Publications by authors named "Vuokko Aarnio"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Transcriptional profiling reveals differential expression of a neuropeptide-like protein and pseudogenes in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-1 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans.

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2014 Mar 2;9:40-8. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

Laboratory of Functional Genomics and Bioinformatics, A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Department of Neurobiology, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address:

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) functions in higher organisms in development, metabolism and toxic responses. Its Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) ortholog, AHR-1, facilitates neuronal development, growth and movement. We investigated the effect of AHR mutation on the transcriptional profile of L4 stage C. elegans using RNA-seq and quantitative real time PCR in order to understand better AHR-1 function at the genomic level. Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing yielded 51.1, 61.2 and 54.0 million reads from wild-type controls, ahr-1(ia03) and ahr-1(ju145) mutants, respectively, providing detection of over 18,000 transcripts in each sample. Fourteen transcripts were over-expressed and 125 under-expressed in both ahr-1 mutants when compared to wild-type. Under-expressed genes included soluble guanylate cyclase (gcy) family genes, some of which were previously demonstrated to be regulated by AHR-1. A neuropeptide-like protein gene, nlp-20, and a F-box domain protein gene fbxa-192 and its pseudogenes fbxa-191 and fbxa-193 were also under-expressed. Conserved xenobiotic response elements were identified in the 5' flanking regions of some but not all of the gcy, nlp-20, and fbxa genes. These results extend previous studies demonstrating control of gcy family gene expression by AHR-1, and furthermore suggest a role of AHR-1 in regulation of a neuropeptide gene as well as pseudogenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2013.12.001DOI Listing
March 2014

Methylmercury exposure increases lipocalin related (lpr) and decreases activated in blocked unfolded protein response (abu) genes and specific miRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Toxicol Lett 2013 Oct 18;222(2):189-96. Epub 2013 Jul 18.

A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Department of Neurobiology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address:

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a persistent environmental and dietary contaminant that causes serious adverse developmental and physiologic effects at multiple cellular levels. In order to understand more fully the consequences of MeHg exposure at the molecular level, we profiled gene and miRNA transcripts from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Animals were exposed to MeHg (10 μM) from embryo to larval 4 (L4) stage and RNAs were isolated. RNA-seq analysis on the Illumina platform revealed 541 genes up- and 261 genes down-regulated at a cutoff of 2-fold change and false discovery rate-corrected significance q < 0.05. Among the up-regulated genes were those previously shown to increase under oxidative stress conditions including hsp-16.11 (2.5-fold), gst-35 (10.1-fold), and fmo-2 (58.5-fold). In addition, we observed up-regulation of 6 out of 7 lipocalin related (lpr) family genes and down regulation of 7 out of 15 activated in blocked unfolded protein response (abu) genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis highlighted the effect of genes related to development and organism growth. miRNA-seq analysis revealed 6-8 fold down regulation of mir-37-3p, mir-41-5p, mir-70-3p, and mir-75-3p. Our results demonstrate the effects of MeHg on specific transcripts encoding proteins in oxidative stress responses and in ER stress pathways. Pending confirmation of these transcript changes at protein levels, their association and dissociation characteristics with interaction partners, and integration of these signals, these findings indicate broad and dynamic mechanisms by which MeHg exerts its harmful effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.07.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3816353PMC
October 2013

Chronic ethanol exposure increases cytochrome P-450 and decreases activated in blocked unfolded protein response gene family transcripts in caenorhabditis elegans.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2013 Mar 4;27(3):219-28. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Department of Neurobiology, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1E, 70210, Kuopio, Finland.

Ethanol is a widely consumed and rapidly absorbed toxin. While the physiological effects of ethanol consumption are well known, the underlying biochemical and molecular changes at the gene expression level in whole animals remain obscure. We exposed the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 0.2 M ethanol from the embryo to L4 larva stage and assayed gene expression changes in whole animals using RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time PCR. We observed gene expression changes in 1122 genes (411 up, 711 down). Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) gene family members (12 of 78) were upregulated, whereas activated in blocked unfolded protein response (ABU) (7 of 15) were downregulated. Other detoxification gene family members were also regulated including four glutathione-S-transferases and three flavin monooxygenases. The results presented show specific gene expression changes following chronic ethanol exposure in C. elegans that indicate both persistent upregulation of detoxification response genes and downregulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.21473DOI Listing
March 2013

Caenorhabditis Elegans Mutants Predict Regulation of Fatty Acids and Endocannabinoids by the CYP-35A Gene Family.

Front Pharmacol 2011 18;2:12. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Functional Genomics and Bioinformatics Laboratory, Department of Biosciences and Department of Neurobiology, A. I. Virtanen Institute, Biocenter Finland, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are mono-oxygenases that metabolize endogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and lipid signaling molecules, and furthermore have a role in metabolism of xenobiotics. In order to investigate the role of CYP genes in fat metabolism at the molecular level, four Caenorhabditis elegans mutants lacking functional CYP-35A1, CYP-35A2, CYP-35A4, and CYP-35A5 were characterized. Relative amounts of fatty acids, as well as endocannabinoids, which regulate weight gain and accumulation of fats in mammals, were measured while fat contents in worms were visualized using Oil-Red-O staining.

