the PPAR signaling pathway; insulin resistance; the HIF-1 signaling pathway; the TNF signaling pathway; and others. These active ingredients also target multiple biological processes, including the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. In conclusion, Gegen is a promising therapeutic phytomedicine for T2DM with hyperlipidemia that targets multiple proteins, biological processes, and pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6633402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068526PMC
April 2021

The miR-124-3p/Neuropilin-1 Axis Contributes to the Proliferation and Metastasis of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells and Co-Activates the TGF-β Pathway.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:654672. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Hepatosplenic Surgery Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 90% of breast cancer-associated mortality. Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) acts as a non-tyrosine kinase receptor for several cellular signaling pathways involved in the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the miRNAs that regulate NRP-1 expression and the underlying mechanisms in TNBC cells remain unclear. In the present study, we found that TNBC cells expressed higher levels of NRP-1 than non-TNBC cells. Stable transfectants depleted of NRP-1 were generated from two TNBC cell lines, human MDA-MB-231 and mouse 4T1 cells. NRP-1 depletion significantly suppressed the proliferation of TNBC cells by arresting the cell cycle at phase G0/G1 by upregulating p27 and downregulating cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. NRP-1 depletion also repressed cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by inducing the upregulation of E-cadherin and the downregulation of N-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and reducing MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities as detected by gelatin zymography assay. By applying multiple miRNA-target prediction tools, we screened potential miRNAs with binding sites with the 3'-untranslated region of the NRP-1 gene and selected 12 miRNA candidates, among which miR-124-3p displayed the most vigorous activity to downregulate NRP-1 as validated by luciferase assay and miRNA transfection assay. By downregulating NRP-1, miR-124-3p mimics inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells, and antagomiR-124-3p could partially abolish the effects of NRP-1 depletion. In the animal experiments, NRP-1 depletion inhibited tumorigenesis and liver metastasis of TNBC cells, while miR-124-3p mimics inhibited the growth of established TNBC tumors. In the mechanistic exploration, we revealed that NRP-1 co-interacted with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β to activate the TGF-β pathway, which regulates EMT-related molecules. In summary, the present results indicate that the miR-124-3p/NRP-1 axis contributes to the proliferation and metastasis of TNBC cells and co-activates the TGF-β pathway, suggesting that these molecules may present as potential therapeutic targets and valuable biomarkers for TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.654672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072051PMC
April 2021

Plasma proteomics analysis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients revealed by Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2021 Apr 17:e2100002. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

Objective: We aim to investigate the changes of plasma proteome among mild, severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and healthy controls.

Methods: In this retrospective study, there were 84 individuals including 56 confirmed AIS patients (27 follow-up AIS patients and 29 surgical AIS patients) and another 28 healthy teenagers. Plasma samples were obtained and Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer was performed to identify proteins in AIS patients and control group. T-test and ANOVA were performed to screen for differential proteins. GO and KEGG pathway, Pearson's correlation analysis and PLS model were applied to identify enriched proteins, investigate correlation between proteins and Cobb angles. ELISA was performed to further verify the quantitative proteomics results.

Results: A total of 349 proteins were identified, among which 55 protein levels changed significantly in AIS group, compared with control group. Post hoc test indicated 36 proteins were significantly different between surgical and control group, 35 proteins between follow-up and control group. Fibronectin, fibrinogen and calmodulin were statistically different among three groups through mass spectrometry and were positively correlated with the Cobb angle.

Conclusions: We performed the proteomic study and revealed that fibronectin, fibrinogen and calmodulin might not only be considered as biomarkers for AIS but could be correlated with curve severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.202100002DOI Listing
April 2021

Correction to: Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) regulates the proliferation and chemosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells via regulation of PTEN.

Hum Cell 2021 Jul;34(4):1286

Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Eastern Theater of PLA, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210000, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-021-00528-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Transpedicular bi-vertebrae wedge osteotomy in treatment of post-tubercular spinal deformity: a retrospective study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Apr 12;22(1):345. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, 100853, Beijing, China.

Background: In the late stage of spinal tuberculosis, the bony destruction and vertebral collapse often leads to significant kyphosis, presenting clinically as a painful gibbus deformity, with increased instability, vertebral body translations and increased risk of neurologic involvement. Spinal osteotomy is thought to be suitable for most patients with severe rigid kyphosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transpedicular bi-vertebrae osteotomy technique in the patients with Pott's kyphosis and other post-tubercular spinal deformity.

Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2015, 18 patients with post-tubercular spinal deformity underwent the transpedicular bi-vertebrae wedge osteotomy, with a minimum follow up of 27.0 months. Preoperative and postoperative kyphotic angle, sagittal plane parameters (TK for thoracic deformity, TLK for thoracolumbar and LL for lumbar deformity) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA) were measured. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual analog scale (VAS) and modified American Spinal Injury Association grading (ASIA) of preoperative and final follow-up were documented and compared.

