Publications by authors named "Wissam Raad"

21 Publications

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Assessment of Textbook Outcome After Surgery for Stage I/II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.

``Outcomes after cancer resection are traditionally measured individually. Composite metrics, or textbook outcomes, bundle outcomes into a single value to facilitate assessments of quality. We propose a composite outcome for non-small cell lung cancer resections, examine factors associated with the outcome, and evaluate its effect on overall survival. We queried the National Cancer Database for patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer who underwent sublobar resection, lobectomy, or pneumonectomy from 2010 to 2016. We defined the metric as margin-negative resection, sampling of ≥10 lymph nodes, length of stay <75th percentile, no 30-day mortality, no readmission, and receipt of indicated adjuvant therapy. Multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards modeling, survival analyses, and propensity score matching were used to identify factors associated with the outcome and overall survival. Of 88,208 patients, 70,149 underwent lobectomy, 14,922 underwent sublobar resection, and 3,137 underwent pneumonectomy. Textbook outcome was achieved in 26.3% of patients. Failure to achieve the outcome was most commonly driven by inadequate nodal assessment. Textbook outcome was more likely after minimally invasive surgical approaches (aOR = 1.47; P< 0.001) relative to open resection and less likely after sublobar resection (aOR = 0.20; P< 0.001) relative to lobectomy. Achievement of textbook outcome was associated with an 9.6% increase in 5-year survival (P< 0.001), was independently associated with improved survival (aHR = 0.72; P < 0.001), and remained strongly associated with survival independent of resection extent after propensity matching. One in 4 patients undergoing non-small cell lung cancer resection achieve textbook outcome. Textbook outcome is associated with improved survival and has value as a quality metric.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2021.08.009DOI Listing
August 2021

Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Thoracic Soft Tissue Sarcomas: A Population-Based Analysis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 01 11;109(1):203-210. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York; Department of Thoracic Surgery, Health Quest, Poughkeepsie, New York. Electronic address:

Background: The role of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in the management of thoracic soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) remains unclear. We aimed to study the characteristics of patients with thoracic STS who received RT after surgical resection and investigate the impact of RT on survival outcomes.

Methods: We queried National Cancer Database to identify patients with surgically resected thoracic STS from 2004 to 2012. Factors associated with receiving adjuvant RT were identified. Analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors and compare overall survival (OS) in both unmatched and propensity score-matched cohorts.

Results: Overall, 1215 patients were identified, of whom 557 (45.8%) received adjuvant RT. Tumor grade (odds ratio [OR], 2.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.18-3.77), tumor size (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.36-2.42), and tumor margins (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.43-2.72) were found to be significant predictors of receiving RT. Mean OS of patients receiving RT in the unmatched cohort was 91 months vs 88 months for patients who did not (P = .556). When adjusted for all variables, adjuvant RT was found to be associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-0.96). Survival analysis of the matched cohort also demonstrated improved survival with adjuvant RT (120 months vs 100 months; P = .02). Subgroup analysis in both the unmatched and matched cohorts showed patients with high-grade tumors more likely to benefit from adjuvant RT.

Conclusions: This population-based analysis is the largest dataset of primary thoracic STSs to date and suggests significant survival benefit associated with adjuvant RT. The improvement in OS was more notable in patients with high-grade tumors. Randomized prospective studies are warranted to further understand the benefit of RT in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.07.075DOI Listing
January 2020

Robotic Thoracic Surgery Training for Residency Programs: A Position Paper for an Educational Curriculum.

Innovations (Phila) 2018 Nov/Dec;13(6):417-422

Department of General Surgery, Brookdale University Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY USA.

Objective: Robotic-assisted surgery is increasingly being used in thoracic surgery. Currently, the Integrated Thoracic Surgery Residency Program lacks a standardized curriculum or requirement for training residents in robotic-assisted thoracic surgery. In most circumstances, because of the lack of formal residency training in robotic surgery, hospitals are requiring additional training, mentorship, and formal proctoring of cases before granting credentials to perform robotic-assisted surgery. Therefore, there is necessity for residents in Integrated Thoracic Surgery Residency Program to have early exposure and formal training on the robotic platform. We propose a curriculum that can be incorporated into such programs that would satisfy both training needs and hospital credential requirements.

