Publications by authors named "Vidya Nadig"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction using through-time radial GRAPPA.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2014 Oct 1;16:79. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Room 309 Wickenden Building 2071 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Cleveland, OH, 44106-7207, USA.

Background: The determination of left ventricular ejection fraction using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) requires a steady cardiac rhythm for electrocardiogram (ECG) gating and multiple breathholds to minimize respiratory motion artifacts, which often leads to scan times of several minutes. The need for gating and breathholding can be eliminated by employing real-time CMR methods such as through-time radial GRAPPA. The aim of this study is to compare left ventricular cardiac functional parameters obtained using current gold-standard breathhold ECG-gated functional scans with non-gated free-breathing real-time imaging using radial GRAPPA, and to determine whether scan time or the occurrence of artifacts are reduced when using this real-time approach.

Methods: 63 patients were scanned on a 1.5T CMR scanner using both the standard cardiac functional examination with gating and breathholding and the real-time method. Total scan durations were noted. Through-time radial GRAPPA was employed to reconstruct images from the highly accelerated real-time data. The blood volume in the left ventricle was assessed to determine the end systolic volume (ESV), end diastolic volume (EDV), and ejection fraction (EF) for both methods, and images were rated for the presence of artifacts and quality of specific image features by two cardiac readers. Linear regression analysis, Bland-Altman plots and two-sided t-tests were performed to compare the quantitative parameters. A two-sample t-test was performed to compare the scan durations, and a two-sample test of proportion was used to analyze the presence of artifacts. For the reviewers´ ratings the Wilcoxon test for the equality of the scores' distributions was employed.

Results: The differences in EF, EDV, and ESV between the gold-standard and real-time methods were not statistically significant (p-values of 0.77, 0.82, and 0.97, respectively). Additionally, the scan time was significantly shorter for the real-time data collection (p<0.001) and fewer artifacts were reported in the real-time images (p<0.01). In the qualitative image analysis, reviewers marginally preferred the standard images although some features including cardiac motion were equivalently rated.

Conclusion: Real-time functional CMR with through-time radial GRAPPA performed without ECG-gating under free-breathing can be considered as an alternative to gold-standard breathhold cine imaging for the evaluation of ejection fraction in patients.
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October 2014

Outcomes of cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention for in-hospital ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation cardiac arrest.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2012 Aug 8;80(2):E9-14. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

Objective: This study examined outcomes of patients with sudden cardiac death attributable to primary ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) that underwent cardiac catheterization with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: The decision to perform cardiac catheterization and PCI in resuscitated patients with sudden cardiac death remains controversial. Prior data suggest a potential benefit from percutaneous revascularization.

Methods: All patients with an in-hospital pulseless VT or VF cardiac arrest from August 2002 to February 2008 who underwent cardiac catheterization were included. Retrospective chart review was performed to obtain clinical, neurologic, and angiographic data. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and neurologic outcome.

Results: Two thousand and thirty-four patients had in-hospital cardiac arrest, of these 116 had pulseless VT or VF and were resuscitated and 93 (80%) underwent coronary angiography. The median time to follow-up was 1.3 years (IQR: 0.5-2.9 years). Obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was observed in 74 (79%) individuals, of whom 37 underwent PCI. Thirty-five patients with obstructive CAD (47%) died compared to 41% with nonobstructive CAD. In unadjusted and multivariable adjusted analysis PCI was not associated with lower mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.54, 95% CI, 0.79-3.02, P = 0.20). No significant differences were noted in neurologic status at discharge (P = 0.49).

Conclusion: In this study, an aggressive revascularization strategy with PCI did not confer a survival advantage nor was it associated with improved neurologic outcomes. There was no suggestion of harm with PCI and further studies are necessary to identify potential subgroups that may benefit from revascularization.
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August 2012

Spontaneous perinephric hematoma due to acquired factor X deficiency in AL amyloidosis.

NDT Plus 2011 Apr 14;4(2):101-3. Epub 2011 Feb 14.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Glickman Urology and Kidney Institute at Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Spontaneous perinephric hematoma (SPH) is a rare entity whose diagnosis is challenging because of its varied clinical presentation and lack of any specific etiology. We report a 34-year-old African-American male who presented with left flank pain and was found to have a large left perinephric hematoma, in the setting of undiagnosed AL amylodosis. The case illustrates that while a SPH due to the vascular angiopathy of amyloid is rare, when amyloidosis is associated with abnormal coagulation studies or bleeding at multiple sites, it should be considered because of its protean systemic manifestations and potential response to chemotherapy.
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April 2011

Weaning from prolonged invasive ventilation in motor neuron disease: analysis of outcomes and survival.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2011 Jun 14;82(6):643-5. Epub 2010 Apr 14.

Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridge CB23 3RE, UK.