Results: The average operation time was 305 minutes (range, 200-430 minutes) with a mean intraoperative blood loss of 425 mL (range, 200-700 mL). The kyphotic angles decreased from 80.3° (range, 28.5°-130.8°) preoperatively to 26.1° (range, 7.0°-63.3°) at the final follow-up (P<0.01). The mean VAS score was reduced from preoperative 5.2(range, 2-9) to 0.9(range, 0-2, P<0.01) and the ODI improved from 55.3% (range, 46%-76%) to 6.3% (range, 2%-18%, P<0.01). At final follow-up, there was radiographic evidence of solid fusion at the osteotomy site and fixed segments in all patients. Neurological function improved from ASIA scale D to E in 7 patients, C to D in 3 patients.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that transpedicular bi-vertebrae wedge osteotomy is a safe and effective treatment option for post-tubercular spinal deformity. This technique achieves satisfying correction and fusion rates with adequate decompression of neurological elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04220-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042881PMC
April 2021

How do varying socio-economic driving forces affect China's carbon emissions? New evidence from a multiscale geographically weighted regression model.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

College of Public Administration, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430079, China.

The increase in carbon emissions has had great negative impacts on the healthy developments of the human environment and economic society. However, it is unclear how specific socio-economic factors are driving carbon emissions. Based on the multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model, this paper analyzes the impact mechanism of China's carbon emission data during 2010-2017. The results show that (1) during the study period, China's carbon emissions have obvious positive correlations in the spatial distribution, and the spatial autocorrelation of carbon emissions on the time scale has a further strengthening trend. (2) Compared with the results of the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model, the MGWR model is more robust, and the results are more realistic and reliable. The impacts of energy intensity, proportion of green coverage in built-up areas, and industrial structure on provincial carbon emissions are close to the global scale, and their spatial heterogeneity is weak. Other factors have spatially heterogeneous impacts on carbon emissions with different scale effects. (3) Except for proportion of green coverage in built-up areas, the industrial structure and trade openness have insignificant impacts on carbon emissions, but other variables have significant impacts. The total population, urbanization rate, energy intensity, and energy structure have positive impacts on carbon emissions, while the GDP per capita and foreign direct investment have negative impacts on it. This study shows that the main socio-economic factors have different degrees of impacts on carbon emissions with different scale, and we can refer to it to formulate more scientific measures to reduce carbon emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13444-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Comprehensive characterization of a drug-resistance-related ceRNA network across 15 anti-cancer drug categories.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 15;24:11-24. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, P.R. China.

Cancer is still a major health problem around the world. The treatment failure of cancer has largely been attributed to drug resistance. Competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are involved in various biological processes and thus influence the drug sensitivity of cancers. However, a comprehensive characterization of drug-sensitivity-related ceRNAs has not yet been performed. In the present study, we constructed 15 ceRNA networks across 15 anti-cancer drug categories, involving 217 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), 158 microRNAs (miRNAs), and 1,389 protein coding genes (PCGs). We found that these ceRNAs were involved in hallmark processes such as "self-sufficiency in growth signals," "insensitivity to antigrowth signals," and so on. We then identified an intersection ceRNA network (ICN) across the 15 anti-cancer drug categories. We further identified interactions between genes in the ICN and clinically actionable genes (CAGs) by analyzing the co-expressions, protein-protein interactions, and transcription factor-target gene interactions. We found that certain genes in the ICN are correlated with CAGs. Finally, we found that genes in the ICN were aberrantly expressed in tumors, and some were associated with patient survival time and cancer stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933708PMC
June 2021

Endothelin-1/Endothelin Receptor Type A-Angiopoietins/Tie-2 Pathway in Regulating the Cross Talk Between Glomerular Endothelial Cells and Podocytes in Trichloroethylene-Induced Renal Immune Injury.

J Inflamm Res 2021 9;14:761-776. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui Province, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism in regulating the cross talk between glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes in "occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT)" patients.

Methods: Totally 6 OMLDT patients, 18 controls, and 102 BALB/c female mice were involved in this study. Patient's serum endothelin-1 (ET-1), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and podocalyxin (PCX) were detected. All the mice were used to establish the trichloroethylene (TCE) sensitized mouse model. Transmission electron microscope results were used to reflect renal glomerulus injury. Protein levels were detected by Western blot. Ang-1/Ang-2 gene level was reflected by RT-PCR. Cell apoptosis level was detected by using TUNEL assay kit.

Results: We found that in OMLDT patients, ET-1, Ang-2, BUN, and PCX were highly expressed but Ang-1 was inhibited. In TCE sensitized positive mouse, the downregulation of Ang-1, pTie-2 and the upregulation of Ang-2 were mediated by ET-1/ETR but not ET-1/ETR. The promotor of apoptosis proteins was downregulated and the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins was upregulated by treating with BQ123.

Discussion: ET-1/ETR-Angs/Tie-2 pathway mediated the cross talk between glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes. BQ123 can alleviate glomerulus immune injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S301104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955787PMC
March 2021

Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) regulates the proliferation and chemosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells via regulation of PTEN.

Hum Cell 2021 Jul 15;34(4):1153-1162. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, East Theater General Hospital of PLA, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210000, People's Republic of China.

As one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) can be directly exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC). As a potential EDC, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) can trigger the development of various cancers, while the potential effect of DEHP on the ESCC progression was not clear. Our present study revealed that DEHP can trigger the proliferation of ESCC cells and decrease the cisplatin (CDDP) and fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity. Mechanistical studies indicated that DEHP can decrease the transcription of PTEN, a well-characterized tumor suppressor, in ESCC cells. Over expression of PTEN can reverse DEHP-regulated ESCC cell proliferation and chemosensitivity. Further, DEHP can increase the expression of HES-1, which can bind with the promoter of PTEN to inhibit its transcription. Collectively, DEHP can increase proliferation while decrease chemosensitivity of ESCC cells via regulation of HES-1/PTEN axis. Further, daily expression of DEHP may be a potent risk factor for ESCC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-021-00519-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Atractylenolide I alleviates ischemia/reperfusion injury by preserving mitochondrial function and inhibiting caspase-3 activity.

J Int Med Res 2021 Feb;49(2):300060521993315

Department of Pathology, Jingjiang People's Hospital, Jingjiang, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Objective: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury causes various severe heart diseases, including myocardial infarction. This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of atractylenolide I (ATR-I), which is an active ingredient isolated from , on myocardial I/R injury.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the five following groups (nine rats/group): control, I/R, and I/R + ATR-I preconditioning (10, 50, and 250 µg). The effects of ATR-I on rats with I/R injury were verified in cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/reoxygenation. Production of reactive oxygen species was determined. The proliferative ability of cardiomyocytes was detected using the bromodeoxyuridine assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using flow cytometry. Cellular apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and the terminal dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling assay.

Results: I/R and hypoxia/reoxygenation injury increased mitochondrial dysfunction and activated caspase-3 and Bax/B cell lymphoma 2 expression and . ATR-I pretreatment dose-dependently significantly attenuated myocardial apoptosis and suppressed oxidative stress as reflected by increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased reactive oxygen species and Ca content.

Conclusion: ATR-I protects against I/R injury by protecting mitochondrial function and inhibiting activation of caspase-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060521993315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923999PMC
February 2021

Isobavachalcone prevents osteoporosis by suppressing activation of ERK and NF-κB pathways and M1 polarization of macrophages.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 25;94:107370. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Nankai University School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China; Department of Orthopaedics, the PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100000, China. Electronic address:

Estrogen receptors alpha (ERα), a member of the nuclear receptor protein family, was found to play an important role in maintaining bone mass. Its downstream signaling proteins such as ERK and NF-κB were reported to be involved in development of osteoporosis, which meant that targeting ERα might be an effective strategy for searching for new drugs to prevent bone loss. In this study, we demonstrate that isobavachalcone (ISO), as one of bioactive compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifoliaLinn, has high affinity with ERα. The effects of ISO are investigated on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteocalstogenesis. It is reported that ISO inhibits the RANKL-mediated increase of osteoclast-related genes MMP9, cathepsink and TRAR in RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, in vitro experiment shows that ISO exhibits an inhibitory effect on ERK and NF-κB signaling pathway, and suppresses RANKL-induced expression of osteoclast-related transcription factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. However, the impact of ISO in these molecules is eliminated by the application of ERα antagonist AZD9496.We further verified pharmacological effects of ISO in ovariectomized osteoporotic mice, and ISO significantly prevented bone loss and decreased M1 polarization of macrophages from marrow and spleen. Collectively, our data suggest that ISO prevents osteoporosis via suppressing activation of ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways as well as M1 polarization of macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107370DOI Listing
May 2021

SWAT ungauged: Water quality modeling in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

J Hydrol (Amst) 2020 ;584

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW (6207 A), Washington, DC 20460, United States.

Improving model performance in ungauged basins has been a chronic challenge in watershed model application to understand and assess water quality impacts of agricultural conservation practices, land use change, and climate adaptation measures in large river basins. Here, we evaluate a modified version of SWAT2012 (referred to as SWAT-EC hereafter), which integrates an energy balanced soil temperature module (STM) and the CENTRUY-based soil organic matter algorithm, for simulating water quality parameters in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), and compare it against the original SWAT2012. Model evaluation was performed for simulating streamflow, sediment, and nitrate-N (NO-N) and total nitrogen (TN) loadings at three stations near the outlets of UMRB. The model comparison was conducted without parameter calibration in order to assess their performance under ungauged conditions. The results indicate that SWAT-EC outperformed SWAT2012 for stream flow and NO-N and TN loading simulation on both monthly and annual scales. For sediment, SWAT-EC performed better than SWAT2012 on a monthly time step basis, but no noticeable improvement was found at the annual scale. In addition, the performance of the uncalibrated SWAT-EC was comparable to other calibrated SWAT models reported in previous publications with respect to sediment and NO-N loadings. These findings highlight the importance of advancing process representation in physically-based models to improve model credibility, particularly in ungauged basins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.124601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900929PMC
January 2020

Roles of TNF receptor-associated and Fas-associated death domain proteins in the apoptosis of Eimeria tenella host cells.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Feb 7;290:109351. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, 030801, China.

