Publications by authors named "Xabier Mielgo"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Multicenter Analysis of the Outcome of Cancer Patients with Neutropenia and COVID-19 Optionally Treated with Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF): A Comparative Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 20;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

IMDEA-Food Institute, CEI UAM+CSIC, 28702 Madrid, Spain.

Background: Approximately 15% of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 develop a distress syndrome secondary to a host hyperinflammatory response induced by a cytokine storm. Myelosuppression is associated with a higher risk of infections and mortality. There are data to support methods of management for neutropenia and COVID-19. We present a multicenter experience during the first COVID-19 outbreak in neutropenic cancer patients infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: Clinical retrospective data were collected from neutropenic cancer patients with COVID-19. Comorbidities, tumor type, stage, treatment, neutropenia severity, G-CSF, COVID-19 parameters, and mortality were analyzed. A bivariate analysis of the impact on mortality was carried out. Additionally, we performed a multivariable logistic regression to predict respiratory failure and death.

Results: Among the 943 cancer patients screened, 83 patients (11.3%) simultaneously had neutropenia and an infection with COVID-19. The lungs (26%) and breasts (22%) were the primary locations affected, and most patients had advanced disease (67%). In the logistic model, as adjusted covariates, sex, age, treatment (palliative vs. curative), tumor type, and the lowest level of neutrophils were used. A significant effect was obtained for the number of days of G-CSF treatment (OR = 1.4, 95% CI [1,1,03,92], -value = 0.01).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a prolonged G-CSF treatment could be disadvantageous for these cancer patients with infections by COVID-19, with a higher probability of worse outcome.
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August 2021

Efficacy of nintedanib plus docetaxel in patients with refractory advanced epidermal growth factor receptor mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital de La Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Sant Quintí, 89, 08041, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Anti-angiogenic agents are reported to exert clinical activity in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated the outcomes of the combination of docetaxel plus nintedanib in refractory NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 19 patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC who had progressed to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and platinum-based chemotherapy receiving docetaxel and nintedanib at 14 Spanish institutions from January 2013 to December 2019. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests were used to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Median age was 58.9 years (range 42.8-81), 73.7% were female. All patients were Caucasian, and 73.7% were never or light smokers. The baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) was 0-1 in 94.7% of patients. All patients had adenocarcinoma. Brain and liver metastases were present in 47.4% and 31.6% of patients, respectively. The most common EGFR mutations were exon 19 deletion (52.6%) and exon 21 L858R mutation (36.8%); 47.4% patients presented the EGFR T790M. 94.8% of the patients had received 2-3 previous treatment lines. Docetaxel was administered at 75 mg/m/3 weeks to 16 patients, at 60 mg/m to 2 patients and at 45 mg/m to one patient. Nintedanib was given until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity at 200 mg twice daily except in 2 patients who received 150 mg twice daily and one patient who received 100 mg/12 h. With a median follow-up of 11.4 months (1-38), the median PFS was 6.1 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.9-7.3] and the median OS 10.1 months (95% CI 5.9-14.3). The objective response rate (ORR) was 44.4% (23.7-66.8%) and the disease control rate (DCR) 72.2% (49.4-88.5%). Efficacy tended to be greater in patients with the acquired T790M who had received osimertinib, with a median PFS of 6.3 (95% CI 2.1-10.5) versus (vs.) 4.8 (95% CI 3.5-6.1) and a median OS of 12.3 months (95% CI 8.6-16.0) vs. 6.7 months (95% CI 3.9-9.4), although this tendency was not statistically significant (p = 0.468 and p = 0.159, respectively). Sixteen patients (84.2%) had a total of 34 adverse events (AEs), with a median of two (0-6) AEs per patient. The most frequent AEs were asthenia (20.6%) and diarrhea (20.6%). One treatment-related death due to portal thrombosis was reported.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that the combination of docetaxel and nintedanib can be considered to be an effective treatment for EGFR TKI-resistant EGFR-mutant NSCLC.
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July 2021

Analysis of circulating tumour DNA to identify patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-positive non-small cell lung cancer who might benefit from sequential tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 5;149:61-72. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Survival data support the use of first-line osimertinib as the standard of care for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, it remains unclear whether upfront osimertinib is superior to sequential first- or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) followed by osimertinib for all patients. It is impossible to predict which patients are at high risk of progression, and this constitutes a major limitation of the sequential TKI approach.

Patients And Methods: A total of 830 plasma samples from 228 patients with stage IV, EGFR-positive NSCLC who were treated with first-line TKIs were analysed by digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR).

Results: The circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) levels helped to identify patients with significantly improved survival rate, regardless of the treatment. Patients treated with first- or second-generation TKIs (N = 189) with EGFR mutations in plasma at a mutant allele frequency (MAF) <7% before treatment initiation (low-risk patients) or who were ctDNA negative after 3 or 6 months of treatment and with an MAF <7% at diagnosis (high responders) had two-thirds lower risk of death than patients in the opposite situation (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.64 and HR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.12-0.42, respectively). The median overall survival (OS) for low-risk patients and high responders treated with first- or second-generation TKIs was 34.2 months and not reached, respectively, regardless of second-line treatment. There were no significant difference in OS between low-risk or high-responder patients treated upfront with osimertinib (N = 39) and those treated under a sequential approach with osimertinib (N = 60). Median OS was not reached in both cases.

Conclusions: Pre-treatment ctDNA levels identify low-risk patients, who may benefit from sequential TKI treatment. Information regarding EGFR mutation clearance can help to improve patient selection.
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May 2021

High risk of thrombosis in patients with advanced lung cancer harboring rearrangements in ROS1.

Eur J Cancer 2020 12 7;141:193-198. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: Based on the high incidence of thromboembolic events (TEs) observed in lung adenocarcinomas with ALK translocations and taking into account the biological proximity of ROS1 and ALK, we conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced lung carcinoma carrying rearrangements in ROS1 from 23 centres in Spain and one centre in Portugal.

Methods: The main objective of the study was to analyse the incidence of TE in this population, looking for predictive risk factors, and its impact on overall survival.

Results: A total of 58 patients were included. The incidence of TEs throughout the disease was 46.6% (n = 27) with a median follow-up of 19 months (range: 1-78 months) and a median overall survival of 52 months in the total population and 50 months for the patients presenting TEs, with a hazards ratio of 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.47-2.65) p = 0.78. The majority of the events were venous (n = 24; 89%) and occurred in the ambulatory setting (n = 18; 67%). Almost half of the patients (n = 13; 48%) presented the TE in the peri-diagnostic period.

Conclusions: The high incidence of thrombosis, especially during the cancer diagnosis process, requires special attention from a clinician. Despite the limitations of such a small descriptive study, its results are in accordance with previously reported data. It would be important to design prospective studies of antithrombotic prophylaxis in this population because of their possible impact in reducing the risk of TEs.
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December 2020

Clinical-pathological and molecular characterization of long-term survivors with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Biol Med 2020 05;17(2):444-457

Infanta Sofía University Hospital, San Sebastián De Los Reyes, Madrid 28702, Spain.

Long-term survivors (LS) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without driver alterations, displaying an overall survival (OS) of more than 3 years, comprise around 10% of cases in several series treated with chemotherapy. There are classical prognosis factors for these cases [stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG), etc.], but more data are required in the literature. In this multi-center study, we focused on LS of advanced NSCLC with OS above 36 months to perform a clinical-pathological and molecular characterization. In the first step, we conducted a clinical-pathological characterization of the patients. Afterwards, we carried out a genetic analysis by comparing LS to a sample of short-term survivors (SS) (with an OS less than 9 months). We initially used whole-genome RNA-seq to identify differentiating profiles of LS and SS, and later confirmed these with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the rest of the samples. A total of 94 patients were included, who were mainly men, former smokers, having adenocarcinoma (AC)-type NSCLC with an ECOG of 0-1. We obtained an initial differential transcriptome expression, displaying 5 over- and 33 under-expressed genes involved in different pathways: namely, the secretin receptor, surfactant protein, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1), serpin, Ca-channels, and Toll-like receptor (TLRs) families. Finally, RT-PCR analysis of 40 (20 LS/20 SS) samples confirmed that four genes (surfactant proteins and SFTP) were significantly down-regulated in SS compared to LS by using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model: ( = 0.023), ( = 0.027), ( = 0.02), and ( = 0.047). We present a sequential genetic analysis of a sample of NSCLC LS with no driver alterations, obtaining a differential RNA-seq/RT-PCR profile showing an abnormal expression of SF genes.
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May 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies ephrin type A receptors implicated in paclitaxel induced peripheral sensory neuropathy.

