Publications by authors named "Victor Moreno"

422 Publications

Doxorubicin plus lurbinectedin in patients with advanced endometrial cancer: results from an expanded phase I study.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

NIHR UCLH Clinical Research Facility, London, UK.

Objective: Second-line treatment of endometrial cancer is an unmet medical need. We conducted a phase I study evaluating lurbinectedin and doxorubicin intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with solid tumors. The aim of this study was to characterise the efficacy and safety of lurbinectedin and doxorubicin for patients with endometrial cancer.

Methods: Thirty-four patients were treated: 15 patients in the escalation phase (doxorubicin 50 mg/m and lurbinectedin 3.0-5.0 mg) and 19 patients in the expansion cohort (doxorubicin 40 mg/m and lurbinectedin 2.0 mg/m). All histological subtypes were eligible and patients had received one to two prior lines of chemotherapy for advanced disease. Antitumor activity was evaluated every two cycles according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1. Adverse events were graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.

Results: Median age (range) was 65 (51-78) years. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was up to 1 in 97% of patients. In the escalation phase, 4 (26.7%) of 15 patients had confirmed response: two complete and two partial responses (95% CI 7.8% to 55.1%). Median duration of response was 19.5 months. Median progression-free survival was 7.3 (2.5 to 10.1) months. In the expansion cohort, confirmed partial response was reported in 8 (42.1%) of 19 patients (95% CI 20.3% to 66.5%). Median duration of response was 7.5 (6.4 to not reached) months, median progression-free survival was 7.7 (2.0 to 16.7) months and median overall survival was 14.2 (4.5 to not reached) months. Fatigue (26.3% of patients), and transient and reversible myelosuppression (neutropenia, 78.9%; febrile neutropenia, 21.1%; thrombocytopenia, 15.8%) were the main grade 3 and higher toxicities in the expanded cohort.

Conclusions: In patients with recurrent advanced endometrial cancer treated with doxorubicin and lurbinectedin, response rates (42%) and duration of response (7.5 months) were favorable. Further evaluation of doxorubicin and lurbinectedin is warranted in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2021-002881DOI Listing
October 2021

Novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying risk of colorectal cancer from smoking and red/processed meat carcinogens by modeling exposure in normal colon organoids.

Oncotarget 2021 Sep 14;12(19):1863-1877. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Tobacco smoke and red/processed meats are well-known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Most research has focused on studies of normal colon biopsies in epidemiologic studies or treatment of CRC cell lines . These studies are often constrained by challenges with accuracy of self-report data or, in the case of CRC cell lines, small sample sizes and lack of relationship to normal tissue at risk. In an attempt to address some of these limitations, we performed a 24-hour treatment of a representative carcinogens cocktail in 37 independent organoid lines derived from normal colon biopsies. Machine learning algorithms were applied to bulk RNA-sequencing and revealed cellular composition changes in colon organoids. We identified 738 differentially expressed genes in response to carcinogens exposure. Network analysis identified significantly different modules of co-expression, that included genes related to MSI-H tumor biology, and genes previously implicated in CRC through genome-wide association studies. Our study helps to better define the molecular effects of representative carcinogens from smoking and red/processed meat in normal colon epithelial cells and in the etiology of the MSI-H subtype of CRC, and suggests an overlap between molecular mechanisms involved in inherited and environmental CRC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.28058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8448508PMC
September 2021

Safety and Antitumor Activity of α-PD-L1 Antibody as Monotherapy or in Combination with α-TIM-3 Antibody in Patients with Microsatellite Instability-High/Mismatch Repair-Deficient Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of South Korea.

Purpose: Immune checkpoint inhibitors show high response rates and durable clinical benefit in microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) tumors. However, 50%-60% do not respond to single-agent anti-programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) antibodies, and approximately 50% of responders relapse within 6-12 months. This phase Ib trial evaluated safety and antitumor activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody LY3300054 monotherapy or in combination with anti-TIM-3 antibody LY3321367 in patients with MSI-H/dMMR advanced solid tumors.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients ≥18 years without prior anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy received LY3300054 monotherapy ( = 40) or combination ( = 20); patients with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory tumors received the combination ( = 22). LY3300054 (700 mg) and anti-TIM-3 antibody (cycles 1-2: 1,200 mg, cycle 3 onward: 600 mg) were administered intravenously every 2 weeks. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability.

Results: Eighty-two patients were enrolled. Most had colorectal ( = 39, 47.6%) or endometrial ( = 14, 17.1%) tumors. More than 70% of patients in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory combination cohort had received ≥3 treatment lines. Treatment-related adverse events (TRAE) occurred in 22 patients (55.0%) receiving monotherapy, 13 (65.0%) in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-naïve combination cohort, and 6 (27.3%) in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory combination cohort. A total of 2 patients (5.0%) receiving monotherapy and 3 (7.1%) receiving the combination experienced grade ≥3 TRAEs. Objective responses occurred in 13 patients (32.5%) with monotherapy, 9 (45.0%) in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-naïve combination cohort, and 1 patient (4.5%) in the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory combination cohort.

Conclusions: LY3300054 monotherapy and combined LY3300054/anti-TIM-3 had manageable safety profiles. Both regimens showed promising clinical activity against PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-naïve MSI-H/dMMR tumors. The combination had limited clinical benefit in patients with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-resistant/refractory MSI-H/dMMR tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0261DOI Listing
August 2021

Clinical activity and safety of the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody dostarlimab for patients with recurrent or advanced dMMR endometrial cancer.

Future Oncol 2021 Oct 24;17(29):3781-3785. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille-Predictive Oncology Laboratory, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Department of Medical Oncology, Aix-Marseille University, Inserm, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, France.