Introduction: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) improves prognosis in patients with motor neuron disease (MND) in the absence of major bulbar involvement. However, some experience a rapid and unexpected decline in respiratory function and may undergo emergency tracheal intubation. Weaning from invasive ventilation can be difficult, and reported independence from invasive ventilation is uncommon with poor prognosis. The outcomes of patients with MND referred to a specialist weaning service following emergency tracheal intubation were examined and compared with MND patients electively initiating NIV.

Methods: A case note review was performed on all patients with MND invasively ventilated and referred to a specialist weaning service between 1992 and 2007. Outcomes were compared with those electively commenced on NIV during the same period.

Results: Thirty patients were referred for weaning from invasive ventilation which was started in 17 before MND was diagnosed. Fourteen patients (47%) were weaned from invasive ventilation but still required NIV, 13 failed to wean, and three died. Seventeen were discharged home from hospital. The median survival from tracheal intubation was 13.7 months (95% CI 0 to 30.8) for those previously diagnosed and 7.2 months (95% CI 5.1 to 9.4) for those not previously known to have MND. Comparison with patients initiated electively on NIV demonstrated similar survival estimates to that from emergency intubation (median 9.4 (95% CI 6.9 to 12.0) vs 7.8 (95% CI 2.6 to 12.9) months respectively).

Conclusion: The prognosis in MND following acute respiratory failure and intubation is not always complete ventilator dependence if patients are offered a comprehensive weaning programme.
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June 2011

Educational, supportive and behavioural interventions to improve usage of continuous positive airway pressure machines for adults with obstructive sleep apnoea.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009 Apr 15(2):CD007736. Epub 2009 Apr 15.

Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre, Papworth Hospital, Papworth Everard, Cambridge, UK, CB3 8RE.

Background: Although effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not meet with universal acceptance by users. Educational, supportive and behavioural interventions may help people with obstructive sleep apnoea recognise the need for regular and continued use of continuous positive airway pressure.

Objectives: To critically assess strategies that are educational, or supportive, or behavioural in encouraging people who have been prescribed or offered CPAP to use their machines.

Search Strategy: Searches were conducted on the Cochrane Airways Group Sleep Apnoea trials register. Searches are current to September 2008.

Selection Criteria: Randomised parallel group studies which assessed an intervention aimed to inform participants about CPAP or OSA, or to support them in using CPAP or to modify their behaviour in increasing their use of CPAP machines. Studies of any duration were considered.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two authors assessed studies to determine their suitability for inclusion in the review. Data were extracted independently and entered in to Review Manager software.

Main Results: Seventeen studies met the review entry criteria (1070 participants). Support/encouragement offered on an ongoing basis led to increased average machine usage (0.59 hours/night (95% CI 0.26 to 0.92), although there was a significant degree of variation between the results of the studies. The effects of these interventions on the likelihood of study withdrawal, symptoms and quality of life were not statistically significant.Short-course educational intervention was not more successful in improving average machine usage than usual care.Cognitive behavioural therapy led to a significant improvement in average machine usage in two studies (2.92 hours/night (95% CI 1.93 to 3.92)), and a number needed to treat of 3 (95% CI 2 to 6) for one additional patient to achieve machine usage of six or more hours per night. Overall, In the control groups 85 people out of 100 had failed to comply with CPAP over 4 to 12 weeks, compared to 46 (95% CI 68 to 25) out of 100 for the cognitive behaviour groups.

Authors' Conclusions: There is some evidence that a supportive intervention which encourages people to continue to use their CPAP machines leads to greater levels of CPAP machine usage than control, although the variation across the studies introduces some uncertainty over how consistent this effect is. We could not find evidence that a short-term educational intervention led to improvements in usage. Cognitive behavioural therapy led to the largest increases in average machine usage, partly because more participants were prepared to try out the treatment. Studies generally recruited CPAP naive patients whose sleep apnoea was severe. Trials in patients who have struggled to persist with treatment are required, as there is currently little evidence in this population. This could make a valuable contribution to our understanding of the complex relationship between initial motivation, ongoing perception of benefit and long-term health benefits.
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April 2009

Sarcoidosis, microvascular angina and aortitis: New dimensions of the 'Takayasu syndrome' - A case report.

Int J Angiol 2007 ;16(3):113-4

Department of Cardiology, Norfolk and Norwich University NHS Trust, Norwich, United Kingdom.

A case of Takayasu aortitis associated with sarcoidosis presenting with recurrent angina is reported. This association has been called 'Takayasu syndrome', which reflects what is likely a shared etiology. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities have recently been documented in sarcoidosis, but this case clarifies for the first time that the angina in Takayasu syndrome is likely due to small vessel coronary arteritis. Corticosteroids and cytotoxic therapy have been shown to be beneficial in all forms of sarcoidosis related to vasculitis. Initiation of steroid therapy may provide relief of angina in patients with evidence of reversible ischemia in normal coronary arteries.
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August 2012