Publications by authors named "V A Vijayan"

391 Publications

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Feb 8:1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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February 2021

Nanotized praseodymium oxide collagen 3-D pro-vasculogenic biomatrix for soft tissue engineering.

Nanomedicine 2021 Jan 27;33:102364. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Biological Materials Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

The current study explores development of highly vascularizable biomatrix scaffold containing rare-earth metal praseodymium oxide nanoadditives for angiogenic and soft tissue regenerative applications. The therapeutic potential of praseodymium oxide nanoparticles rendered excellent endothelial cell differentiation for inducing pro angiogenic microenvironment by eliciting VE-Cadherin expression in the biomatrix scaffold. The nanoparticles were incorporated into bio-macromolecule collagen which aided in stabilization of collagen by maintaining the structural integrity of collagen and showed less susceptibility towards protease enzymes, high cyto-compatibility and high hemo-compatibility. The scaffold provided 3-dimensional micro-environments for the proliferation of endothelial cells and fibroblast cells promoting the wound healing process in an orchestrated fashion. Biological signal modulatory property of rare earth metal is the unexplored domains that can essentially bring significant therapeutic advancement in engineering advanced biological materials. This study opens potential use of nano-scaled rare earth metals in biomaterial application for tissue regeneration by modulating the pro-angiogenesis and anti-proteolysis properties.
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January 2021

evaluation of milk-based, soy-based, and amino acid-based infant formulas on biofilm formation.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2020 Oct-Dec;38(4):350-354

Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences, Kudagu, Karnataka, India.

Background And Objective: Infant formulas are based on milk, and the addition of simple carbohydrates as a caloric source, for infants. The carbohydrates added in infant formulas can cause a significant increase of Streptococcus mutans in the oral cavity of infants adding to their cariogenicity.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess and compare the biofilm formation in three commercially available infant formulas;which are based on milk, soy and amino acid.

Settings And Design: In vitro microbiological assay of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation in milk based, soy based and amino acid based infant formulas.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four hour-cultured S. mutans and microtiter plates were used for analysis. At microtiter plate, 190 μL of modified TSB broth containing SBF, MBF, amino acid-based infant formulas, and dairy whitener as a positive control in five dilutions (1:05, 1:10, 1:20, 1:40, and 1:80) was added into respective wells. 10 μL of cultured S. mutans was inoculated into the wells and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was measured to evaluate biofilm growth, which was read as optical densities in a spectrophotometer at 490 nm and was tabulated.

Results: Three infant formulas tested showed S. mutans biofilm growth. Minimal biofilm growth was observed in amino acid-based formula at 1:80 dilution, followed by MBF at 1:10 dilution and SBF at 1:80 dilution.

Conclusion: Commercially available infant formulas favor S. mutans biofilm growth and can be cariogenic. Amino acid-based infant formula was found to have less S. mutans biofilm growth than MBF and SBF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JISPPD.JISPPD_241_20DOI Listing
January 2021

Structure-Based Virtual Screening and Biochemical Validation to Discover a Potential Inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 17;5(51):33151-33161. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India.

The recent pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has led the world to a standstill, causing a medical and economic crisis worldwide. This crisis has triggered an urgent need to discover a possible treatment strategy against this novel virus using already-approved drugs. The main protease (Mpro) of this virus plays a critical role in cleaving the translated polypeptides that makes it a potential drug target against COVID-19. Taking advantage of the recently discovered three-dimensional structure of Mpro, we screened approved drugs from the Drug Bank to find a possible inhibitor against Mpro using computational methods and further validating them with biochemical studies. The docking and molecular dynamics study revealed that DB04983 (denufosol) showed the best glide docking score, -11.884 kcal/mol, and MM-PBSA binding free energy, -10.96 kcal/mol. Cobicistat, cangrelor (previous computational studies in our lab), and denufosol (current study) were tested for the in vitro inhibitory effects on Mpro. The IC values of these drugs were ∼6.7 μM, 0.9 mM, and 1.3 mM, respectively, while the values of dissociation constants calculated using surface plasmon resonance were ∼2.1 μM, 0.7 mM, and 1.4 mM, respectively. We found that cobicistat is the most efficient inhibitor of Mpro both in silico and in vitro. In conclusion, cobicistat, which is already an FDA-approved drug being used against HIV, may serve as a good inhibitor against the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 that, in turn, can help in combating COVID-19, and these results can also form the basis for the rational structure-based drug design against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c04808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754785PMC
December 2020

Combination of Photodynamic Therapy and a Flagellin-Adjuvanted Cancer Vaccine Potentiated the Anti-PD-1-Mediated Melanoma Suppression.