Methods: We surveyed all 26 Integrated Thoracic Surgery Residency Program Directors in the United States. We also performed a PubMed literature search using the key word "robotic surgery training curriculum." We reviewed various robotic surgery training curricula and evaluation tools used by urology, obstetrics gynecology, and general surgery training programs. We then designed a proposed curriculum geared toward thoracic Integrated Thoracic Surgery Residency Program adopted from our credentialing experience, literature review, and survey consensus.

Results: Of the 26 programs surveyed, we received 17 responses. Most Integrated Thoracic Surgery Residency Program directors believe that it is important to introduce robotic surgery training during residency. Our proposed curriculum is integrated during postgraduate years 2 to 6. In the preclinical stage postgraduate years 2 to 3, residents are required to complete introductory online modules, virtual reality simulator training, and in-house workshops. During clinical stage (postgraduate years 4-6), the resident will serve as a supervised bedside assistant and progress to a console surgeon. Each case will have defined steps that the resident must demonstrate competency. Evaluation will be based on standardized guidelines.

Conclusions: Expansion and utilization of robotic assistance in thoracic surgery have increased. Our proposed curriculum aims to enable Integrated Thoracic Surgery Residency Program residents to achieve competency in robotic-assisted thoracic surgery and to facilitate the acquirement of hospital privileges when they enter practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IMI.0000000000000573DOI Listing
April 2019

Radiation therapy improves survival for unresectable postpneumonectomy lung tumors.

J Surg Res 2018 07 12;227:60-66. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

Background: Additional resection for cancer in the single lung is often considered a prohibitive risk. The role of radiation therapy (RT) in this patient population is less clear with very limited available data. In this study, we sought to examine patients with postpneumonectomy lung cancer not amenable to surgery, identify factors associated with receiving RT, and determine the impact of RT on survival outcomes.

Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988-2013) was queried for patients with inoperable contralateral lung cancer after pneumonectomy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the receipt of RT. Survival outcomes were examined using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: In total, 191 patients with inoperable postpneumonectomy lung cancer were included. RT was delivered to 122 (63.9%) patients; 69 (36.1%) patients did not receive RT. On multivariate analysis, disease stage was identified as the only predictor associated with receipt of RT (P < 0.001). The median overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) for patients receiving RT were higher than those for patients who did not receive RT (25 versus 8 mo and 29 versus 10 mo, respectively; P < 0.001). Similarly, patients who received RT had a higher 3-y OS (34% versus 14%, P < 0.001) than those who did not receive RT. On subset analysis, survival benefit with RT was observed in patients with all tumor size groups, and there was a trend toward superior survival in patients with stage I/II disease, who received RT compared with those who did not. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, RT use was independently associated with decreased hazards of death after adjusting for other factors (HR, 0.539; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Based on our analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, RT is associated with improved outcomes in inoperable patients with a contralateral lung cancer after pneumonectomy compared with observation alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2018.02.015DOI Listing
July 2018

Racial Disparity in Utilization of High-Volume Hospitals for Surgical Treatment of Esophageal Cancer.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 08 21;106(2):346-353. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Institute for Translational Epidemiology, Department of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Utilization of high-volume hospitals (HVH) for esophagectomy has been associated with improved perioperative outcomes and reduced mortality. We aimed to test the hypothesis that black-white racial disparities exist in HVH utilization and identify predictors of in-hospital surgical outcomes of esophageal cancer while adjusting for HVH utilization patterns.

Methods: We queried the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database (1995 to 2012) for esophageal cancer patients who underwent surgical resection exclusively. Only records for patients with self-reported white or black race and a valid New York State ZIP code were included (n = 2,895). Analysis was performed to identify factors associated with HVH hospital (≥20 esophagectomies/year) utilization and determine predictors of complications and in-hospital mortality.

Results: Black patients (361 [12.5%]) were significantly different (p < 0.001) than their white counterparts in the proportion of women, Medicaid, income distribution, and privately insured individuals. Although 55% patients overall utilized an HVH, blacks were significantly less likely to utilize an HVH than whites (odds ratio [OR], 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.24), even though 74.5% resided within 8.9 miles of one. Operations performed at HVHs were associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.65); however, mortality remained higher for blacks (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.65 to 3.30; propensity matched OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.03).