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of death receptor adapter proteins, namely, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD) and Fas-associated death domain (FADD) proteins, on Eimeria tenella-induced host cell apoptosis. Gene silencing, culture technique for primary chick embryo cecal epithelial cells, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Hoechst-Annexin V/PI apoptosis staining, fluorescence quantitative PCR, and flow cytometry were used to detect the E. tenella host cell apoptotic rate, RIP1 and FADD protein expression levels, and caspase-8 activity of the TRADD siRNA-treated and FADD siRNA-treated groups. Results showed that the apoptotic rate in the TRADD siRNA group was significantly higher than that in the NC siRNA group at 4 h post-infection with E. tenella (P < 0.05). The RIP1 protein expression level in the TRADD siRNA group was significantly lower than that in the NC siRNA group at 4-24 h (P < 0.05). The FADD expression and apoptotic rates in the TRADD siRNA group were significantly lower than those in the NC siRNA group at 24-120 h (P < 0.05). The caspase-8 activity and apoptotic rates in the FADD siRNA group were significantly lower than those in the NC siRNA group (P < 0.05) at 24-120 h. These findings indicated that E. tenella inhibited the host cell apoptosis through the TRADD-RIP1 pathway at the early developmental stage and promoted host cell apoptosis via the TRADD-FADD-caspase-8 apoptotic pathway at the middle and late developmental stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2021.109351DOI Listing
February 2021

Exploration of endoscopic findings and risk factors of early gastric cancer after eradication of .

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 7;56(3):356-362. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Endoscopy Center, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To explore the endoscopic features and risk factors of early gastric cancer (EGC) after eradication of ().

Methods: A total of 1961 patients who underwent esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) with a history of successful eradication were enrolled in this multicenter research. Among them, 162 EGC lesions of 132 patients were detected. The endoscopic features and risk factors of post-eradication EGC were explored.

Results: Severe atrophy (75.3% vs. 16.7%, value <.01), intestinal metaplasia (96.3% vs. 77.1%, value <.01), map-like redness (89.5% vs. 65.4%, value <.01), distinct intermediate zone (IZ) (68.5% vs. 23.4%, value <.01) and xanthoma (58.0% vs. 17.9%, value <.01) were significantly more frequent in the CA group (patients with newly detected EGC after eradication of ) than in the NC group (patients without gastric cancer after eradication of ). In multivariate analysis, severe atrophy (odds ratio (OR) = 8.08; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.43-20.0; value<.01), map-like redness (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 0.11-5.25; value = .04), distinct IZ (OR = 2.87; 95% CI, 1.20-6.93; value = .02) and xanthoma (OR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.20-7.03; value=.02) were proved to be risk factors for detection of EGC after eradication of .

Conclusions: Severe atrophy and map-like redness and distinct IZ and xanthoma are risk factors of EGC after eradication of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2020.1868567DOI Listing
March 2021

Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Simplified Chinese Version of the Copenhagen Neck Function Disability Scale.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Dec 21;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Department of Orthopaedics of TCM Clinical Unit, 6 Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Department of Rehabilitation, 6 Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Department of Neurosurgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Chinese PLA Medical School, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt Copenhagen Neck Function Disability Scale into a Simplified Chinese version (CNFDS-C), and evaluate the reliability and validity of CNFDS-C in patients with non-specific chronic neck pain.

Summary Of Background Data: The CNFDS is a reliable and valid evaluation instrument for chronic neck pain. However, Simplified Chinese version of CNFDS hasn't been validated.

Methods: A total of 150 participants were included in this study. Internal consistency was estimated according to Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed by Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was analyzed by correlations between CNFDS-C and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual analogue scale (VAS) as well as the short form (36) health survey (SF-36).

Results: The original version of the CNFDS was cross-culturally adapted and translated into Simplified Chinese. CNFDS-C was indicated to have excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.810, ICC = 0.927). Moderate to substantial correlations between CNFDS-C and NDI (r = 0.642, p < 0.001), VAS (r = 0.581, p < 0.001), as well as physical function (r = -0.583, p < .001), role physical (r = -0.478, p < 0.001), bodily pain (r = -0.610, p < 0.001) and general health (r = -0.439, p < 0.001) subscales of SF-36 were observed.

Conclusion: CNFDS-C was demonstrated to have acceptable reliability and validity in patients with non-specific chronic neck pain, which could be recommended for patients in Chinese mainland.Level of Evidence: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003899DOI Listing
December 2020

Correlation of vertebral trabecular attenuation in Hounsfield units and the upper instrumented vertebra with proximal junctional failure after surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disease.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Dec 4:1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

2Department of Orthopaedics, the First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bone mineral density (BMD) measured in Hounsfield units (HUs) is correlated with proximal junctional failure (PJF).

Methods: A retrospective study of 104 patients with adult degenerative lumbar disease was performed. All patients underwent posterior instrumented fusion of 4 or more segments and were followed up for at least 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of whether they had mechanical complications of PJF. Age, sex ratio, BMI, follow-up time, upper instrumented vertebra (UIV), lower instrumented vertebra, and vertebral body osteotomy were recorded. The spinopelvic parameters were measured on early postoperative radiographs. The HU value of L1 trabecular attenuation was measured on axial and sagittal CT scans. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the difference of continuous and categorical variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to obtain attenuation thresholds. A Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test were used to analyze the differences in PJF-free survival. Multivariate analysis via a Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the risk factors.

Results: The HU value of L1 trabecular attenuation in the PJF group was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.001). The spinopelvic parameter L4-S1 lordosis was significantly different between the groups (p = 0.033). ROC curve analysis determined an optimal threshold of 89.25 HUs (sensitivity = 78.3%, specificity = 80.2%, area under the ROC curve = 0.799). PJF-free survival significantly decreased in patients with L1 attenuation ≤ 89.25 HUs (p < 0.001, log-rank test). When L1 trabecular attenuation was ≤ 89.25 HUs, PJF-free survival in patients with the UIV at L2 was the lowest, compared with patients with their UIV at the thoracolumbar junction or above (p = 0.028, log-rank test).

Conclusions: HUs could provide important information for surgeons to make a treatment plan to prevent PJF. L1 trabecular attenuation ≤ 89.25 HUs measured by spinal CT scanning could predict the incidence of PJF. Under this condition, the UIV at L2 significantly increases the incidence of PJF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.SPINE20920DOI Listing
December 2020

Disordered leptin and ghrelin bioactivity in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2020 Oct 30;15(1):502. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Orthopedics, the First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: Adolescents with scoliosis consistently demonstrate lower body weight, lean muscle mass, and bone mineral density than healthy adolescent counterparts. Recent studies have focused on understanding how leptin and ghrelin signaling may play a role in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). In our current study, we aim to evaluate the serum levels of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and ghrelin in AIS patients through systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We conducted our systematic review by searching the keywords in online databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Elsevier, Springer, and Web of Science from the time of database inception to January 2020. Inclusion criteria were studies that measure leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and ghrelin levels in AIS patients. Selection of studies, assessment of study quality, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. Then, data was analyzed to calculate the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: Seven studies concerning leptin/sOB-R and three studies concerning ghrelin were qualified for meta-analysis (one study concerning both leptin and ghrelin). Serum leptin of patients with AIS were significantly lower when compared with healthy controls, with the weighted mean difference (WMD) of - 0.95 (95% CI - 1.43 to - 0.48, p < 0.0001) after reducing the heterogeneity using six studies for meta-analysis, while sOB-R and ghrelin level was significantly higher in AIS group when compared with control group, with the WMD of 2.64 (95% CI 1.60 to 3.67, p < 0.001) and 1.42 (95% CI 0.48 to 2.35, p = 0.003), respectively.

Conclusion: Our current meta-analysis showed that serum level of leptin in AIS patients was significantly lower when compared with control subjects, while serum sOB-R and ghrelin levels were significantly higher in AIS patients. More clinical studies are still required to further validate the predictive value of leptin or ghrelin for the curve progression for AIS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-020-01988-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596938PMC
October 2020

Jervine exhibits anticancer effects on nasopharyngeal carcinoma through promoting autophagic apoptosis via the blockage of Hedgehog signaling.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 28;132:110898. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Otolaryngology, East Theater General Hospital of PLA, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210000, China. Electronic address:

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor originating from the superior mucosal epithelium of the nasopharynx. However, effective therapies for NPC are still required. Reducing Hedgehog signaling pathway has been shown to suppress tumor growth. In this study, we attempted to explore whether Jervine (JV), an inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling, had anti-cancer effects on NPC, and the underlying mechanisms. Our findings showed that JV treatments markedly reduced the proliferation of NPC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase was significantly enhanced by JV, along with evident DNA damage. Moreover, JV treatment effectively induced apoptosis in NPC cells through improving Caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, ROS production and mitochondrial impairments were detected in JV-incubated NPC cells with elevated releases of Cyto-c from mitochondria. JV also dramatically triggered autophagy through blocking AKT/mTOR and increasing AMPK signaling pathways. Intriguingly, we showed that JV-induced apoptosis was mainly via an autophagy-dependent manner. In addition, the expression levels of SHH, PTCH1, SMO and GLI1 were markedly suppressed in NPC cells, demonstrating the hindered Hedgehog signaling. Importantly, we found that JV-induced apoptosis and autophagy were closely associated with the blockage of Hedgehog signaling. Our in vivo studies confirmed the anti-cancer effects of JV on NPC through inducing autophagy, as evidenced by the markedly reduced tumor growth rate and weight without side effects and toxicity. Taken together, JV may be a promising and effective agent for human NPC treatment through repressing Hedgehog signaling pathway and inducing autophagic cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110898DOI Listing
December 2020

Down-regulated microRNA-223 or elevated ZIC1 inhibits the development of pancreatic cancer via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation.