Cells 2020 11 7;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun-gun, Jeonnam 58128, Korea.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors become a standard therapy for malignant melanoma. As immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapies proved to have limited efficacy in significant portion of patients, it is envisaged that combination with other therapeutic modalities may improve clinical outcomes. We investigated the effect of combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) and TLR5 agonist flagellin-adjuvanted tumor-specific peptide vaccination (FlaB-Vax) on the promotion of PD-1 blockade-mediated melanoma suppression using a mouse B16-F10 implantation model. Using a bilateral mouse melanoma cancer model, we evaluated the potentiation of PD-1 blockade by the combination of peritumoral FlaB-Vax delivery and PDT tumor ablation. A photosensitizing agent, pheophorbide A (PhA), was used for laser-triggered photodynamic destruction of the primary tumor. The effect of combination therapy in conjunction with PD-1 blockade was evaluated for tumor growth and survival. The effector cytokines that promote the activation of CD8 T cells and antigen-presenting cells in tumor tissue and tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) were also assayed. PDT and FlaB-Vax combination therapy induced efficacious systemic antitumor immune responses for local and abscopal tumor control, with a significant increase in tumor-infiltrating effector memory CD8 T cells and systemic IFNγ secretion. The combination of PDT and FlaB-Vax also enhanced the infiltration of tumor antigen-reactive CD8 T cells and the accumulation of migratory CXCL10-secreting CD103 dendritic cells (DCs) presumably contributing to tumor antigen cross-presentation in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The CD8 T-cell-dependent therapeutic benefits of PDT combined with FlaB-Vax was significantly enhanced by a PD-1-targeting checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Conclusively, the combination of FlaB-Vax with PDT-mediated tumor ablation would serve a safe and feasible combinatorial therapy for enhancing PD-1 blockade treatment of malignant melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9112432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694978PMC
November 2020

Equation of State Constraints from the Threshold Binary Mass for Prompt Collapse of Neutron Star Mergers.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Oct;125(14):141103

Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, 50-205 Wrocław, Poland.

Using hydrodynamical simulations for a large set of high-density matter equations of state (EOSs), we systematically determine the threshold mass M_{thres} for prompt black-hole formation in equal-mass and asymmetric neutron star (NS) mergers. We devise the so far most direct, general, and accurate method to determine the unknown maximum mass of nonrotating NSs from merger observations revealing M_{thres}. Considering hybrid EOSs with hadron-quark phase transition, we identify a new, observable signature of quark matter in NS mergers. Furthermore, our findings have direct applications in gravitational wave searches, kilonova interpretations, and multimessenger constraints on NS properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.141103DOI Listing
October 2020

TLR4 Signaling by Heme and the Role of Heme-Binding Blood Proteins.

Front Immunol 2020 27;11:1964. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Institute for Transfusion Medicine and Transplant Engineering, Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Germany.

Toll-like receptors (TLRs), also known as pattern recognition receptors, respond to exogenous pathogens and to intrinsic danger signals released from damaged cells and tissues. The tetrapyrrole heme has been suggested to be an agonist for TLR4, the receptor for the pro-inflammatory bacterial component lipopolysaccharide (LPS), synonymous with endotoxin. Heme is a double-edged sword with contradictory functions. On the one hand, it has vital cellular functions as the prosthetic group of hemoproteins including hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes. On the other hand, if released from destabilized hemoproteins, non-protein bound or "free" heme can have pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this review, the complex interactions between heme and TLR4 are discussed with a particular focus on the role of heme-binding serum proteins in handling extracellular heme and its impact on TLR4 signaling. