Publications by authors named "Xi Wang"

1,888 Publications

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Targeting monoamine oxidase A for T cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

Sci Immunol 2021 May;6(59)

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an enzyme best known for its function in the brain, where it breaks down neurotransmitters and thereby influences mood and behavior. Small-molecule MAO inhibitors (MAOIs) have been developed and are clinically used for treating depression and other neurological disorders. However, the involvement of MAO-A in antitumor immunity has not been reported. Here, we observed induction of the gene in tumor-infiltrating immune cells. knockout mice exhibited enhanced antitumor T cell immunity and suppressed tumor growth. MAOI treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in preclinical mouse syngeneic and human xenograft tumor models in a T cell-dependent manner. Combining MAOI and anti-PD-1 treatments generated synergistic tumor suppression effects. Clinical data correlation studies associated intratumoral expression with T cell dysfunction and decreased patient survival in a broad range of cancers. We further demonstrated that MAO-A restrains antitumor T cell immunity through controlling intratumoral T cell autocrine serotonin signaling. Together, these data identify MAO-A as an immune checkpoint and support repurposing MAOI antidepressants for cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abh2383DOI Listing
May 2021

An inverse-breathing encapsulation system for cell delivery.

Sci Adv 2021 May 14;7(20). Epub 2021 May 14.

Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Cell encapsulation represents a promising therapeutic strategy for many hormone-deficient diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, adequate oxygenation of the encapsulated cells remains a challenge, especially in the poorly oxygenated subcutaneous site. Here, we present an encapsulation system that generates oxygen (O) for the cells from their own waste product, carbon dioxide (CO), in a self-regulated (i.e., "inverse breathing") way. We leveraged a gas-solid (CO-lithium peroxide) reaction that was completely separated from the aqueous cellular environment by a gas permeable membrane. O measurements and imaging validated CO-responsive O release, which improved cell survival in hypoxic conditions. Simulation-guided optimization yielded a device that restored normoglycemia of immunocompetent diabetic mice for over 3 months. Furthermore, functional islets were observed in scaled-up device implants in minipigs retrieved after 2 months. This inverse breathing device provides a potential system to support long-term cell function in the clinically attractive subcutaneous site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd5835DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of cations on the removal rate of chloride ions and mechanism analysis in high-salt wastewater.

Water Sci Technol 2021 May;83(9):2232-2241

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China E-mail:

Precipitation dechlorination has the advantage of being a simple process with a low cost. However, there are few reports on the effect of cations on dechlorination. In this study, we investigated the effect of cations in high-salt wastewater on the removal of chlorine ions by cuprous chloride precipitation and analysed the corresponding mechanism. A series of investigations revealed that Fe could oxidise sulphite, thereby reducing the removal rate of chlorine ions. The reaction between magnesium and sulphite results in precipitation, which has a slightly adverse effect on the removal of chloride ions. Hexavalent chromium oxidises the chloride ion, resulting in the formation of chlorine gas, which improves the removal rate. Ferrous and manganese, however, do not have a notable effect on chlorine removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.098DOI Listing
May 2021

-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Cyclization of Aldehydes with α-Diazo Iodonium Triflate: Facile Access to 2,5-Disubstituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles.

Org Lett 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Advanced Catalytic Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

Herein, we report a novel organocatalytic process for synthesis of complex 1,3,4-oxadiazoles from readily accessible aldehydes. By exploiting the nucleophilicity of the putative Breslow intermediate and the inherent electrophilicity of α-diazo iodonium triflate, we have found that -heterocyclic carbene catalyst promotes efficient cyclization of various aldehydes and α-diazo iodonium triflates. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions with a wide range of functional group tolerance. The heterocyclic products can be readily further functionalized, rendering the protocol highly valuable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01128DOI Listing
May 2021

Cell-free DNA copy number variations predict efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor-based therapy in hepatobiliary cancers.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Department of Liver Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

Background: This study was designed to screen potential biomarkers in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for predicting the clinical outcome of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based therapy in advanced hepatobiliary cancers.

Methods: Three cohorts including 187 patients with hepatobiliary cancers were recruited from clinical trials at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Forty-three patients received combination therapy of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor with lenvatinib (ICI cohort 1), 108 patients received ICI-based therapy (ICI cohort 2) and 36 patients received non-ICI therapy (non-ICI cohort). The plasma cfDNA and blood cell DNA mutation profiles were assessed to identify efficacy biomarkers by a cancer gene-targeted next-generation sequencing panel.

Results: Based on the copy number variations (CNVs) in plasma cfDNA, the CNV risk score model was constructed to predict survival by using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator Cox regression methods. The results of the two independent ICI-based therapy cohorts showed that patients with lower CNV risk scores had longer overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) than those with high CNV risk scores (log-rank p<0.01). In the non-ICI cohort, the CNV risk score was not associated with PFS or OS. Furthermore, the results indicated that 53% of patients with low CNV risk scores achieved durable clinical benefit; in contrast, 88% of patients with high CNV risk scores could not benefit from combination therapy (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The CNVs in plasma cfDNA could predict the clinical outcome of the combination therapy of PD-1 inhibitor with lenvatinib and other ICI-based therapies in hepatobiliary cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001942DOI Listing
May 2021

A chondroitin sulfate based injectable hydrogel for delivery of stem cells in cartilage regeneration.

Biomater Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Charles Institute of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

Chondroitin sulfate (CS), as a popular material for cartilage tissue engineering scaffolds, has been extensively studied and reported for its safety and excellent biocompatibility. However, the rapid degradation of pure CS scaffolds has brought a challenge to regenerate neo-tissue similar to natural articular cartilage effectively. Meanwhile, the poly(ethene glycol) (PEG) -based biopolymer is frequently applied as a structural constituent material because of its remarkable mechanical properties, long-lasting in vivo stability, and hypo-immunity. Here, we report that the combination of CS and hyperbranched multifunctional PEG copolymer (HB-PEG) could synergistically promote cartilage repair. The thiol functionalised CS (CS-SH)/HB-PEG hydrogel scaffolds were fabricated via thiol-ene reaction, which exhibits rapid gelation, excellent mechanical properties and prolonged degradation properties. We found that rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells presented great cell viability and improved chondrogenesis in CS-SH/HB-PEG hydrogels. Moreover, the injectable hydrogel scaffolds reduced stem cell inflammatory response, consistent with the well-documented anti-inflammatory activities of CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00482dDOI Listing
May 2021

Epicardial Adipose Tissue Volume Is Associated with High Risk Plaque Profiles in Suspect CAD Patients.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 12;2021:6663948. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sixth Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To explore the association between EAT volume and plaque precise composition and high risk plaque detected by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).

Methods: 101 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent CCTA examination from March to July 2019 were enrolled, including 70 cases acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and 31 cases stable angina pectoris (SAP). Based on CCTA image, atherosclerotic plaque precise compositions were analyzed using dedicated quantitative software. High risk plaque was defined as plaque with more than 2 high risk features (spotty calcium, positive remolding, low attenuation plaque, napkin-ring sign) on CCTA image. The association between EAT volume and plaque composition was assessed as well as the different of correlation between ACS and SAP was analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether EAT volume was independent risk factors of high risk plaque (HRP).

Results: EAT volume in the ACS group was significantly higher than that of the SAP group (143.7 ± 49.8 cm vs. 123.3 ± 39.2 cm, = 0.046). EAT volume demonstrated a significant positive correlation with total plaque burden ( = 0.298, = 0.003), noncalcified plaque burden ( = 0.245, = 0.013), lipid plaque burden ( = 0.250, = 0.012), and homocysteine ( = 0.413, ≤ 0.001). In ACS, EAT volume was positively correlated with total plaque burden ( = 0.309, = 0.009), noncalcified plaque burden ( = 0.242, = 0.044), and lipid plaque burden ( = 0.240, = 0.045); however, no correlation was observed in SAP. Patients with HRP have larger EAT volume than those without HRP (169 ± 6.2 cm vs. 130.6 ± 5.3 cm, = 0.002). After adjustment by traditional risk factors and coronary artery calcium score (CACS), EAT volume was an independent risk predictor of presence of HRP (OR: 1.018 (95% CI: 1.006-1.030), = 0.004).

Conclusions: With the increasing EAT volume, more dangerous plaque composition burdens increase significantly. EAT volume is a risk predictor of HRP independent of convention cardiovascular risk factors and CACS, which supports the potential impact of EAT on progression of coronary atherosclerotic plaque.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6663948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057896PMC
April 2021

Efficient Dual-Band White-Light Emission with High Color Rendering from Zero-Dimensional Organic Copper Iodide.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China.

Broad-band white-light emissions from organic-inorganic lead halide hybrids have attracted considerable attention in energy-saving solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. However, the toxicity of lead in these hybrids hinders their commercial prospects, and the low photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) cannot meet the requirements for efficient lighting. Here, we report a highly efficient dual-band white-light emission from organic copper iodide, (CHN)CuI, which exhibits a high PLQY of 54.3% and excellent air stability. The single-crystalline (CHN)CuI possesses a unique zero-dimensional (0D) structure, in which the isolated [CuI] dimers are periodically embedded in the wide band gap organic framework of CHN. This perfect 0D structure can cause significant quantum confinement and strong electron-phonon coupling, which contributes to efficient emissions from self-trapped excitons (STEs). Photophysical studies revealed the presence of two self-trapped emitting states in [CuI] dimers, whose populations are highly sensitive to the temperature that governs the molecular environment for [CuI] dimers and the thermal activation energy of STEs. An ultraviolet (UV) excited white light-emitting diode fabricated using this single-phase white-light emitter exhibits a high color rendering index (CRI) of 78. The new material provides a promising emitter, having a high PLQY and a high CRI simultaneously, for SSL and display applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03881DOI Listing
May 2021

Captivity Is Associated With Gut Mycobiome Composition in Tibetan Macaques ().

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:665853. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, China.

Although recent studies have revealed that gut fungi may play an important functional role in animal biology and health, little is known concerning the effects of anthropogenic pressures on the gut mycobiome. Here, we examined differences of the gut mycobiome in wild and captive populations of Tibetan macaques () targeting the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and using next generation sequencing. Our findings demonstrate that the diversity, composition, and functional guild of the Tibetan macaque gut mycobiome differ across populations living in different habitats. We found that Tibetan macaques translocated from the wild into a captive setting for a period of 1 year, were characterized by a reduction in fungal diversity and an increase in the abundance of potential gut fungal pathogens compared to wild individuals. Furthermore, we found that the relative abundance of two main fungal guilds of plant pathogens and ectomycorrhizal fungi was significantly lower in captive individuals compared to those living in the wild. Our results highlight that, in addition to bacteria, gut fungi vary significantly among individuals living in captive and wild settings. However, given limited data on the functional role that fungi play in the host's gut, as well as the degree to which a host's mycobiome is seeded from fungi in the soil or ingested during the consumption of plant and animal foods, controlled studies are needed to better understand the role of the local environment in seeding the mycobiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.665853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085381PMC
April 2021

The anti-influenza virus drug, arbidol is an efficient inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.

Cell Discov 2020 May 2;6(1):28. Epub 2020 May 2.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0169-8DOI Listing
May 2020

Dynamic changes and prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies: multiple factors-based analysis.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

The First College of Clinical Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China; Yichang Central People's Hospital, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Investigating the dynamic characteristics of serologic antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 is of significance.

Method: Here, the dynamic changes and prevalence of IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 from symptoms onset to 210 days were described. Antibodies were detected by a chemiluminescence immunoassay.

Result: For all patients, the average titers and positive rates of IgG/IgM within 30 days from symptoms onset reached to the peak and then began continuous decline. The titers and positive rates of IgG/IgM from symptoms 180 to 210 days remained 43.1 ± 27.0 AU/mL/84.3% and 4.4 ± 5.2 AU/mL/12.0%, respectively. Further statistical analysis revealed that the dynamic changes and prevalence in the SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies are mainly based on age and disease severity, not sex. The change trend of dynamic and prevalence of IgM antibody was similar as the description of IgG. Even so, the decline rate of IgM antibody is faster. The IgG level that reduced to 16.33 ± 3.15 AU/mL might be a threshold value and should be alerted because the IgG level might become undetectable within 30 to 60 days when the IgG down to the threshold value.

Conclusion: These results could provide important information for COVID-19 diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080494PMC
April 2021

Recent Progress of Exosomes in Multiple Myeloma: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutic Strategies.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, School of Medicine of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, No. 32, West Section 2, First Ring Road, Qingyang District, Chengdu 610000, China.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy that is still incurable. The bone marrow microenvironment (BMM), with cellular and non-cellular components, can create a favorable environment for the survival, proliferation and migration of MM cells, which is the main reason for the failure of MM therapies. Many studies have demonstrated that exosomes play an important role in the tumor-supportive BMM. Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles that can be released by various cells. Some exosomes contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of MM. MM-derived exosomes act on different cells in the BMM, thereby creating an environment conducive to the survival and growth of MM cells. Owing to the important roles of exosomes in the BMM, targeting the secretion of exosomes may become an effective therapeutic strategy for MM. In addition, the abnormal expression of "cargos" in the exosomes of MM patients may be used to diagnose MM or used as part of a screen for the early prognoses of MM patients. Exosomes also have good biological properties, including safety, biocompatibility, stability and biodegradability. Therefore, the encapsulation of anti-cancer drugs in exosomes, along with surface modifications of exosomes with targeting molecules, are very promising strategies for cancer therapies-particularly for MM. In addition, DC-derived exosomes (DC-EXs) can express MHC-I, MHC-II and T cell costimulatory molecules. Therefore, DC-EXs may be used as a nanocarrier to deliver cancer vaccines in MM. This review summarizes the recent progress of exosome research regarding the pathogenesis of, diagnosis of, prognosis of and therapeutic strategies for MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13071635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037106PMC
April 2021

Gonadotropin Therapy Once a Week for Spermatogenesis in Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

Endocr Pract 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China;. Electronic address:

Objective: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) can be caused by congenital HH (CHH), pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS), and pituitary injury (acquired HH). Gonadotropin therapy, typically administrated every other day or twice a week, is a common method for spermatogenesis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of once a week gonadotropin therapy on spermatogenesis in patients with HH (n=160).

Methods: Their diagnoses were Kallmann syndrome (KS) (n=61), normosmic CHH (nCHH) (n=34), PSIS (n=48), and acquired HH (n=17). The rate of successful spermatogenesis and median time to achieve spermatogenesis among these four subgroups were compared, as well as between a once weekly group (n=95) and a twice weekly group (n=223) of CHH patients.

Results: Once a week gonadotropin therapy resulted in 74% of HH patients (119/160) who achieved spermatogenesis with significantly increased testicular volume and total testosterone levels (p<0.001). The median period of spermatogenesis was 13 (11.4, 14.6) months. Larger basal testicular volume (p=0.0056) was an independent predictor for earlier sperm appearance. Six spontaneous pregnancies occurred. Compared with the twice weekly regimen for spermatogenesis, the once a week injection group had a similar median time of sperm appearance (14 [11.6, 16.4] vs. 15 [13.5, 16.5] months), similar success rate (78% [74/95] vs. 64% [143/223]), sperm concentration (20.9 [5.0,46.3] vs. 11.7 [2.1, 24.4] million/mL), and progressive sperm motility (40.8±27.3% vs. 36.9%±20.2%).

Conclusion: Once a week gonadotropin therapy is effective in inducing spermatogenesis, similar to that of twice weekly therapy. Larger basal testicular size was a favorable indicator for earlier spermatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eprac.2021.04.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Preclinical evaluation of a novel anti-mesothelin immunotoxin based on a single domain antibody as the targeting ligand.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 26;602:120647. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China. Electronic address:

Pancreatic cancer, as one of the most aggressive and lethal malignancies in the world, is lack of effective treatment. Constructing immunotoxin molecules to target the mesothelin (MSLN) receptor is a potential therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer and other related malignant tumors, with some molecules being tested in clinical trials. However, currently, there are still some limitations in its applications, such as the difficulty of the preparation of drug molecules, the limited effectiveness of drugs, and the inadequacy of drug safety and immunogenicity. In this study, we constructed a novel type of anti-MSLN immunotoxin, A1-PE24X7, in which a single domain antibody (sdAb) molecule was used as the target ligand and an improved PE24X7 toxin with reduced off-target toxicity and immunogenicity was used as the effector. Unlike conventional immunotoxins, the designed A1-PE24X7 could be easily expressed in the E. coli system in the form of a soluble protein with a good yield (15--20 mg/L), avoiding the complex process of denaturation and refolding of inclusion bodies, and it can be conveniently stored in PBS solution for more than 7 days at 4 °C, showing high storage stability. Cell-based experiments showed that A1-PE24X7 entered MSLN-expressing tumor cells in a receptor-mediated manner and killed these cells with an EC in the low nanomolar range (0.13 nM against NCI-N87 cells and 0.79 nM against AsPC-1 cells) and it showed ideal selectivity for the MSLN receptor (>100 nM against receptor negative PC3 cells). In animal-based experiments, A1-PE24X7 had tumor enrichment ability in relation to MSLN-positive tumors and showed strong tumor killing and inhibition in mouse models of pancreatic cancer and gastric cancer. Five injections of 3.0 mg/kg A1-PE24X7 significantly reduced the tumor volume of gastric NCI-N87 cancer and also significantly inhibited the growth of pancreatic AsPC-1 cancer. In addition, the maximum tolerable dosage (MSD) of A1-PE24X7 to mice was higher than 15 mg/kg, showing that A1-PE24X7 has a relatively broad therapeutic window. These preclinical results indicate that this strategy has good potential for application to the treatment of pancreatic cancer and other tumors with high MSLN expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120647DOI Listing
April 2021

Deaths from COPD in patients with cancer: a population-based study.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 27;13. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

Features of the deaths caused by COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in cancer patients remained a controversial issue. This study aimed to characterize the demographic characteristics and mortality rates of the deaths from COPD in patients with cancer. In total, 7,846,370 cancer patients aged 40 years or older in the United States were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1975-2016). Mortality rates and SMRs (standardized mortality ratios) adjusted by age, race, sex, and calendar year were calculated to investigate the risk of COPD deaths in cancer survivors and to compare it with the general population. A total of 119,228 COPD deaths in patients with cancer were recorded, with a mortality rate of 261.5/100,000 person-years, nearly two-fold that of the general population (SMR, 2.17; 95% CI [confidence interval], 2.16-2.18). The proportion of cancer survivors dying from COPD increased from 0.9% in 1975 to 3.4% in 2016. Patients with lung cancer had a higher overall risk (SMR, 9.23; 95% CI, 9.12-9.35) than those with extrapulmonary malignancies. Among all extrapulmonary sites, laryngeal (SMR, 5.54; 95% CI, 5.34-5.75) and esophageal cancers (SMR, 4.33; 95% CI, 4.04-4.63) had the highest SMR. The risk of death from COPD increased with follow-up time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202939DOI Listing
April 2021

A green solar photo-Fenton process for the degradation of carbamazepine using natural pyrite and organic acid with in-situ generated HO.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 18;784:147187. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, PR China; The Innovation Team for Volatile Organic Compounds Pollutants Control and Resource Utilization of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650500, PR China; The Higher Educational Key Laboratory for Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds Pollutants Control of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650500, PR China.