This document provides a short summary of the GARNET trial which was published in JAMA Oncology in October 2020. At the end of this document, there are links to websites where you can find more information about this study. The trial enrolled adult participants with advanced solid tumors. This report is restricted to patients with a particular type of endometrial cancer that has a deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) status. Patients received a trial treatment called dostarlimab (also known by the brand name Jemperli). In the US, dostarlimab is approved as a single therapy in adult patients with dMMR recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer that has progressed on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. In the EU, dostarlimab is approved as a single therapy in adult patients with recurrent or advanced dMMR/microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) endometrial cancer that has progressed on or after treatment with a platinum-containing regimen. The GARNET trial looked at dostarlimab given intravenously to patients with dMMR endometrial cancer from 7 countries. The trial showed that dostarlimab was successful in shrinking the tumor in 42% of these patients. In general, the percentage of participants who experienced medical problems (referred to as side effects) was low and within expectations for this type of treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT number: NCT02715284.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2021-0598DOI Listing
October 2021

Identifying causal models between genetically regulated methylation patterns and gene expression in healthy colon tissue.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Aug 21;13(1):162. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Unit of Biomarkers and Susceptibility, Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Av Gran Via 199-203, 08907, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression and phenotypic variation, but the inter-relationship between genetic variation, DNA methylation and gene expression remains poorly understood. Here we combine the analysis of genetic variants related to methylation markers (methylation quantitative trait loci: mQTLs) and gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci: eQTLs) with methylation markers related to gene expression (expression quantitative trait methylation: eQTMs), to provide novel insights into the genetic/epigenetic architecture of colocalizing molecular markers.

Results: Normal mucosa from 100 patients with colon cancer and 50 healthy donors included in the Colonomics project have been analyzed. Linear models have been used to find mQTLs and eQTMs within 1 Mb of the target gene. From 32,446 eQTLs previously detected, we found a total of 6850 SNPs, 114 CpGs and 52 genes interrelated, generating 13,987 significant combinations of co-occurring associations (meQTLs) after Bonferromi correction. Non-redundant meQTLs were 54, enriched in genes involved in metabolism of glucose and xenobiotics and immune system. SNPs in meQTLs were enriched in regulatory elements (enhancers and promoters) compared to random SNPs within 1 Mb of genes. Three colorectal cancer GWAS SNPs were related to methylation changes, and four SNPs were related to chemerin levels. Bayesian networks have been used to identify putative causal relationships among associated SNPs, CpG and gene expression triads. We identified that most of these combinations showed the canonical pathway of methylation markers causes gene expression variation (60.1%) or non-causal relationship between methylation and gene expression (33.9%); however, in up to 6% of these combinations, gene expression was causing variation in methylation markers.

Conclusions: In this study we provided a characterization of the regulation between genetic variants and inter-dependent methylation markers and gene expression in a set of 150 healthy colon tissue samples. This is an important finding for the understanding of molecular susceptibility on colon-related complex diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01148-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380335PMC
August 2021

Transcriptome-wide Effects of Aspirin on Patient-derived Normal Colon Organoids.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Mechanisms underlying aspirin chemoprevention of colorectal cancer remain unclear. Prior studies have been limited because of the inability of preclinical models to recapitulate human normal colon epithelium or cellular heterogeneity present in mucosal biopsies. To overcome some of these obstacles, we performed aspirin treatment of colon organoids derived from normal mucosal biopsies to reveal transcriptional networks relevant to aspirin chemoprevention. Colon organoids derived from 38 healthy individuals undergoing endoscopy were treated with 50 μmol/L aspirin or vehicle control for 72 hours and subjected to bulk RNA sequencing. Paired regression analysis using DESeq2 identified differentially expressed genes (DEG) associated with aspirin treatment. Cellular composition was determined using CIBERSORTx. Aspirin treatment was associated with 1,154 significant ( < 0.10) DEGs prior to deconvolution. We provide replication of these findings in an independent population-based RNA-sequencing dataset of mucosal biopsies (BarcUVa-Seq), where a significant enrichment for overlap of DEGs was observed ( < 2.2E). Single-cell deconvolution revealed changes in cell composition, including a decrease in transit-amplifying cells following aspirin treatment ( = 0.01). Following deconvolution, DEGs included novel putative targets for aspirin such as ( = 0.055), a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified 12 significant modules, including two that contained hubs for and , the latter being previously implicated in aspirin chemoprevention. In summary, aspirin treatment of patient-derived colon organoids using physiologically relevant doses resulted in transcriptome-wide changes that reveal altered cell composition and improved understanding of transcriptional pathways, providing novel insight into its chemopreventive properties. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Numerous studies have highlighted a role for aspirin in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, though the mechanisms driving this association remain unclear. We addressed this by showing that aspirin treatment of normal colon organoids diminished the transit-amplifying cell population, inhibited prostaglandin synthesis, and dysregulated expression of novel genes implicated in colon tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-21-0041DOI Listing
August 2021

Chromatin Remodeling of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis is Mediated by an HGF-PU.1-DPP4 Axis.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 10 10;8(19):e2004673. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasizes mainly to the liver, which accounts for the majority of CRC-related deaths. Here it is shown that metastatic cells undergo specific chromatin remodeling in the liver. Hepatic growth factor (HGF) induces phosphorylation of PU.1, a pioneer factor, which in turn binds and opens chromatin regions of downstream effector genes. PU.1 increases histone acetylation at the DPP4 locus. Precise epigenetic silencing by CRISPR/dCas9 or CRISPR/dCas9 revealed that individual PU.1-remodeled regulatory elements collectively modulate DPP4 expression and liver metastasis growth. Genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of each factor along this chromatin remodeling axis strongly suppressed liver metastasis. Therefore, microenvironment-induced epimutation is an important mechanism for metastatic tumor cells to grow in their new niche. This study presents a potential strategy to target chromatin remodeling in metastatic cancer and the promise of repurposing drugs to treat metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498885PMC
October 2021

Association Between Smoking and Molecular Subtypes of Colorectal Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Aug 14;5(4):pkab056. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Departments of Cancer Biology and Genetics and Internal Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Smoking is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Previous studies suggested this association may be restricted to certain molecular subtypes of CRC, but large-scale comprehensive analysis is lacking.

Methods: A total of 9789 CRC cases and 11 231 controls of European ancestry from 11 observational studies were included. We harmonized smoking variables across studies and derived sex study-specific quartiles of pack-years of smoking for analysis. Four somatic colorectal tumor markers were assessed individually and in combination, including mutation, mutation, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and risk of CRC subtypes by molecular characteristics, adjusting for age, sex, and study. All statistical tests were 2-sided and adjusted for Bonferroni correction.

Results: Heavier smoking was associated with higher risk of CRC overall and stratified by individual markers ( < .001). The associations differed statistically significantly between all molecular subtypes, which was the most statistically significant for CIMP and . Compared with never-smokers, smokers in the fourth quartile of pack-years had a 90% higher risk of CIMP-positive CRC (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.60 to 2.26) but only 35% higher risk for CIMP-negative CRC (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 1.49; = 2.1 x 10). The association was also stronger in tumors that were positive, MSI high, or wild type when combined ( < .001).

Conclusion: Smoking was associated with differential risk of CRC subtypes defined by molecular characteristics. Heavier smokers had particularly higher risk of CRC subtypes that were CIMP positive and MSI high in combination, suggesting that smoking may be involved in the development of colorectal tumors via the serrated pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346704PMC
August 2021

Non-Lynch Familial and Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Explained by Accumulation of Low-Risk Genetic Variants.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 31;13(15). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Hereditary Cancer Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, 08908 Barcelona, Spain.

A large proportion of familial and/or early-onset cancer patients do not carry pathogenic variants in known cancer predisposing genes. We aimed to assess the contribution of previously validated low-risk colorectal cancer (CRC) alleles to familial/early-onset CRC (fCRC) and to serrated polyposis. We estimated the association of CRC with a 92-variant-based weighted polygenic risk score (wPRS) using 417 fCRC patients, 80 serrated polyposis patients, 1077 hospital-based incident CRC patients, and 1642 controls. The mean wPRS was significantly higher in fCRC than in controls or sporadic CRC patients. fCRC patients in the highest (20th) wPRS quantile were at four-fold greater CRC risk than those in the middle quantile (10th). Compared to low-wPRS fCRC, a higher number of high-wPRS fCRC patients had developed multiple primary CRCs, had CRC family history, and were diagnosed at age ≥50. No association with wPRS was observed for serrated polyposis. In conclusion, a relevant proportion of mismatch repair (MMR)-proficient fCRC cases might be explained by the accumulation of low-risk CRC alleles. Validation in independent cohorts and development of predictive models that include polygenic risk score (PRS) data and other CRC predisposing factors will determine the implementation of PRS into genetic testing and counselling in familial and early-onset CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13153857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345397PMC
July 2021

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of budigalimab with rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients with small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 25;28:100405. Epub 2021 May 25.

Cancer Care Center, Blacktown Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Agents targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have been approved as monotherapy for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In preclinical models, the combined targeting of PD-1 and delta-like protein 3 resulted in enhanced antitumor activity. Herein, we report results from the expansion arm of study NCT03000257 evaluating the combination of the anti-PD-1 antibody budigalimab and the targeted antibody-drug conjugate rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) in patients with previously treated SCLC.

Materials And Methods: This expansion arm of a multicenter, open-label, multi-arm, first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial enrolled adult patients with progressive SCLC. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability. Patients received budigalimab 375 mg via intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, and Rova-T was administered as a dose of 0.3 mg/kg intravenously, on day 1 of the first and third 3-week cycle.

Results: As of October 2019, 31 patients with SCLC were enrolled and treated with budigalimab plus Rova-T. The combination was tolerated, with the most common treatment-emergent adverse events (in >30%) being pleural effusion, fatigue, and cough. The overall response rate was 24.1%, with one confirmed complete response and six confirmed partial responses. The overall response rate in patients with high delta-like protein 3 expression was similar (21.1%). The median progression-free survival was 3.48 months.

Conclusion: Combination therapy with budigalimab and Rova-T had promising efficacy and appeared to be tolerated in patients with SCLC. Although Rova-T development has been discontinued, development of budigalimab combined with other anticancer agents is ongoing.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT03000257 Statement on originality of the work The manuscript represents original work and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere nor previously published. Statement of prior presentation Data from this study were previously presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctarc.2021.100405DOI Listing
May 2021

Transcriptome-wide association study for inflammatory bowel disease reveals novel candidate susceptibility genes in specific colon subsites and tissue categories.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Oncology Data Analytics Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO). L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background & Aims: Genome-wide association studies [GWAS] for inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have identified 240 risk variants. However, the benefit of understanding the genetic architecture of IBD remains to be exploited. Transcriptome-wide association studies [TWAS] associate gene expression with genetic susceptibility to disease, providing functional insight into risk loci. In this study, we integrate relevant datasets to IBD and perform a TWAS to nominate novel genes implicated in IBD genetic susceptibility.

Methods: We applied elastic net regression to generate gene expression prediction models for University of Barcelona and University of Virginia RNA sequencing project [BarcUVa-Seq] and correlated expression and disease association research [CEDAR] datasets. Together with Genotype-Tissue Expression project [GTEx] data, and GWAS results from about 60K individuals, we employed Summary-PrediXcan and Summary-MultiXcan for single and joint analyses of TWAS results, respectively.

Results: BarcUVa-Seq TWAS revealed 39 novel genes whose expression in the colon is associated with IBD genetic susceptibility. They included expression markers for specific colon cell types. TWAS meta-analysis including all tissues/cell types provided 186 novel candidate susceptibility genes. Additionally, we identified 78 novel susceptibility genes whose expression is associated with IBD exclusively in immune (N=19), epithelial (N=25), mesenchymal (N=22) and neural (N=12) tissue categories. Associated genes were involved in relevant molecular pathways, including pathways related to known IBD therapeutics, such as tumor necrosis factor [TNF] signaling.

Conclusion: These findings provide insight into tissue-specific molecular processes underlying IBD genetic susceptibility. Associated genes could be candidate targets for new therapeutics and should be prioritized in functional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab131DOI Listing
July 2021

Solving the enigma of POLD1 p.V295M as a potential cause of increased cancer risk.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Hereditary Cancer Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, IDIBELL, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Germline variants that affect the proofreading activity of polymerases epsilon (POLE) and delta (POLD1) predispose to colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, among other cancers. All cancer-associated pathogenic variants reported to date consist of non-disruptive genetic changes affecting the sequence that codifies the exonuclease domain (ED). Generally, disruptive (frameshift, stop-gain) POLE and POLD1 variants and missense variants outside the ED do not predispose to cancer. However, this statement may not be true for some, very specific variants that would indirectly affect the proofreading activity of the corresponding polymerase. We evaluated, by using multiple approaches, the possibility that POLD1 c.883G>A; p.(Val295Met), -a variant located 9 amino acids upstream the ED and present in ~0.25% of hereditary cancer patients-, affects POLD1 proofreading activity. Our findings show cumulative evidence that support no alteration of the proofreading activity and lack of association with cancer. The variant is classified as likely benign according to the ACMG/AMP guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00926-6DOI Listing
July 2021

[Family history of first degree as a risk factor for colorectal cancer].

Gac Sanit 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), España; Programa de Recerca en Epidemiologia del Càncer, Institut Català d'Oncologia (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, España.

Objective: To evaluate the association between first-degree family history and colorectal cancer (CRC).

Method: We analyzed data from 2857 controls and 1360 CRC cases, collected in the MCC-Spain project. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of association with the family history of CRC was estimated by non-conditional logistic regression.

Results: First-degree relatives doubled the risk of CRC (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.80-2.66), increasing in those with two or more (OR: 4.22; 95% CI: 2.29-7.78) and in those whose relatives were diagnosed before 50 years (OR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.52-6.91). Regarding the association of the family history with the location, no significant differences were observed between colon and rectum, but there were in the relation of these with the age of diagnosis, having more relatives those diagnosed before 50 years (OR: 4.79; 95% CI: 2.65-8.65).

Conclusions: First-degree relatives of CRC increase the chances of developing this tumor, they also increase when the relative is diagnosed at an early age. Therefore, it must be a target population on which to carry out prevention measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2021.04.006DOI Listing
July 2021

First-in-human phase 1 study of budigalimab, an anti-PD-1 inhibitor, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

START Madrid-FJD, Hospital Universitario Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Budigalimab is a humanized, recombinant immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). We present the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetic (PK), and pharmacodynamic data from patients enrolled in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) expansion cohorts of the phase 1 first-in-human study of budigalimab monotherapy (NCT03000257; registered 15 December 2016).

Patients And Methods: Patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC or locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC naive to PD-1/PD-1-ligand inhibitors were enrolled; patients were not selected on the basis of oncogene driver mutations or PD-L1 status. Budigalimab was administered at 250 mg intravenously Q2W or 500 mg intravenously Q4W until disease progression/unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoints were safety and PK; the secondary endpoint was efficacy. Exploratory endpoints included biomarker assessments.

Results: In total, 81 patients were enrolled (HNSCC: N = 41 [PD-L1 positive: n = 19]; NSCLC: N = 40 [PD-L1 positive: n = 16]); median treatment duration was 72 days (range, 1-617) and 71 days (range, 1-490) for the HNSCC and NSCLC cohorts, respectively. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse event was anemia (HNSCC: n = 9, 22%; NSCLC: n = 5, 13%). Both dosing regimens had comparable drug exposure and increased interferon gamma-induced chemokines, monokine induced by gamma interferon, and interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10. Objective response rates were 13% (90% CI, 5.1-24.5) in the HNSCC cohort and 19% (90% CI, 9.2-32.6) in the NSCLC cohort. Median progression-free survival was 3.6 months (95% CI, 1.7-4.7) and 1.9 months (95% CI, 1.7-3.7) in the HNSCC and NSCLC cohorts.

Conclusions: The safety, efficacy and biomarker profiles of budigalimab are similar to other PD-1 inhibitors. Development of budigalimab in combination with novel anticancer agents is ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02973-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Positive impact of a faecal-based screening programme on colorectal cancer mortality risk.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(6):e0253369. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: The effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs is directly related to participation and the number of interval CRCs. The objective was to analyse specific-mortality in a cohort of individuals invited to a CRC screening program according to type of CRC diagnosis (screen-detected cancers, interval cancers, and cancers among the non-uptake group).

Material And Methods: Retrospective cohort that included invitees aged 50-69 years of a CRC screening program (target population of 85,000 people) in Catalonia (Spain) from 2000-2015 with mortality follow-up until 2020. A screen-detected CRC was a cancer diagnosed after a positive faecal occult blood test (guaiac or immunochemical); an interval cancer was a cancer diagnosed after a negative test result and before the next invitation to the program (≤24 months); a non-uptake cancer was a cancer in subjects who declined screening.

Results: A total of 624 people were diagnosed with CRC (n = 265 screen-detected, n = 103 interval cancers, n = 256 non-uptake). In the multivariate analysis, we observed a 74% increase in mortality rate in the group with interval CRC compared to screen-detected CRC adjusted for age, sex, location and stage (HR: 1.74%, 95% CI:1.08-2.82, P = 0.02). These differences were found even when we restricted for advanced-cancers participants. In the stratified analysis for type of faecal occult blood test, a lower mortality rate was only observed among FIT screen-detected CRCs.

Conclusion: CRC screening with the FIT was associated with a significant reduction in CRC mortality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253369PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244848PMC
June 2021

Adoptive cell therapy for solid tumors: Chimeric antigen receptor T cells and beyond.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2021 08 19;59:70-84. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

START Madrid-CIOCC: Centro Integral Oncológico Clara Campal, Madrid, Spain.

Adoptive cell therapy with chimeric antigen receptor T cells has caused a significant revolution in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, for solid tumors, this treatment modality has been proven insufficient to achieve significant antitumor activity. The use of modified T cell receptors towards tumor-associated antigens (NY-ESO, MAGE-A4) has recently shown antitumor activity in synovial sarcoma. Also, treatment with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes shows clinical activity in metastatic cervical cancer and melanoma resistant to checkpoint inhibitors. Strategies to improve results and broaden the applicability of therapeutic lymphocytes for solid tumors include local delivery, fourth generation chimeric antigen receptor T cells, off-the-shelf T lymphocytes and private neoantigen-directed cells, among others. In this review, we summarize the status of adoptive cell therapy using T cells for solid tumors and the investigational strategies being tested in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2021.05.004DOI Listing
August 2021

Sleep duration and napping in relation to colorectal and gastric cancer in the MCC-Spain study.

Sci Rep 2021 06 3;11(1):11822. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Sleep duration is a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor for cancer. We evaluated the association of self-reported sleep duration and daytime napping with odds of colorectal and gastric cancer. We included 2008 incident colorectal cancer cases, 542 gastric cancer cases and 3622 frequency-matched population controls, recruited in the MCC-Spain case-control study (2008-2013). Sleep information, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were obtained through personal interviews. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer, across categories of sleep duration (≤ 5, 6, 7, 8, ≥ 9 hours/day), daytime napping frequency (naps/week) and duration (minutes/nap). Compared to 7 hours of sleep, long sleep was associated with increased odds of colorectal (OR: 1.59; 95%CI 1.30-1.94) and gastric cancer (OR: 1.95; 1.37-2.76); short sleep was associated with increased odds of gastric cancer (OR: 1.32; 0.93-1.88). Frequent and long daytime naps increased the odds of colorectal (OR: 1.32; 1.14-1.54) and gastric cancer (OR: 1.56; 1.21-2.02). Effects of short sleep and frequent long naps were stronger among participants with night shift-work history. Sleep and circadian disruption may jointly play a role in the etiology of colorectal and gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91275-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175745PMC
June 2021

First-in-Human Study of PF-06647020 (Cofetuzumab Pelidotin), an Antibody-Drug Conjugate Targeting Protein Tyrosine Kinase 7, in Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Aug 3;27(16):4511-4520. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

START Madrid-CIOCC, HM Hospital Sanchinarro, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: We investigated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of the protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7)-targeted, auristatin-based antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) PF-06647020/cofetuzumab pelidotin (NCT02222922).

Patients And Methods: Patients received PF-06647020 intravenously every 3 weeks at 0.2-3.7 mg/kg or every 2 weeks at 2.1-3.2 mg/kg, in sequential dose escalation, following a modified toxicity probability interval method. In dose expansion, pretreated patients with advanced, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) received PF-06647020 2.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks.

Results: The most common, treatment-related adverse events for PF-06647020 administered every 3 weeks were nausea, alopecia, fatigue, headache, neutropenia, and vomiting (45%-25%); 25% of patients had grade ≥ 3 neutropenia. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 headache and fatigue) at the highest every 3 weeks dose evaluated. The recommended phase II dose was 2.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks. The overall safety profile observed with PF-06647020 administered every 2 weeks was similar to that of the every 3 weeks regimen. Systemic exposure for the ADC and total antibody generally increased in a dose-proportional manner. Antitumor activity was observed in treated patients with overall objective response rates of 27% in ovarian cancer ( = 63), 19% in NSCLC ( = 31), and 21% in TNBC ( = 29). Responders tended to have moderate or high PTK7 tumor expression by IHC.

Conclusions: This PTK7-targeted ADC demonstrated therapeutic activity in previously treated patients with ovarian cancer, NSCLC, and TNBC at a dose range of 2.1-3.2 mg/kg, supporting further clinical evaluation to refine dose, schedule, and predictive tissue biomarker testing in patients with advanced malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3757DOI Listing
August 2021

Pharmacokinetics and safety of capmatinib with food in patients with MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors.

Clin Ther 2021 06 27;43(6):1092-1111. Epub 2021 May 27.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey.

Purpose: In the Phase II GEOMETRY mono-1 study, the potent and selective mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) inhibitor capmatinib exhibited considerable efficacy in MET exon 14 skipping (METex14)-mutated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer at a dose of 400 mg BID. The current recommended dose is 400 mg BID in tablet formulation, with or without food. This article reports the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, safety, and tolerability of capmatinib 300 and 400 mg BID given with food in MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors.