Conclusions: Black patients were less likely to undergo esophagectomy at an HVH and experienced higher mortality. Efforts should be made to understand factors influencing patients' decision process and improve referral practices to ensure optimal care is provided across all segments of the population, irrespective of race, insurance, or income status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2018.03.042DOI Listing
August 2018

Airway transplantation of adipose stem cells protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

J Investig Med 2018 04 21;66(4):739-746. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Instituto Universitario de Investigaciones Biomédicas y Sanitarias (IUIBS)-BioPharm Group, Universidadde Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease with poor prognosis. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) have demonstrated regenerative properties in several tissues. The hypothesis of this study was that airway transplantation of ADSC could protect against bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Fifty-eight lungs from 29 male Sprague-Dawley rats were analyzed. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: a) control (n=3); b) sham (n=6); c) BLM (n=6); d) BLM+ADSC-2d (n=6); and e) BLM+ADSC-14d (n=8). Animals received 500 µL saline (sham), 2.5 UI/kg BLM in 500 µL saline (BLM), and 2×10 ADSC in 100 µL saline intratracheally at 2 (BLM+ADSC-2d) and 14 days (BLM+ADSC-14d) after BLM. Animals were sacrificed at 28 days. Blinded Ashcroft score was used to determine pulmonary fibrosis extent on histology. Hsp27, Vegf, Nfkβ, IL-1, IL-6, Col4, and Tgfβ1 mRNA gene expression were determined using real-time quantitative-PCR. Ashcroft index was: control=0; sham=0.37±0.07; BLM=6.55±0.34 vs sham (P=0.006). BLM vs BLM+ADSC-2d=4.63±0.38 (P=0.005) and BLM+ADSC-14d=3.77±0.46 (P=0.005). BLM vs sham significantly increased Hsp27 (P=0.018), Nfkβ (P=0.009), Col4 (P=0.004), Tgfβ1 (P=0.006) and decreased IL-1 (P=0.006). BLM+ADSC-2d vs BLM significantly decreased Hsp27 (P=0.009) and increased Vegf (P=0.006), Nfkβ (P=0.009). BLM+ADSC-14d vs BLM significantly decreased Hsp27 (P=0.028), IL-6 (P=0.013), Col4 (P=0.002), and increased Nfkβ (P=0.040) and Tgfβ1 (P=0.002). Airway transplantation of ADSC significantly decreased the fibrosis rate in both early and established pulmonary fibrosis, modulating the expression of Hsp27, Vegfa, Nfkβ, IL-6, Col4, and Tgfβ1. From a translational perspective, this technique could become a new adjuvant treatment for patients with IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jim-2017-000494DOI Listing
April 2018

Pulmonary Resection for Second Lung Cancer After Pneumonectomy: A Population-Based Study.

Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Oct 12;104(4):1131-1137. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Pulmonary resection for a second lung cancer after pneumonectomy is generally considered to be at prohibitive risk. Using a population-based database, we examined treatment patterns and survival in patients who underwent pulmonary resection after pneumonectomy for lung cancer.

Methods: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1988-2012) to identify patients who underwent pneumonectomy and subsequently experienced contralateral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the factors associated with the receipt of surgical resection. Survival was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Of 13,370 patients who underwent pneumonectomy, 402 (3.0%) experienced subsequent contralateral NSCLC, and 170 (42%) met the selection criteria. Surgical resection was performed in 63 (37.1%) cases (sublobar n = 56, lobectomy, n = 7). Patients with stage I/II disease and tumor size 2 cm or smaller were more likely to undergo surgical procedures. The 1-month and 3-month mortality after resection was 11.1% (sublobar resection 10.7%, lobectomy 14.3%) and 12.7% (sublobar 12.5%, lobectomy 14.3%), respectively. The overall 1-year and 3-year survival after surgical resection was 79% and 54%, respectively. The patients who underwent sublobar resection had higher median overall survival than did those who underwent lobectomy (42 vs 18 months). Similarly, median survival after resection for metachronous tumors was higher than after resection for metastatic cancers (40 vs 28 months).

Conclusions: On the basis of our analysis of the SEER database, sublobar resection can be performed in selected patients with small tumors (≤2 cm) and early-stage disease (stage I/II). Although perioperative mortality is significant, the favorable 1-year and 3-year survival may justify the role of an additional procedure on the single lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2017.04.043DOI Listing
October 2017

Circumferential Three-Dimensional-Printed Tracheal Grafts: Research Model Feasibility and Early Results.

Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Sep 13;104(3):958-963. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Department of Otolaryngology, Mount Sinai West, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

Background: Methods for tracheal graft research have presented persistent challenges to investigators, and three-dimensional (3D)-printed biosynthetic grafts offer one potential development platform. We aimed to develop an efficient research platform for customizable circumferential 3D-printed tracheal grafts and evaluate feasibility and early structural integrity with a large-animal model.

Methods: Virtual 3D models of porcine subject tracheas were generated using preoperative computed tomography scans. Two designs were used to test graft customizability and the limits of the construction process. Designs I and II used 270-degree and 360-degree external polycaprolactone scaffolds, respectively, both encompassing a circumferential extracellular matrix collagen layer. The polycaprolactone scaffolds were made in a fused-deposition modeling 3D printer and customized to the recipient's anatomy. Design I was implanted in 3 pigs and design II in 2 pigs, replacing 4-ring tracheal segments. Data collected included details of graft construction, clinical outcomes, bronchoscopy, and gross and histologic examination.

Results: The 3D-printed biosynthetic grafts were produced with high fidelity to the native organ. The fabrication process took 36 hours. Grafts were implanted without immediate complication. Bronchoscopy immediately postoperatively and at 1 week demonstrated patent grafts and appropriate healing. All animals lived beyond a predetermined 1-week survival period. Bronchoscopy at 2 weeks showed significant paraanastomotic granulation tissue, which, along with partial paraanastomotic epithelialization, was confirmed on pathology. Overall survival was 17 to 34 days.

Conclusions: We propose a rapid, reproducible, resource efficient method to develop various anatomically precise grafts. Further graft refinement and strategies for granulation tissue management are needed to improve outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2017.03.064DOI Listing
September 2017

Ozone Therapy Protects Against Rejection in a Lung Transplantation Model: A New Treatment?

Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Aug 24;104(2):458-464. Epub 2017 May 24.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

Background: No satisfactory treatment exists for chronic rejection (CR) after lung transplantation (LT). Our objective was to assess whether ozone (O) treatment could ameliorate CR.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley inbred rats (n = 36) were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) control (n = 6), (2) sham (n = 6), (3) LT (n = 12), and (4) O-LT (n = 12). Animals underwent left LT. O was rectally administered daily for 2 weeks before LT (from 20 to 50 μg) and 3 times/wk (50 μg/dose) up to 3 months. CR; acute rejection; and Hspb27, Prdx, Epas1, Gpx3, Vegfa, Sftpa1, Sftpb, Plvap, Klf2, Cldn5, Thbd, Dsip, Fmo2, and Sepp1 mRNA gene expression were determined.

Results: Severe CR was observed in all animals of LT group, but none of the O-LT animals showed signs of CR, just a mild acute rejection was observed in 1 animal. A significant decrease of Hspb27, Prdx, Epas1, Gpx3, Vegfa, Sftpa1, Sftpb, Plvap, Klf2, Cldn5, Thbd, Dsip, and Fmo2 gene expression in the O-LT group was observed CONCLUSIONS: O therapy significantly delayed the onset of CR regulating the expression of genes involved in its pathogenesis. No known immunosuppressive therapy has been capable of achieving similar results. From a translational point of view, O therapy could become a new adjuvant treatment for CR in patients undergoing LT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2017.02.054DOI Listing
August 2017

Primary Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma of the Gallbladder: A Population-based Analysis.

Anticancer Res 2017 05;37(5):2581-2586

Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Primary Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gallbladder (PNHL-GB) is extremely rare and data on clinical characteristics, optimal management and outcomes of these patients are limited to anecdotal reporting. We, therefore, sought to examine these patients using a population-based database.

Materials And Methods: Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database was queried between 1973 and 2013.

Results: One hundred and six cases with PNHL-GB were identified (mean age=70.5 ±15 years, whites 92%, male: female 1.03:1). The majority of patients had loco-regional disease (61%) and DLBCL histology (33%). Ninenty cases (85%) had undergone surgical resection, 6 (5.6%) received radiotherapy. Median overall survival (OS) of the entire cohort was 41 months with a 5-year survival rate of 40%. Patients receiving adjuvant RT had superior OS compared to surgery alone (140 ±27 vs. 86 ±16 months, respectively) and patients with DLBCL demonstrated lower survival compared to other histologies (13 vs. 53 months, respectively, p=0.034).

Conclusion: Our study presents the largest dataset of PNHL-GB describing clinical features and outcomes of these patients in addition to summarizing the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.11602DOI Listing
May 2017

Selective packing for uncontrollable traumatic thoracic wall bleeding preserving cardiopulmonary function.