Cell Cycle 2020 11 16;19(21):2851-2865. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of General Surgery, Jingjiang People's Hospital , Jingjiang, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to participate in the progression of human cancers, such as pancreatic cancer (PC), while the mechanisms of miR-223 in PC remain largely unknown. This study was for the investigation of the status of microRNA (miR)-223 in the growth of PC with the involvement of ZIC1 and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. MiR-223 and ZIC1 expression in PC tissue and cell lines was detected. PANC-1 cells and SW1990 cells were screened for subsequent experiments. Screened cells were transfected with miR-223- or ZIC1-related  oligonucleotides or plasmids, or AZD8055, the dual inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway to test the functions of miR-223, ZIC1 or PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the biological functions of PC cells. The expression of miR-223, ZIC1, or PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins was examined. Tumor xenograft in nude mice was conducted for the detection of tumor growth of PC. Up-regulated miR-223 and declined ZIC1 existed in PC tissues of patients and cell lines. ZIC1 was determined to be a target gene of miR-223. Down-regulated miR-223 or up-regulated ZIC1 led to suppressed proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle entry, volume and weight of tumors, while elevated apoptosis in PC cells through declining phosphorylation levels of PI3K, Akt and mTOR. MiR-223 up-regulation or ZIC1 down-regulation induced opposite results on PC cells. This study highlights that down-regulated miR-223 or elevated ZIC1 inhibits the development of PC via restricting activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which has important meanings for exploring the mechanism of PC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2020.1827189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714437PMC
November 2020

Anterior Pelvic Plane: A Potentially Useful Pelvic Anatomical Reference Plane in Assessing the Patients' Ideal Pelvic Parameters Without the Influence of Spinal Sagittal Deformity.

Global Spine J 2020 Sep 30:2192568220958676. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (301 Hospital), Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Study Design: Observational study.

Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the reliability of anterior pelvic plane (APP) as an anatomical reference plane for assessing the patients' pelvic incidence in patients with ankylosing spondylitis kyphosis deformity.

Methods: The globe kyphosis (GK), lumber lordosis (LL), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK), thoracic kyphosis (TK), anatomical cervical 7 sacrum angle (aC7SA), and cervical 7 sacrum angle (C7SA) were measured on full-length spine radiography imagines. The pelvic incidence (PI), anatomical pelvic tilt (aPT), and anatomical sacral slope (aSS) were measured on the pelvic synthesized 2D lateral radiography imagines. Because the angle between APP and vertical line was about 4°, Angle1 and tPT were calculated using the following formulas: Angle1 = aC7SA - 4; PT = aPT + 4. According to the study conducted by Vialle, traditional PT (tPT) was calculated using the following widely accepted formula: tPT = PI * 0.37 - 7. Measured PT (mPT) was also measured on the full-length spine radiography imagines.

Results: The data analysis showed that PI, mPT, aSS, aPT, and APPA were 50.83 ± 13.44°, 32.52 ± 4.64°, 41.36 ± 9.46°, 8.56 ± 6.80°, and 23.95 ± 5.17°, respectively. There was no significant difference between the PT and tPT (12.56 ± 6.80, 11.49 ± 4.73; = .152). So, the results demonstrated that the PT could play the equivalent effect as tPT did for making surgical plans in patients with kyphosis deformity.

Conclusion: The pelvic anatomical reference plane had potential to be used in assessing the patients' ideal pelvic incident without the influence of spinal sagittal deformity. The aPT+4 may represent patients' postoperative ideal PT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220958676DOI Listing
September 2020

Nitrate loading projection is sensitive to freeze-thaw cycle representation.

Water Res 2020 Nov 29;186:116355. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, 5825 University Research Ct, College Park, MD, 20740, USA. Electronic address:

Climate change can have substantial impacts on nitrogen runoff, which is a major cause of eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia in freshwaters and coastal regions. We examined responses of nitrate loading to climate change in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) with an enhanced Soil and Water Assessment Tool with physically based Freeze-Thaw cycle representation (SWAT-FT), as compared with the original SWAT model that employs an empirical equation. Driven by future climate projections from five General Circulation Models (GCMs) from 1960 to 2099 under the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP) 8.5 scenario, we analyzed changes in riverine nitrate loadings, as well as terrestrial surface and subsurface contributions of the UMRB in the 21st century relative to the baseline period of 1960-1999. By the end of the 21st century, the original SWAT model predicted about a 50% increase in riverine nitrate loadings which is nearly twice as much as that estimated by SWAT-FT (ca. 25%). Such a large difference in projected nitrate changes can potentially mislead mitigation strategies that aim to reduce nitrogen runoff from the UMRB. Further analysis shows that the difference between the original SWAT model and SWAT-FT led to substantial discrepancies in the spatial distribution of surface and subsurface nitrate loadings in the UMRB. In general, SWAT-FT predicted more nitrate leaching for northwestern parts of the UMRB which are more sensitive to freeze-thaw cycle, mainly because SWAT-FT simulated less frequent frozen soils. This study highlights the importance of using physically based freeze-thaw cycle representation in water quality modeling. Design of future nitrogen runoff reduction strategies should include careful assessment of effects that land management has on the freeze-thaw cycles to provide reliable projection of water quality under climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722621PMC
November 2020