Pyrite is widely used in Fenton reaction for degradation of pollutants and exhibits great potential for environmental remediation, however, its efficiency is greatly compromised by extra HO and pH adjustment. Herein, a pyrite based green solar photo-Fenton system for carbamazepine (CBZ) treatment is constructed, involving the use of simulated sunlight and natural organic acids with in situ-generated HO and without extra pH adjustment. The addition of organic acids including tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (CA), and ascorbic acid (AA) can form complex with iron in pyrite, which promotes the Fe(II) dissolution. Upon irradiation, pyrite could be excited to produce photoelectrons, which would reduce oxygen to produce HO through a two-step route assisted by organic acids. The simulated sunlight and organic acids promoted the in-situ production of HO and Fe(II) species, sustaining an efficient Fenton reaction. This produced massive hydroxyl radical (OH), as demonstrated by the active species capture experiment. Compared with no degradation of CBZ under pure pyrite, the degradation efficiency of CBZ reached to 70%, 60%, and 53% in pyrite/TA, pyrite/CA, pyrite/AA within 30 min under simulated solar light irradiation, respectively. This work reports the first use of natural pyrite, a typical Fe-mineral semiconductor, to produce OH for CBZ degradation through natural additive assisted Fenton reaction excluding the adding extra HO and pH adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147187DOI Listing
April 2021

Serological investigation of asymptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection reveals weak and declining antibody responses.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Apr 19:1-28. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens & State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Without an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the build-up of herd immunity through natural infection has been suggested as a means to control COVID-19. Although population immunity is typically estimated by the serological investigation of recovered patients, humoral immunity in asymptomatic subjects has not been well studied, although they represent a large proportion of all SARS-CoV-2 infection cases. In this study, we conducted a serosurvey of asymptomatic infections among food workers and performed serological and cellular response analyses of asymptomatic subjects in Wuhan, the original epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our data showed that up to 5.91% of the food workers carried SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies asymptomatically; however, in 90.4% of them, the antibody level declined over a 2-week period. IgM and IgG antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were significantly lower in asymptomatic subjects than in recovered symptomatic patients with similar disease courses. Furthermore, the asymptomatic subjects showed lymphopenia and a prominent decrease in the B-cell population, as well as a low frequency of antibody-secreting cells and a low cytokine response. These factors probably contributed to the low and unsustained antibody levels in asymptomatic subjects. Our results show that asymptomatic subjects are likely to be vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, and neither the proportion of population immunity nor the breadth of immune responses is sufficient for herd immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1919032DOI Listing
April 2021

Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G deposits in a young woman: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(10):2357-2366

Department of Nephrology, Shenzhen Longhua District Central Hospital, Shenzhen 518110, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) deposits (PGNMID) is a newly recognized rare disease. The renal pathology is characterized by prominent manifestations of membranous hyperplasia, which are easy to misdiagnose. The clinical symptoms are severe. Massive proteinuria and hypoproteinemia are conspicuous, and most patients are accompanied by renal insufficiency and microscopic hematuria.

Case Summary: A 27-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital for macroscopic hematuria and proteinuria 4 years prior, and renal biopsy in the hospital suggested moderate-to-severe mesangial proliferating glomerulonephritis (MsPGN). She had taken a glucocorticoid, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, and other treatments and achieved brief partial remission. Recently, the patient visited our hospital due to massive proteinuria. Repeated renal biopsy and re-evaluation of the first biopsy obtained 4 years previously revealed monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition in the glomeruli. A bone marrow examination was performed to exclude hematologic malignancy, and a diagnosis of PGNMID was established. The patient showed remission after four cycles of a bortezomib + cyclophosphamide + dexamethasone scheme.

Conclusion: PGNMID is usually misdiagnosed as MsPGN or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Although it often occurs in middle-aged and elderly individuals, it cannot be readily excluded in young people, even when serum immunofixation electrophoresis is negative. IgG subtype and light chain staining are necessary when this disease is highly suspected. An accurate diagnosis at the earliest stage may avoid the overuse of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i10.2357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026847PMC
April 2021

Establishment and validation of a prognostic signature for lung adenocarcinoma based on metabolism-related genes.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Apr 15;21(1):219. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute of Pathology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Background: Given that dysregulated metabolism has been recently identified as a hallmark of cancer biology, this study aims to establish and validate a prognostic signature of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) based on metabolism-related genes (MRGs).

Methods: The gene sequencing data of LUAD samples with clinical information and the metabolism-related gene set were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB), respectively. The differentially expressed MRGs were identified by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Then, univariate cox regression analysis was performed to identify MRGs that related to overall survival (OS). A prognostic signature was developed by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Furthermore, the signature was validated in the GSE31210 dataset. In addition, a nomogram that combined the prognostic signature was created for predicting the 1-, 3- and 5-year OS of LUAD. The accuracy of the nomogram prediction was evaluated using a calibration plot. Finally, cox regression analysis was applied to identify the prognostic value and clinical relationship of the signature in LUAD.

Results: A total of 116 differentially expressed MRGs were detected in the TCGA dataset. We found that 12 MRGs were most significantly associated with OS by using the univariate regression analysis in LUAD. Then, multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied to construct the prognostic signature, which consisted of six MRGs-aldolase A (ALDOA), catalase (CAT), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2 (ENTPD2), glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), and thymidylate synthetase (TYMS). The prognostic value of this signature was further successfully validated in the GSE31210 dataset. Furthermore, the calibration curve of the prognostic nomogram demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and observed survival rates for each of OS. Further analysis indicated that this signature could be an independent prognostic indicator after adjusting to other clinical factors. The high-risk group patients have higher levels of immune checkpoint molecules and are therefore more sensitive to immunotherapy. Finally, we confirmed six MRGs protein and mRNA expression in six lung cancer cell lines and firstly found that ENTPD2 might played an important role on LUAD cells colon formation and migration.

Conclusions: We established a prognostic signature based on MRGs for LUAD and validated the performance of the model, which may provide a promising tool for the diagnosis, individualized immuno-/chemotherapeutic strategies and prognosis in patients with LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01915-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050921PMC
April 2021

Integrated Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis reveals key genes for predicting dual-phenotype Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prognosis.

J Cancer 2021 19;12(10):2993-3010. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Guangxi Key Laboratory for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

Dual-phenotype hepatocellular carcinoma (DPHCC) expresses both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers, and is characterized by high recurrence and low survival rates. The underlying molecular mechanisms of DPHCC pathogenesis are unclear. We performed whole exome sequencing and RNA sequencing of three subtypes of HCC (10 DPHCC, 10 CK19-positive HCC, and 14 CK19-negative HCC), followed by integrated bioinformatics analysis, including somatic mutation analysis, mutation signal analysis, differential gene expression analysis, and pathway enrichment analysis. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were applied for exploring survival related characteristics. We found that mutated genes in DPHCC patients were associated with carcinogenesis and immunity, and the up-regulated genes were mainly enriched in transcription-related and cancer-related pathways, and the down-regulated genes were mainly enriched in immune-related pathways. CXCL9 was selected as the hub gene, which is associated with immune cells and survival prognosis. Our results showed that low CXCL9 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis, and its expression was significantly reduced in DPHCC samples. In conclusion, we explored the molecular mechanisms governing DPHCC development and progression and identified CXCL9, which influences the immune microenvironment and prognosis of DPHCC and might be new clinically significant biomarkers for predicting prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.56005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040886PMC
March 2021

DDAH2 suppresses RLR-MAVS-mediated innate antiviral immunity by stimulating nitric oxide-activated, Drp1-induced mitochondrial fission.

Sci Signal 2021 Apr 13;14(678). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences; Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Beijing Key Laboratory for Cancer Invasion and Metastasis, Department of Oncology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

The RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway is pivotal for innate immunity against invading viruses, and dysregulation of this molecular cascade has been linked to various diseases. Here, we identified dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) as a potent regulator of the RLR-mediated antiviral response in human and mouse. Overexpression of DDAH2 attenuated RLR signaling, whereas loss of DDAH2 function enhanced RLR signaling and suppressed viral replication ex vivo and in mice. Upon viral infection, DDAH2 relocated to mitochondria, where it induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which promoted mitochondrial fission and blocked the activation of innate immune responses mediated by mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), a kinase downstream of MAVS, inhibited DDAH2 by phosphorylating DDAH2 at multiple sites. Our study thus identifies a reciprocal inhibitory loop between the DDAH2-NO cascade and the RLR signaling pathway that fine-tunes the antiviral immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.abc7931DOI Listing
April 2021

Correction to: Inter-transformation between silver nanoparticles and Ag induced by humic acid under light or dark conditions.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 401125, Changsha, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02412-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Immunoreactivities of AR, ERα, ERβ and aromatase in the nuptial pad of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) during pre-hibernation and the breeding period.

Eur J Histochem 2021 Apr 13;65(2). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Laboratory of Animal Physiology, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing.

There is a prominent local raised pad called nuptial pad on the forelimb of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii), which is hypothetically concluded as an enhancement of the grip and a spreader of pheromone during the amplexus. In this study, we investigated the immunolocalization and protein expression levels of AR, ERα, ERβ and aromatase in the nuptial pad of R. dybowskii during pre-hibernation and the breeding period. Histologically, the annual development of the nuptial pad in R. dybowskii is manifested as the larger area of specialized mucous gland and the longer length of papillary epidermal projection during the breeding period. AR, ERα, ERβ and aromatase are present in the stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale and the secretory portion of specialized mucous glands during both periods. Western blotting results confirmed that AR, ERα and ERβ protein levels are higher during pre-hibernation than those during the breeding season. These results suggest that nuptial pad is the direct target organ of androgen and estrogen. Androgen may participate in the regulation of annual development and glandular function of nuptial pad, and estrogen may play an endocrine, autocrine or paracrine role during pre-hibernation and the breeding period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ejh.2021.3206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056327PMC
April 2021