Am J Surg 2017 Sep 21;214(3):413-415. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, USA; Icahn School of Medicine, New York, USA.

Background: Uncontrollable chest wall bleeding secondary to thoracic trauma has been a challenging problem faced by surgeons. Thoracic packing has been described as a good alternative although most thoracic surgeons avoid it because of the potential deleterious effects on cardiopulmonary function.

Methods: We describe a selective gauze packing technique of the thoracic wall preserving cardiopulmonary function in 3 patients with uncontrollable bleeding, where gauze packs were placed on bleeding areas holding them in a "sandwich-like" arrangement between the skin and the pleura and tightly fixed with coated wire stitches using internal and external-thoracic Ventrofil® devices.

Results: Successful hemostasis and cardio-respiratory stability were achieved in all cases after selective packing. X-ray showed acceptable lung expansion and no heart compression.

Conclusions: This selective packing technique is simple, feasible and highly effective in managing uncontrollable post-traumatic or even post-operative chest wall hemorrhages when the life of patients is in danger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2016.11.041DOI Listing
September 2017

Primary appendiceal lymphoma: clinical characteristics and outcomes of 116 patients.

J Surg Res 2017 01 31;207:174-180. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York.

Background: Primary appendiceal lymphoma (PAL) is extremely rare with limited data available in literature. In this study, we sought to describe clinical features and identify factors affecting survival in patients with PAL using a large population cohort.

Methods: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients with PAL between 1973 and 2012. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and outcomes were assessed.

Results: One hundred sixteen patients with PAL were included. The mean age (standard deviation) at diagnosis was 48 y (±22). PAL primarily afflicted males and white race. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was the most common histologic subtype (34.5%). Patients with Burkitt lymphoma presented at an earlier age compared with follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (33 versus 59 and 53 y, respectively, [P < 0.001]). Mean overall survival (OS) for the whole cohort was 185 mo with a 5-y survival rate of 67%. No statistically significant survival difference was observed between gender, race and histologic subtypes. Right hemicolectomy conferred no survival benefit over appendectomy and/or partial colectomy (P = 0.501). In multivariate analysis, increasing age at diagnosis (P < 0.001) was associated with increased hazards of death while gender, race, tumor histology, disease stage, and nature of resection were not significantly associated with OS.

Conclusions: This is the largest series of PALs. Our results demonstrate that age at diagnosis is an independent predictor of poor survival. Gender, race, histologic subtypes have no effect on OS, and hemicolectomy provides no survival benefit over appendectomy and/or partial colectomy. Additional prospective, multicenter studies including details about chemotherapy and immunotherapy are needed to guide management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2016.08.079DOI Listing
January 2017

Robotically Assisted Thoracic Surgery: Proposed Guidelines for Privileging and Credentialing.

Innovations (Phila) 2016 Nov/Dec;11(6):386-389

From the Departments of *Thoracic Surgery and †Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY USA.

Objective: Increased use of robotically assisted thoracic surgery (RATS) necessitates effective credentialing guidelines to ensure safe outcomes. We provide a stepwise algorithm for granting privileges and credentials in RATS. This algorithm reflects graduated responsibility and complexity of the surgical procedures performed. Furthermore, it takes into account volume, outcomes, surgeon's competency, and appropriateness of robot usage.

Methods: We performed a literature review for available strategies to grant privileges and credentials for implementing robotic surgery. The following terms were queried: robot, robotic, surgery, and credentialing. We provide this algorithm on the basis of review of the literature, our institutional experience, and the experience of other medical centers around the United States.

Results: Currently, two pathways for robotic training exist: residency and nonresidency-trained. In the United Sates, Joint Commission: Accreditation, Health Care, Certification requires hospitals to credential and privilege physicians on their medical staff. In the proposed algorithm, a credentialing designee oversees and reviews all requests. Residency-trained surgeons must fulfill 20 cases with program directors' attestation to obtain full privileges. Nonresidency-trained surgeons are required to fulfill simulation, didactics including online modules, wet laboratories (cadaver or animal), and observation of at least two cases before provisional privileges can be granted. A minimum number of cases (10 per year) are required to maintain privileges. All procedures are monitored via departmental QA/QI committee review. Investigational uses of the robot require institutional review board approval, and complex operations may require additional proctoring and QA/QI review.