Improvement of Sleep Quality in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis Kyphosis After Corrective Surgery.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Dec;45(23):E1596-E1603

Department of Orthopaedics, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in sleep quality in patients surgically treated for kyphosis due to ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and the correlation between these changes and spinal sagittal realignment.

Summary Of Background Data: Sleep problems are prevalent in AS patients. However, little attention has been paid to the sleep quality in patients with AS kyphosis and the effect of surgical intervention on sleep quality.

Methods: We have retrospectively reviewed 62 patients with AS-induced thoracolumbar kyphosis who underwent surgically treatment from October 2012 to November 2016. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. Preoperative and postoperative radiological characteristics and supine function were documented. We compared the above-mentioned parameters pre- and 24 months postoperatively and analyzed the correlation of the changes in the PSQI with the changes in radiological characteristics.

Results: Fifity-one patients (82%) classified as poor sleepers preoperatively. In addition to use of sleeping medication, each domain of the PSQI and the total PSQI were increased postoperatively. Improved sleep quality was correlated with changes in spinal sagittal characteristics, among which the lumbar lordosis (LL) and the chin-brow vertical angle (CBVA) were the independent correlation factors. The number of patients with supine dysfunction decreased from 89% to 15% after surgery. Significant differences were identified in the PSQI scores between the patients with and without supine dysfunction either pre- or postoperatively.

Conclusion: Surgical correction of spinal deformity may improve sleep quality and supine function in patients with AS. Spinal sagittal realignment may be correlated with the improvement of sleep quality.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003676DOI Listing
December 2020

Hierarchical assembly of dual-responsive biomineralized polydopamine-calcium phosphate nanocomposites for enhancing chemo-photothermal therapy by autophagy inhibition.

Biomater Sci 2020 Sep 25;8(18):5172-5182. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, P. R. China.

The induction of autophagy in cancer cells would occur in response to several therapy strategies, including chemotherapy and photothermal therapy (PTT). Hence, combined autophagy inhibition has been regarded as a prevailing strategy to enhance treatment sensitivity in cancers. Herein, dual pH/thermal responsive biomineralized nanocomposites (PCNPs) were rationally designed and prepared based on the hierarchical assembly of calcium phosphate (CaP) and polydopamine (PDA). The first step in the self-assembly process involves the incorporation of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic docetaxel (DTX) into the CaP nanoparticles. Next, PDA was utilized as the coating to hierarchically self-assemble onto the surface of CaP through a simple self-polymerization of dopamine. Third, the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) was absorbed onto the surface of PDA via non-covalent interactions, forming PCNPs/DC. CQ was the only FDA approved autophagy inhibitor in clinical trials that could inhibit autophagosome fusion and degradation. The resulting PCNPs/DC could exhibit dual pH/thermal responsive properties due to the acid-sensitive CaP core and the photothermal effect of the PDA coating. Effective inhibition of autophagy in cancer cells could be realized by blocking the lysosome and weakening the degradation of autolysosomes by PCNPs/DC. Interestingly, complementary autophagy inhibition could therefore sensitize the effects of chemo-photothermal therapy both in vitro and in vivo with negligible toxicity. Therefore, these hierarchically assembled biomineralized nanocomposites would be used as a prevailing strategy to sensitize chemo-photothermal therapy by complementary autophagy inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm00142bDOI Listing
September 2020

Asymmetrical vertebral column decancellation for the management of rigid congenital kyphoscoliosis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Aug 17;21(1):555. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

The Department of Orthopedics, the First Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Fuxing Rd. 28, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Background: Congenital kyphoscoliosis is a disease that often requires surgical treatment. Wedge osteotomies, such as pedicle subtraction osteotomy, are insufficient to correct this complicated rigid deformity. Vertebral column resection yields sufficient correction, but it is an exhaustively lengthy operation with a high risk of major complications. There are few effective and safe techniques for treating rigid congenital kyphoscoliosis. We aimed to investigate the technique of asymmetrical vertebral column decancellation (AVCD) for the treatment of rigid congenital kyphoscoliosis and evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of patients treated with the technique.

Methods: Between January 2013 to June 2017, the data of 31 patients with congenital kyphoscoliosis who underwent single level AVCD were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative radiographical parameters and the visual analogue scale, Asia Spinal Injury Association, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores were documented. The patients were followed up for an average period of 29 months.