Coagulation removal of phosphorus from a southern China reservoir in different stages of algal blooms: Performance evaluation and AlP matching principle analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 1;782:146849. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18, Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Due to excessive nutrient discharge, many reservoirs in southern China suffer from eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. Several methods for phosphorus (P) removal have been proposed, including coagulation, adsorption, and biological methods. Among these methods, coagulation is preferable because of its quick effect, simple operation, and low cost. To investigate the effect and mechanism of coagulation on dephosphorization in reservoir water, the performances of Al-based (AlCl and polyaluminum chloride (PACl)) and Fe-based coagulants (FeCl and FeSO) were evaluated in this work. For reservoir water with a total phosphorus (TP) concentration of approximately 0.080 mg/L, aluminum salts showed stable advantages in dephosphorization. AlCl3 reduced the TP level by over 90% when treating the water sample collected at the initial stage of algal blooms, and PACl reduced by over 80% during the blooming stage. To reveal the dephosphorization mechanism and AlP matching principle, synthesized water samples were prepared and treated with AlCl and [AlOAl(OH)(HO)] (Al). While simulating the water quality characteristics of reservoir water, important influencing factors were considered. The factors include P content (dissolved phosphorus (DP) and particulate phosphorus (PP)), pH, and extracellular organic matter (EOM). The pH was set to 7.66 and 8.29, with PP proportion set to 20%, 50%, and 80%. Simulated water treatment results indicated that, except for the coagulants species, pH significantly affected the dephosphorization efficiency. Moreover, the effects of P speciation and EOM were confirmed. Based on the coagulation performance and coagulation product characterization, chemical precipitation and inner-sphere complexation were estimated to be the most predominant way that DP and PP match with Al and were efficiently removed by Al-based coagulants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146849DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between plasma free fatty acid levels and primary angle-closure glaucoma based on a mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Purpose: To determine the association between plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG).

Methods: Free fatty acid (FFA) levels in patients with PACG (n = 181) and people without glaucoma (n = 340) were compared. Twenty-two FFAs and six lipid classes were measured using metabolomics analysis. Odds ratio (OR) of these metabolites and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for PACG were obtained by logistic regression. Stepwise forward selection was performed to identify FFAs that influenced PACG risk. Areas under the curve (AUC) were applied to assess the predictive performance. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between ocular parameters and FFAs.

Results: Most FFAs in the PACG group were lower than those in the non-glaucoma group. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; OR for fourth quartile (Q4) vs. first quartile (Q1): 0.32 (0.16-0.66); per standard deviation (SD) increase: 0.64 (0.49-0.83); p for trend: 0.0007) and total saturated fatty acids (SFAs; OR for Q4 versus Q1: 0.27 (0.13-0.56); per SD increase: 0.65 (0.50-0.87); p for trend: 0.0004) were associated with decreased PACG risk. The AUC of the model that included DHA, total SFAs, demographic and ophthalmic factors increased from 0.8230 (0.7811-0.8649) to 0.8512 (0.8133-0.8891) (increased AUC: 0.0282 (0.0112-0.0453); p for increased AUC: 0.0012). Additionally, the cup-disc ratio had a weak negative correlation with DHA and total SFAs (DHA: r = -0.12085, p = 0.0065; total SFAs: r = -0.13318, p = 0.0024).

Conclusions: Decrease in FFA levels may be related to lipid peroxidation. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and total SFAs may be screening indices for PACG patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14874DOI Listing
April 2021

Prevalence and coprevalence of modifiable risk factors for upper digestive tract cancer among residents aged 40-69 years in Yangzhong city, China: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 7;11(4):e042006. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Oncology, 923rd Hospital of PLA, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: To describe the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for upper digestive tract cancer (UDTC) and its coprevalence, and investigate relevant influencing factors of modifiable UDTC risk factors coprevalence among residents aged 40-69 years in Yangzhong city, China.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Participants: A total of 21 175 participants aged 40-69 years were enrolled in the study. 1962 subjects were excluded due to missing age, marital status or some other selected information. Eventually, 19 213 participants were available for the present analysis.

Main Outcomes Measures: Prevalence and coprevalence of eight modifiable UDTC risk factors (overweight or obesity, current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, insufficient vegetables intake, insufficient fruit intake and the consumption of pickled, fried and hot food) were analysed.

Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity, current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, insufficient vegetables intake, insufficient fruit intake and the consumption of pickled, fried and hot food in this study was 45.3%, 24.1%, 16.2%, 66.1%, 94.5%, 68.1%, 36.0% and 88.4%, respectively. Nearly all (99.9%) participants showed one or more UDTC risk factors, 98.6% of the participants showed at least two risk factors, 92.2% of the participants had at least three risk factors and 69.7% of the participants had four or more risk factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, younger age, single, higher education, higher annual family income and smaller household size were more likely to present modifiable UDTC risk factors coprevalence.