Results: The cyp-35A1 and cyp-35A5 mutants had a significantly lower intestinal fat content than wild-type animals, whereas cyp-35A2 and cyp-35A4 mutants appeared normal. The overall fatty acid compositions of CYP mutants did not alter dramatically, although modest but significant changes were observed. cyp-35A1 and cyp-35A5 mutants had significantly higher levels of C18:1n7 and lower C18:2n6c. All four mutants had higher relative amounts of C18:1n7 than the wild-type. In the cyp-35A5 mutant, the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide were found to be 4.6-fold higher than in wild-type. Several fatty acid synthesis genes were over-expressed in cyp-35A1 including fat-2. Feeding oleic or elaidic triglycerides to wild-type animals demonstrated that cyp-35A1 transcriptional levels are insensitive to environmental exposure of these fats, while cyp-35A2, cyp-35A4, and cyp-35A5 were significantly down regulated.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate a dynamic role for CYP-35A subfamily members in maintaining the diversity of fatty acid profiles in C. elegans, and more generally highlight the importance of CYPs in generating both structural and signaling fatty acid functions in other organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2011.00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108558PMC
July 2011

Overexpression of SUMO perturbs the growth and development of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2011 Oct 21;68(19):3219-32. Epub 2011 Jan 21.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) are important regulator proteins. Caenorhabditis elegans contains a single SUMO ortholog, SMO-1, necessary for the reproduction of C. elegans. In this study, we constructed transgenic C. elegans strains expressing human SUMO-1 under the control of pan-neuronal (aex-3) or pan-muscular (myo-4) promoter and SUMO-2 under the control of myo-4 promoter. Interestingly, muscular overexpression of SUMO-1 or -2 resulted in morphological changes of the posterior part of the nematode. Movement, reproduction and aging of C. elegans were perturbed by the overexpression of SUMO-1 or -2. Genome-wide expression analyses revealed that several genes encoding components of SUMOylation pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome system were upregulated in SUMO-overexpressing nematodes. Since muscular overexpression of SMO-1 also brought up reproductive and mobility perturbations, our results imply that the phenotypes were largely due to an excess of SUMO, suggesting that a tight control of SUMO levels is important for the normal development of multicellular organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-011-0627-4DOI Listing
October 2011

Fatty acid composition and gene expression profiles are altered in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-1 mutant Caenorhabditis elegans.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2010 Apr 5;151(3):318-24. Epub 2010 Jan 5.

Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a eukaryotic transcription factor that plays an essential role in neuronal, immune, vascular, hepatic and hematopoietic development. In mammals, AHR induces metabolism-associated genes in response to xenobiotics. AHR is evolutionarily conserved, and the C. elegans AHR ortholog likely shares many physiologic functions with the mammalian version. While the role of AHR in development is known, the molecular basis of AHR action is less well understood. To understand the physiologic role of AHR in C. elegans, a combination of fatty acid profiling, transcriptomics, and phenotyping approaches was used. Fatty acid profiles from L4 larval stage whole animals indicated that C17isoA, C18:1n9t, C20:3n6 and C20:4n6 were significantly increased in an ahr-1 mutant compared to wild-type. Consistent with these changes, we observed a significant 5.8 fold increase in fat-7, and 1.7-1.9 fold increases in elo-5, nhr-49, and mdt-15 gene expression during the L4 stage. The ahr-1(ju145) mutant displayed deficits in growth and development including a reduced number of eggs laid, a higher proportion of dead embryos, delay in time to reach L4 stage, and movement deficits including a fewer number of body bends and a longer defecation cycle. To understand global effects of AHR-1 on transcription, microarray analysis was performed on L1 stage animals. Expression changes (324 under- and 238 over-expressed) were found in genes associated with metabolism, growth, and development. These results indicate a role for C. elegans AHR in regulating fatty acid composition and in contributing to some aspects of development. Since the transcriptional control of AHR targets may be evolutionarily conserved, these results provide a deeper understanding of the molecular actions of AHR in a model invertebrate system that may be informative for higher organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2009.12.006DOI Listing
April 2010

Increased lifespan in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans overexpressing human alpha-synuclein.

Exp Gerontol 2006 Sep 19;41(9):871-6. Epub 2006 Jun 19.

Department of Neurobiology, A.I. Virtanen Institute, Kuopio University, Kuopio 70211, Finland.

alpha-Synuclein is a short 14-kDa protein found in pathological lesions of age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple system atrophy. Its overexpression in transgenic mice, rats, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans recapitulates many of the pathologic features observed in human Parkinson's disease including loss of dopaminergic neurons and motor deficits. Integrated transgenic C. elegans lines were generated that overexpress either human wildtype (WT) or mutant (A53T) forms. These transgenic lines demonstrated approximately 25% increase in lifespan (p<0.0001) compared to controls. When the transgenes were crossed into long-lived daf-2 (m577) or daf-2 (e1370) genetic backgrounds, the lifespan increase was also approximately 25% in comparison to the corresponding daf-2 strains (p<0.05). Pharyngeal pumping and egg laying were significantly decreased in the overexpressing transgenic lines, and lifespan increases were attenuated when lines were grown on thick bacterial lawns, suggesting that caloric restriction may explain some of the effects on lifespan. These studies provide initial evidence for a beneficial role of human alpha-synuclein in influencing lifespan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2006.05.005DOI Listing
September 2006

Analysis of microarray studies performed in the neurosciences.

J Mol Neurosci 2005 ;27(3):261-8

Department of Neuroscience, A. I. Virtanen Institute, Finland.

The application of microarray technology to basic and applied fields of science has been progressing rapidly and broadly since its initial description. The field of neuroscience stands to benefit particularly, as nervous tissue is the most transcriptionally active system within most biological organisms. Moreover, large numbers of cell and animal models have been created that mimic many biochemical and behavioral features of neurological states and diseases. In the present study, data on study designs, tissue sources, technology platforms, bioinformatic tools, and results obtained from 448 published microarray studies were collected. The data were then summarized to determine overall usage statistics of microarrays. Future directions and applications for microarrays in the neurosciences were then inferred from the data analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/JMN:27:3:261DOI Listing
February 2006
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