Results: The average operative time was 273.9 ± 46.1 min. The average volume of blood loss was 782.3 ± 162.6 ml. The main coronal curve improved from a mean of 81.4° preoperatively to 24.7° at the final follow-up, and the coronal balance improved from 28.9 to 7.6 mm. The degree of local kyphosis improved from a mean of 86.5° to 29.2°, and the sagittal balance improved from 72.3 to 16.9 mm. All clinical outcomes also improved significantly from preoperatively to the final follow-up. No permanent postoperative neurologic complications occurred.

Conclusion: The AVCD surgical procedure corrects spinal deformities in both the coronal and sagittal planes by way of a convex-sided Y shape osteotomy, achieves satisfactory realignment without additional neurological complications, and can be considered an alternative treatment for rigid congenital kyphoscoliosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03558-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433174PMC
August 2020

Carbon-Negative Biofuel Production.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 09 19;54(17):10797-10807. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1552 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53726, United States.

Achievement of the 1.5 °C limit for global temperature increase relies on the large-scale deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies. In this article, we explore two CDR technologies: soil carbon sequestration (SCS), and carbon capture and storage (CCS) integrated with cellulosic biofuel production. These CDR technologies are applied as part of decentralized biorefinery systems processing corn stover and unfertilized switchgrass grown in riparian zones in the Midwestern United States. Cover crops grown on corn-producing lands are chosen from the SCS approach, and biogenic CO in biorefineries is captured, transported by pipeline, and injected into saline aquifers. The decentralized biorefinery system using SCS, CCS, or both can produce carbon-negative cellulosic biofuels (≤-22.2 gCO MJ). Meanwhile, biofuel selling prices increase by 15-45% due to CDR costs. Economic incentives (e.g., cover crop incentives and/or a CO tax credit) can mitigate price increases caused by CDR technologies. A combination of different CDR technologies in decentralized biorefinery systems is the most efficient method for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, and its total GHG mitigation potential in the Midwest is 0.16 GtCO year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01097DOI Listing
September 2020

[Sugar and sugar alcohols in infants Ying Yang Bao based on derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2020 May;49(3):442-446

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To establish a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) method for determination of seven sugars and sugar alcohols in infants Ying Yang Bao nutritional supplements.

Methods: The samples were extracted with pure water and diluted with 95% ethanol. After being dried by nitrogen, methoxyamine hydrochloride oxime was dissolved in pyridine and derivatized by MSTFA. The capillary column TG-5 Ms(30 m×0. 25 mm, 0. 25 μm) was used for determination by GC-MS.

Results: The limits of detection(LODs)were 1. 0-3. 0 mg/g and the limits of quantification(LOQs)were 3. 3-10. 0 mg/g. The average recoveries of seven kinds of sugar and sugar alcohols were 86. 7%-96. 7%, and the relative standard deviation was less than 5. 1%(n=6). The contents of seven sugars and sugar alcohols in soybean matrix nutritional supplements were determined in the range of 0. 25-13. 70 g/100 g, which was consistent with the nutrition label of the products.

Conclusion: The method is convenient, mild and fit for batch sample analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10. 19813/j. cnki. weishengyanjiu. 2020. 03. 016DOI Listing
May 2020

[Effects of different varieties and processing degree grains on blood glucose and blood lipid in rats].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2020 May;49(3):434-441

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of whole grains(WG) and refined grains(RG) on blood glucose, blood lipid and inflammatory factors in normal rats, and the common effects of different whole grains.

Methods: 2×2 factorial experiments were designed according to grain sources(rice & wheat) and processing precision(whole grain & refined grain). According to the initial body weight and fasting blood glucose, 48 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: RG rice group, WG rice group, RG wheat group and WG wheat group. They were fed with 45% refined rice, whole grain rice, refined wheat and whole grain wheat respectively for 18 weeks. The formula was in accordance with AIN-93 G. Food intake and body weight were monitored weekly. Fasting blood glucose, lipid, inflammatory factors and organ pathology were detected at the end of the experiment.

Results: During the experiment, the body weight growth and food intake of rats in each group were basically the same. At the end of the experiment, fatty liver appeared in varying degrees, while the kidney of rats in RG rice group and RG wheat group showed epithelial steatosis. Biochemical indexes showed that blood urea nitrogen(UN), fasting blood glucose(FBG), total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low density lipoprotein(LDL)and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1)in RG wheat group were significantly higher than those in WG wheat group(P<0. 05), while high density lipoprotein(HDL)level in RG wheat group was significantly lower than that in WG wheat group(P<0. 05), and there was no significant difference in other indexes. The result of factorial analysis showed that the differences of FBG, serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR)and C-reactive protein(CRP)caused by different grain processing degree were significant, but there was no significant difference between rice and wheat varieties(P>0. 05).

Conclusion: Studies have shown that long-term feeding of refined grains can lead to fasting blood glucose, blood lipid abnormality and renal pathological changes in rats, and proper feeding of whole grains can delay the development of adverse symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10. 19813/j. cnki. weishengyanjiu. 2020. 03. 015DOI Listing
May 2020