Methods: This multicenter, open-label, Phase I study enrolled adult patients with MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors. In the dose escalation phase, capmatinib tablets were orally administered at a dose of 300 mg BID with food; if tolerated, the dose escalation cohort of 400 mg BID was to be opened to enrollment. In the expansion phase, patients were to be enrolled at the higher of the tolerated doses. Tablets were taken within 30 minutes of an unrestricted meal type, except on cycle 1 day 1 (C1D1) and cycle 1 day 7 (C1D7), when they were given with a high-fat meal. The primary objectives were to determine the higher of the tolerated study doses and assess PK variables, with a secondary objective of safety.

Findings: Overall, 35 patients (300 mg BID, n = 8; 400 mg BID, n = 27) with MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors were enrolled; all patients had received prior antineoplastic therapy, and the most common primary site was lung (45.7%). Among PK-evaluable patients, the median T for capmatinib after administration with a high-fat meal (on C1D1/C1D7) was 4.0 to 5.6 hours across doses. At steady state (C1D7), capmatinib accumulation was low across dose levels (geometric mean of accumulation ratios, 1.29-1.69), with an increase in exposure (AUC and C) from 300 to 400 mg BID. There were no occurrences of dose-limiting toxicity. All patients experienced at least 1 adverse event, and treatment-related adverse events occurred in 28 patients (80%; 300 mg BID, n = 6; 400 mg BID, n = 22), the most frequent of which were fatigue (37.1%) and nausea (34.3%).

Implications: Capmatinib tablet formulation at a dose of up to 400 mg BID with food is well tolerated in patients with MET-dysregulated advanced solid tumors, with safety observations consistent with the existing profile under fasted conditions. These findings support the capmatinib dosing recommendation of 400 mg BID with or without food. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02925104.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.04.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Nongenetic Determinants of Risk for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Jun 20;5(3):pkab029. Epub 2021 May 20.

Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite.

Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite.

Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27;  = .04).

Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134523PMC
June 2021

Phase I Trial of Cemiplimab, Radiotherapy, Cyclophosphamide, and Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in Patients with Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Oncologist 2021 09 22;26(9):e1508-e1513. Epub 2021 May 22.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Basking Ridge, New Jersey, USA.

Lessons Learned: Cemiplimab in combination with radiation therapy, cyclophosphamide, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor did not demonstrate efficacy above what can be achieved with other PD-1 inhibitor monotherapies in patients with refractory and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The safety profile of cemiplimab combination therapy was consistent with previously reported safety profiles of cemiplimab monotherapy. No new safety signal was observed.

Background: Refractory and metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) generally does not respond to PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy. Cemiplimab is a human anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody. An expansion cohort enrolled patients with R/M HNSCC in a phase I study combining cemiplimab plus radiation therapy (RT), cyclophosphamide, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).

Methods: Patients with R/M HNSCC refractory to at least first-line therapy and for whom palliative RT is clinically indicated received cemiplimab plus RT, cyclophosphamide, and GM-CSF. The co-primary objectives were the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of cemiplimab plus RT, cyclophosphamide, and GM-CSF in 15 patients with R/M HNSCC.

Results: Fifteen patients were enrolled. Patients discontinued treatment due to progression of disease. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of any grade were fatigue (40.0%), constipation (26.7%), and asthenia, dyspnea, maculo-papular rash, and pneumonia (each 20%). The only grade ≥3 TEAE that occurred in two patients was pneumonia (13.3%). By investigator assessment, there was one partial response (6.7%); disease control rate was 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.3-67.7; five patients with stable disease); seven patients had progressive disease, and two were not evaluable. Median progression-free survival by investigator assessment was 1.8 months (95% CI, 1.7-4.7).

Conclusion: The regimen demonstrated tolerability but not efficacy above that which can be achieved with anti-PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy for R/M HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/onco.13810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417861PMC
September 2021

Evaluation of the Effects of Repeat-Dose Dabrafenib on the Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Rosuvastatin (OATP1B1/1B3 Substrate) and Midazolam (CYP3A4 Substrate).

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 Sep 1;10(9):1054-1063. Epub 2021 May 1.

Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

Dabrafenib is an oral BRAF kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of various BRAF V600 mutation-positive solid tumors. In vitro observations suggesting cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A induction and organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibition prompted us to evaluate the effect of dabrafenib 150 mg twice daily on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam 3 mg (CYP3A substrate) and rosuvastatin 10 mg (OATP1B1/1B3 substrate) in a clinical phase 1, open-label, fixed-sequence study in patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive tumors. Repeat dabrafenib dosing resulted in a 2.56-fold increase in rosuvastatin maximum observed concentration (C ), an earlier time to C , but only a 7% increase in area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 (predose) extrapolated to infinite time. Midazolam C and AUC extrapolated to infinite time decreased by 47% and 65%, respectively, with little effect on time to C . No new safety findings were reported. Exposure of drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates is likely to decrease when coadministered with dabrafenib. Concentrations of medicinal products that are sensitive OATP1B1/1B3 substrates may increase during the absorption phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8453865PMC
September 2021

UVA-Degradable Collagenase Nanocapsules as a Potential Treatment for Fibrotic Diseases.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 6;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Departamento de Química en Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital 12 de Octubre i+12, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Peyronie and Dupuytren are pathologies characterized by the appearance of localized fibrotic lesions in an organ. These disorders originate from an excessive production of collagen in the tissue provoking dysfunction and functional limitations to the patients. Local administration of collagenase is the most used treatment for these fibrotic-type diseases, but a high lability of the enzyme limits its therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we present a novel methodology for the preparation of collagenase nanocapsules without affecting its enzymatic activity and capable of releasing the enzyme in response to an ultraviolet A (UVA) light stimulus. Polymeric coating around collagenase was formed by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide-type monomers. Their degradation capacity under UVA irradiation was provided by incorporating a novel photocleavable acrylamide-type crosslinker within the polymeric framework. This property allowed collagenase release to be triggered in a controlled manner by employing an easily focused stimulus. Additionally, UVA irradiation presents considerable benefits by itself due to its capacity to induce collagenase production in situ. An expected synergistic effect of collagenase nanocapsules in conjunction with UVA effect may present a promising treatment for these fibrotic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067494PMC
April 2021

Genetically determined telomere length and multiple myeloma risk and outcome.