Conclusions: Safety concerns with the introduction of novel and complex technologies such as RATS must be paramount. Our algorithm takes into consideration appropriate use and serves as a basic guideline for institutions that wish to implement a RATS program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IMI.0000000000000320DOI Listing
May 2017

Elevated risk of subsequent malignancies in patients with appendiceal cancer: A population-based analysis.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2016 Sep 6;35(5):354-360. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Appendiceal cancer is extremely rare with excellent survival after curative resection. There is a concern for the development of additional cancers in survivors of appendiceal cancer. However, existing data is limited to small anecdotal reports on appendiceal carcinoid only. We aim to investigate the risk of subsequent malignancies in patients with appendiceal carcinoma and correlate the risk according to patient and clinical characteristics.

Methods: We identified 3788 patients with appendiceal cancer from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database between 1992 and 2011. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for the risk of additional cancers were calculated and quantified based on tumor site, gender, race, latency, primary tumor stage, and histology.

Results: Three hundred and fifty-nine subsequent malignancies were identified in 313 patients (mean age 60 years, male to female ratio 1.3:1). The overall risk for a subsequent malignancy was elevated by 20 % compared with the general population. Most common sites with significantly increased risk for subsequent cancers included the small intestine (n=13) and the colon/rectum (n=48). Malignant carcinoid and adenocarcinoma were the dominant histological subtypes at these sites, respectively. Significant elevated risk was observed within the first 5 years of follow up in white males with either localized or regional disease. Adenocarcinomas and goblet cell carcinoid tumors of the appendix were associated with increased risk; whereas, the risk was significantly reduced in patients with malignant carcinoid tumors.

Conclusion: There is an increased risk of subsequent cancers in patients with appendiceal carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12664-016-0687-3DOI Listing
September 2016

Oncological resection of lung cancer invading the aortic arch In full thickness using a non-fenestrated endograft.

J Surg Oncol 2016 Sep 22;114(4):412-5. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

T4 lung cancer invading the full thickness of the aortic arch was completely removed in a 78-year-old lady using a non-fenestrated endograft closing the left subclavian artery origin without performing surgical revascularization. Left thoracotomy and upper lobectomy with resection of superior segment of the lower lobe and full thickness of the infiltrated aorta was performed without covering the aortic defect. The margins of the specimen were free of tumor. The patient survived 32 months. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:412-415. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.24359DOI Listing
September 2016

Treatment of Benign Tracheal Stenosis Using Endoluminal Spray Cryotherapy.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016 11;142(11):1082-1087

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mount Sinai West, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

Importance: Tracheal stenosis is a debilitating disorder with heterogeneity in terms of disease characteristics and management. Repeated recurrences substantially alter patients' quality of life. There is limited evidence for the use of spray cryotherapy (SCT) in the management of benign airway disease.

Objective: To report our early results for the use of SCT in patients with benign tracheal stenosis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data were extracted from the medical records of a consecutive series of patients with benign airway stenosis secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (n = 13), prior tracheotomy or tracheal intubation (n = 8), and idiopathic strictures (n = 5) treated from September 1, 2013, to September 30, 2015, at a tertiary care hospital.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Airway narrowing was quantified on a standard quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was assessed by improvement in airway caliber and the time interval for reintervention.

Exposures: Delivery of 4 5-second SCT cycles and 2 balloon dilatations.

Results: Twenty-six patients (median [range] age, 53 [16-83] years; 20 [77%] female) underwent 48 SCT sessions. Spray cryotherapy was successfully used without any substantial intraoperative or postoperative complications in all patients. In a median (range) follow-up of 11 (1-26) months, all patients had improvement in symptoms. Before the institution of SCT, 23 patients (88%) had grade III or IV stenosis. At the last evaluation after induction of SCT, 4 (15%) had grade III or IV stenosis, with a mean (SD) change of 1.39 (0.51) (P < .001). Patients with GPA required significantly fewer SCT procedures (mean [SD], 1.38 [0.96] vs 2.31 [1.18]; P = .03) during the study period.

Conclusions And Relevance: Spray cryotherapy was a safe adjunct modality to accomplish airway patency in patients with benign tracheal stenosis. Although efficacy evidence is limited for SCT, it may be useful for patients who have experienced treatment failure with conventional modalities. Further analysis of this cohort will determine the physiologic durability of the reported short-term changes. Additional trials are warranted for further evaluation of this modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2016.2018DOI Listing
November 2016

The Impact of Robotic Versus Conventional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on In-Hospital Narcotic Use: A Propensity-Matched Analysis.

Innovations (Phila) 2016 Mar-Apr;11(2):112-5

From the *Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Einstein-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY USA; and †Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and The Mount Sinai Health System, New York, NY USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare narcotic use in the perioperative hospital stay as a measure of pain in patients undergoing robotic versus conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Methods: Propensity score matching of patients undergoing robotically assisted CABG and conventional CABG over a period of 5 years was performed. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify the total amount of narcotics used by both groups calculated as morphine equivalent dosing (MED).

Results: From 2007 to 2012, 154 patients underwent robotic CABG, and 1660 underwent conventional CABG. Propensity matching resulted in 142 patients in each group. Patients undergoing robotic CABG received less blood transfusion, were more frequently extubated in the operating room, and had a shorter length of stay. The robotic group had a lower MED than the conventional group as defined by the primary end point [181 (11) vs 251 (8)]. If intraoperative narcotic use was eliminated, there was no difference in MED from postoperative days 0 to 3.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing robotic CABG use fewer narcotics over the first three hospital days than patients undergoing conventional CABG. The surrogate of narcotics use for postoperative pain shows that the minithoracotomy of robotic CABG may result in either less or equivalent pain than the sternotomy of conventional CABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IMI.0000000000000229DOI Listing
May 2017

Surgical therapy for complications of pneumonia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can improve the ability to wean patients from support.

Heart Lung Vessel 2015 ;7(4):330-1

Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Montefiore Medical Center and The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712038PMC
January 2016

Approaches to maintaining high-quality surgery training in the twenty-first century.

Authors:
Wissam Raad

Bull Am Coll Surg 2011 Aug;96(8):45-7

The Stanley J. Dudrick Department of Surgery, St. May's Hospital, Waterbury, CT, USA.

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August 2011

Vacuum-assisted closure instill as a method of sterilizing massive venous stasis wounds prior to split thickness skin graft placement.

Int Wound J 2010 Apr;7(2):81-5

Department of Surgery, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Patients with massive venous stasis ulcers that have very high bacterial burdens represent some of the most difficult wounds to manage. The vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device is known to optimise wound bed preparation; however, these patients have too high a bacterial burden for simple VAC application to facilitate this function. We present the application of the VAC with instillation of dilute Dakins solution as a way of bacterial eradication in these patients. Five patients with venous stasis ulcers greater than 200 cm(2) that were colonised with greater than 10(5) bacteria were treated with the VAC instill for 10 days with 12.5% Dakins solution, instilled for 10 minutes every hour. Two patients had multi-drug-resistant pseudomonas, three with MRSA. All the five had negative quantitative cultures, prior to split thickness skin graft with 100% take and complete healing at 1 year. Adequate delivery of bactericidal agents to the infected tissue can be very difficult, especially while promoting tissue growth. By providing a single delivery system for a bactericidal agent for a short period of time followed by a growth stimulating therapy, the VAC instill provides a unique combination that appears to maximise wound bed preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-481X.2010.00658.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951480PMC
April 2010

Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in intractable childhood epilepsy: open-label study and review of the literature.

Epilepsy Behav 2010 Jan 9;17(1):90-4. Epub 2009 Dec 9.

Adult and Pediatric Epilepsy Program, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Our aim was to investigate the long term effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) against intractable childhood epilepsy in the era of new antiepileptics and to determine the predictors of a favorable response in a prospective open-label add-on study. Of thirty-seven 9.9+/-0.9-year-old patients (11 with partial seizures, 26 with generalized seizures of whom 9 had West syndrome and 17 Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) followed for 15+/-3 months, 43% had a >50% decrease in seizures (including 15% seizure free, 229+/-58 compared with 104+/-3 seizures/month, P=0.035: generalized 246+/-318 to 117+/-200, P=0.025, partial 191+/-437 to 72+/-179, P>0.05; power=0.2). Males were more likely to respond than females (P=0.011, odds ratio=9.3). Review of the literature revealed nine other articles reporting efficacy of IVIG against epileptic seizures. Only one other used statistical methods and, unlike ours, showed only a trend toward seizure frequency reduction without achieving statistical significance, presumably because it was underpowered. These results indicate large-scale controlled studies of IVIG in epilepsy are still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.10.020DOI Listing
January 2010
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