Conclusions: The prevalence and coprevalence of modifiable UDTC risk factors are high among participants in Yangzhong city. Extra attention must be paid to these groups who are susceptible to risk factors coprevalence during screening progress. Relative departments also need to make significant public health programmes that aim to decrease modifiable UDTC risk factors coprevalence among residents aged 40-69 years from high-risk areas of UDTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8031018PMC
April 2021

A comparison of results following the treatment of placenta accreta and placenta increta using high-intensity focused ultrasound followed by hysteroscopic resection.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):576-581

State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) followed by hysteroscopic resection for different placenta accreta spectrum disorders.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-four patients with placenta accreta, placenta increta, or placenta percreta were treated with USgHIFU from January 2016 to December 2019 and were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three categories according to the relationship between the trophoblastic villi and the myometrium, based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen patients were classified as placenta accreta, 17 patients were classified as placenta increta, and 2 were classified as placenta percreta. All patients completed follow-up. Treatment efficacy and safety were evaluated.

Results: No significant differences in baseline characteristics and results of HIFU ablation were observed between the patients with placenta accreta and those with placenta increta. The return of HCG levels to normal was longer in patients with placenta accreta compared with patients with placenta increta, while no significant difference was observed in the amount of intraoperative blood loss, the return of normal menstruation and the length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: HIFU treatment followed by hysteroscopic resection is safe and effective in the treatment of patients with placenta accreta and placenta increta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2021.1909149DOI Listing
January 2021

Optimization design of O-ring linear accelerator gantry and mechanical isocenter detection method.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):033308

AVIC Beijing Precision Engineering Institute Aircraft Industry, Beijing 100076, China.

With the development of the precise radiotherapy, the accuracy of radiotherapy equipment is gradually improved. The gantry, the carrier of the treatment head and various testing devices, is the most important component that determines the accuracy of the entire equipment. In this paper, the layout of the O-ring linear accelerator and the structure of the gantry are optimized to reduce the weight of the gantry by 50% and the moment of inertia by 60%. A mechanical isocenter detection method based on the laser tracker is proposed to conduct a rapid and accurate isocenter measurement for the optimized gantry. The experimental results show that the maximum deformation of the optimized gantry under load is 0.13 mm during rotation and the maximum intersection distance between the gantry axis and the treatment head axis at the isocenter position is 0.21 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0004907DOI Listing
March 2021

A combination of ssGSEA and mass cytometry identifies immune microenvironment in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Apr 4:e23754. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Background: Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a heterogeneous disease with varying clinical courses and responses to treatment. To improve the prognosis of patients, it is necessary to understand such heterogeneity.

Methods: We used single-sample gene set enrichment analysis to classify 35 MIBC cases into immunity-high and immunity-low groups. Bioinformatics analyses were conducted to compare the differences between these groups. Eventually, single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) was used to compare the characteristics of the immune microenvironment between the patients in the two groups.

Results: Compared with patients in the immunity-low group, patients in the immunity-high group had a higher number of tumor-infiltrating immune cells and greater enrichment of gene sets associated with antitumor immune activity. Furthermore, positive immune response-related pathways were more enriched in the immunity-high group. We identified 26 immune cell subsets, including cytotoxic T cells (Tcs), helper T cells (Ths), regulatory T cells (Tregs), B cells, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) using CyTOF. Furthermore, there was a higher proportion of CD45+ lymphocytes and enrichment of one Tc subset in the immunity-high group. Additionally, M2 macrophages were highly enriched in the immunity-low group. Finally, there was higher expression of PD-1 and Tim-3 on Tregs as well as a higher proportion of PD-1+ Tregs in the immunity-low group than in the immunity-high group.

Conclusion: In summary, the immune microenvironments of the immunity-high and immunity-low groups of patients with MIBC are heterogeneous. Specifically, immune suppression was observed in the immune microenvironment of the patients in the immunity-low group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23754DOI Listing
April 2021

Tibetan Macaques with Higher Social Centrality and More Relatives Emit More Frequent Visual Communication in Collective Decision-Making.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China.

Animals on the move often communicate with each other through some specific postures. Previous studies have shown that social interaction plays a role in communication process. However, it is not clear whether the affinity of group members can affect visual communication. We studied a group of free-ranging Tibetan macaques () at Huangshan Mountain, China, and answered whether and how social centrality or relatives matter in visual signals during group movement using Tobit regression modeling. All individuals emitted the signals of back-glances and pauses in collective movement. The emission of two signals decreased with the number of participants increased. The back-glance and pause signals emitted by the participating individuals were stronger as the position moved backward in the group. Sex, age, and rank had no significant influence on back-glance and pause signals. Individuals with higher social centrality would emit more pause signals, but social centrality had no effect on the back-glance signal. Individuals with more relatives in the group had more back-glance signals, but this had no effect on the pause signal. This study verifies that social centrality and the number of relatives have effects on visual signals in Tibetan macaques. We provide insights into the relationship between communication behaviors and group cooperation in social animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003505PMC
March 2021