Blood Cancer J 2021 04 14;11(4):74. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Hematology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Telomeres are involved in processes like cellular growth, chromosomal stability, and proper segregation to daughter cells. Telomere length measured in leukocytes (LTL) has been investigated in different cancer types, including multiple myeloma (MM). However, LTL measurement is prone to heterogeneity due to sample handling and study design (retrospective vs. prospective). LTL is genetically determined; genome-wide association studies identified 11 SNPs that, combined in a score, can be used as a genetic instrument to measure LTL and evaluate its association with MM risk. This approach has been already successfully attempted in various cancer types but never in MM. We tested the "teloscore" in 2407 MM patients and 1741 controls from the International Multiple Myeloma rESEarch (IMMeNSE) consortium. We observed an increased risk for longer genetically determined telomere length (gdTL) (OR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.36-2.11; P = 2.97 × 10 for highest vs. lowest quintile of the score). Furthermore, in a subset of 1376 MM patients we tested the relationship between the teloscore and MM patients survival, observing a better prognosis for longer gdTL compared with shorter gdTL (HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.86-0.99; P = 0.049). In conclusion, we report convincing evidence that longer gdTL is a risk marker for MM risk, and that it is potentially involved in increasing MM survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00462-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046773PMC
April 2021

Tolerability and antitumor activity of cemiplimab, a human monoclonal anti-PD-1, as monotherapy in patients with pretreated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Data from the Phase 1 NSCLC expansion cohort.

Lung Cancer 2021 05 4;155:151-155. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA.

Objectives: Blockade of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) has transformed the treatment of NSCLC. In a first-in-human, Phase 1, dose escalation and cohort expansion study, cemiplimab, a monoclonal antibody directed against PD-1, was evaluated for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT02383212). Here, we report results in patients with advanced NSCLC from the dose expansion cohort.

Materials And Methods: Immune-checkpoint inhibitor naive patients with advanced NSCLC (stage III/IV), irrespective of PD-L1 status, who had progressed after, or were refractory to first- or later-line therapy were enrolled and received cemiplimab 200 mg every 2 weeks intravenously for up to 48 weeks. Primary study objectives were to assess safety and tolerability, and to evaluate clinical activity of cemiplimab.

Results: Twenty patients with NSCLC were enrolled. Median age was 64.0 years (range: 50-82); 65.0 % were male; 80.0 % had an ECOG performance status of 1; 60.0 % had a histology of adenocarcinoma. Median number of prior lines of systemic therapy was 2 (range: 1-4). Median duration of follow-up was 7.0 months (range: 1.0-18.2). All patients experienced ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) of any grade. Most common TEAEs were arthralgia, asthenia, cough, and dyspnea (each 4/20; 20.0 %). Grade ≥3 TEAEs occurred in 60.0 % (12/20) of patients. Of patients with measurable disease per independent central review (ICR), five had partial response (PR), four had stable disease (SD) and 10 had progressive disease. Objective response rate (ORR; complete response + PR) was 25.0 % (95 % CI: 8.7-49.1 %). Duration of response exceeded 8 months in four of the five responding patients at the time of data cut-off (April 30, 2019). The disease control rate per ICR (ORR + SD) was 50.0 % (95 % CI: 27.2-72.8 %).

Conclusion: Cemiplimab showed an acceptable safety profile and demonstrated antitumor activity in pretreated patients with NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.02.034DOI Listing
May 2021

Polymorphisms within Autophagy-Related Genes Influence the Risk of Developing Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Four Large Cohorts.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

The role of genetic variation in autophagy-related genes in modulating autophagy and cancer is poorly understood. Here, we comprehensively investigated the association of autophagy-related variants with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms underlying the associations. After meta-analysis of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from four independent European cohorts (8006 CRC cases and 7070 controls), two loci, ( = 2.19 × 10) and ( = 6.28 × 10) were associated with the risk of CRC. Mechanistically, the allele was associated with IL1 β levels after the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with ( = 0.002), CD24 + CD38 + CD27 + IgM + B cell levels in blood ( = 0.0038) and serum levels of en-RAGE ( = 0.0068). allele was associated with TNF α and IL1 β levels after the stimulation of PBMCs with LPS ( = 0.0088 and = 0.0076, respectively), CD14+CD16- cell levels in blood ( = 0.0068) and serum levels of CCL19 and cortisol ( = 0.0052 and = 0.0074, respectively). Interestingly, no association with autophagy flux was observed. These results suggested an effect of the and loci in the pathogenesis of CRC, likely through the modulation of host immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998818PMC
March 2021

Choice of CTO scores to predict procedural success in clinical practice. A comparison of 4 different CTO PCI scores in a comprehensive national registry including expert and learning CTO operators.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(4):e0245898. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Servicio de Cardiología, H. Clínico de Valencia. Universidad de Valencia, CIBERCV, Valencia, Spain.

Background: We aimed to compare the performance of the recent CASTLE score to J-CTO, CL and PROGRESS CTO scores in a comprehensive database of percutaneous coronary intervention of chronic total occlusion procedures.

Methods: Scores were calculated using raw data from 1,342 chronic total occlusion procedures included in REBECO Registry that includes learning and expert operators. Calibration, discrimination and reclassification were evaluated and compared.

Results: Mean score values were: CASTLE 1.60±1.10, J-CTO 2.15±1.24, PROGRESS 1.68±0.94 and CL 2.52±1.52 points. The overall percutaneous coronary intervention success rate was 77.8%. Calibration was good for CASTLE and CL, but not for J-CTO or PROGRESS scores. Discrimination: the area under the curve (AUC) of CASTLE (0.633) was significantly higher than PROGRESS (0.557) and similar to J-CTO (0.628) and CL (0.652). Reclassification: CASTLE, as assessed by integrated discrimination improvement, was superior to PROGRESS (integrated discrimination improvement +0.036, p<0.001), similar to J-CTO and slightly inferior to CL score (- 0.011, p = 0.004). Regarding net reclassification improvement, CASTLE reclassified better than PROGRESS (overall continuous net reclassification improvement 0.379, p<0.001) in roughly 20% of cases.

Conclusion: Procedural percutaneous coronary intervention difficulty is not consistently depicted by available chronic total occlusion scores and is influenced by the characteristics of each chronic total occlusion cohort. In our study population, including expert and learning operators, the CASTLE score had slightly better overall performance along with CL score. However, we found only intermediate performance in the c-statistic predicting chronic total occlusion success among all scores.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245898PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018648PMC
September 2021

Coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a multicentre case-control study from Italy and Spain.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 May;30(3):204-210

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano.

Background: Coffee contains many bioactive substances that can play a role on colorectal cancer. Epidemiological evidence of coffee intake and colorectal cancer is, however, inconsistent.

Aim: To provide further information on the risk of colorectal cancer in relation to coffee consumption.

Methods: Data derive from two companion case-control studies conducted in Italy and Spain within the European Union Project on Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in Drinking Water and the Spanish Multi-Case Control study on Cancer. These included a total of 2289 incident cases with colorectal cancer and 3995 controls with information on coffee intake. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for study centre, sex, age, education, smoking, and other covariates.

Results: Compared with never coffee drinkers, the OR was 0.99 (95% CI 0.95-1.02) for total coffee consumption. There was no significant trend in risk with dose or duration, the ORs being 0.95 (95% CI 0.72-1.25) for an amount of five or more cups per day of coffee and 0.95 (95% CI 0.75-1.19) for a duration of consumption of 50 years or longer. The OR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.87-1.25) for two or more cups per day of decaffeinated coffee. There were no heterogeneity across strata of various covariates, as well as no apparent differences between various anatomical subsites.

Conclusion: This large pooled analysis of two studies shows no association of coffee and decaffeinated coffee with colorectal cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000593DOI Listing
May 2021

Tumor immune infiltration estimated from gene expression profiles predicts colorectal cancer relapse.

Oncoimmunology 2021 03 9;10(1):1862529. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

A substantial fraction of patients with stage I-III colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) experience disease relapse after surgery with curative intent. However, biomarkers for predicting the likelihood of CRC relapse have not been fully explored. Therefore, we assessed the association between tumor infiltration by a broad array of innate and adaptive immune cell types and CRC relapse risk. We implemented a discovery-validation design including a discovery dataset from Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC; Tampa, FL) and three independent validation datasets: (1) GSE41258 (2) the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, and (3) GSE39582. Infiltration by 22 immune cell types was inferred from tumor gene expression data, and the association between immune infiltration by each cell type and relapse-free survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Within each of the four independent cohorts, CD4+ memory activated T cell (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.96; FDR = 0.0001) infiltration was associated with longer time to disease relapse, independent of stage, microsatellite instability, and adjuvant therapy. Based on our meta-analysis across the four datasets, 10 innate and adaptive immune cell types associated with disease relapse of which 2 were internally validated using multiplex immunofluorescence. Moreover, immune cell type infiltration was a better predictors of disease relapse than Consensus Molecular Subtype (CMS) and other expression-based biomarkers (Immune-AIC:238.1-238.9; CMS-AIC: 241.0). These data suggest that transcriptome-derived immune profiles are prognostic indicators of CRC relapse and quantification of both innate and adaptive immune cell types may serve as candidate biomarkers for predicting prognosis and guiding frequency and modality of disease surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1862529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951964PMC
March 2021

Consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks and colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer.

Clin Nutr 2021 04 27;40(4):1537-1545. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Universidad de Cantabria - IDIVAL, Santander, Spain. Electronic address:

Aims: To study whether the consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks is associated with breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers.

Methods: Multicentric population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain) conducted in 12 Spanish provinces. Participants were men and women between 20 and 85 years of age with diagnoses of colorectal (n = 1852), breast (n = 1486), or prostate cancer (n = 953), and population-based controls (n = 3543) frequency-matched by age, sex, and region. Dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Foods and drinks were categorized according to their degree of processing based on the NOVA classification. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between ultra-processed food and drink consumption and colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer.

Results: In multiple adjusted models, consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (OR for a 10% increase in consumption: 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.18). The corresponding odds for breast (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11) and prostate cancer (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.93-1.12) were indicative of no association.

Conclusions: Results of this large population-based case-control study suggest an association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks and colorectal cancer. Food policy and public health should include a focus on food processing when formulating dietary guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.02.033DOI Listing
April 2021
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