J Med Genet 2013 Sep 17;50(9):599-605. Epub 2013 Jun 17.

Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Human Cancer Genetics Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Peripheral neuropathy is the dose limiting toxicity of paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic drug widely used to treat solid tumours. This toxicity exhibits great inter-individual variability of unknown origin. The present study aimed to identify genetic variants associated with paclitaxel induced neuropathy via a whole genome approach.

Methods: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed in 144 white European patients uniformly treated with paclitaxel/carboplatin and for whom detailed data on neuropathy was available. Per allele single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were assessed by Cox regression, modelling the cumulative dose of paclitaxel up to the development of grade 2 sensory neuropathy.

Results: The strongest evidence of association was observed for the ephrin type A receptor 4 (EPHA4) locus (rs17348202, p=1.0×10(-6)), and EPHA6 and EPHA5 were among the top 25 and 50 hits (rs301927, p=3.4×10(-5) and rs1159057, p=6.8×10(-5)), respectively. A meta-analysis of EPHA5-rs7349683, the top marker for paclitaxel induced neuropathy in a previous GWAS (r(2)=0.79 with rs1159057), gave a hazard ratio (HR) estimate of 1.68 (p=1.4×10(-9)). Meta-analysis of the second hit of this GWAS, XKR4-rs4737264, gave a HR of 1.71 (p=3.1×10(-8)). Imputed SNPs at LIMK2 locus were also strongly associated with this toxicity (HR=2.78, p=2.0×10(-7)).

Conclusions: This study provides independent support of EPHA5-rs7349683 and XKR4-rs4737264 as the first markers of risk of paclitaxel induced neuropathy. In addition, it suggests that other EPHA genes also involved in axonal guidance and repair following neural injury, as well as LIMK2 locus, may play an important role in the development of this toxicity. The identified SNPs could form the basis for individualised paclitaxel chemotherapy.
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September 2013

Identification of candidate SNPs for drug induced toxicity from differentially expressed genes in associated tissues.

Gene 2012 Sep 1;506(1):62-8. Epub 2012 Jul 1.

Science for Life Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Division of Gene Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-171 65 Solna, Sweden.

The growing collection of publicly available high-throughput data provides an invaluable resource for generating preliminary in silico data in support of novel hypotheses. In this study we used a cross-dataset meta-analysis strategy to identify novel candidate genes and genetic variations relevant to paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced myelosuppression and neuropathy. We identified genes affected by drug exposure and present in tissues associated with toxicity. From ten top-ranked genes 42 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in silico and genotyped in 94 cancer patients treated with carboplatin/paclitaxel. We observed variations in 11 SNPs, of which seven were present in a sufficient frequency for statistical evaluation. Of these seven SNPs, three were present in ABCA1 and ATM, and showed significant or borderline significant association with either myelosuppression or neuropathy. The strikingly high number of associations between genotype and clinically observed toxicity provides support for our data-driven computations strategy to identify biomarkers for drug toxicity.
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September 2012

Fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine infusion in patients with advanced pancreatic or biliary tree adenocarcinoma.

Tumori 2010 May-Jun;96(3):405-10

Medical Oncology Department, Hospital de Cruces, Pza Cruces s/n, Barakaldo, Spain.

Aims And Background: Gemcitabine is an effective agent in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine has an interesting biological and clinical rationale, with successful results in previous studies. We conducted a trial to confirm efficacy and toxicity of fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine in patients with pancreatic or biliary tree adenocarcinoma.

Methods: Eligible patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic or biliary tree adenocarcinoma received fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine at a dose of 1500 mg/m(2) at a rate of 10 mg/m(2)/min weekly for 3 weeks every 28 days. Efficacy measures were overall survival, response rate and progression-free survival.

Results: Sixty-two patients were enrolled, and 59 were assessable for response. Seven patients (11.3%) had a partial response, 26 stable disease (41.9%) and 26 progressive disease (41.9%). Median time to progression was 21 weeks and median overall survival, 37.71 weeks. Main toxicities were grade 3-4 neutropenia (45.2%) and grade 2-3 asthenia (54.8%). No toxic deaths were documented.

Conclusions: Fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine has a relevant antitumor activity but with significant toxicity. It represents an interesting schedule and could be combined with other biological or chemotherapeutic agents.
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September 2010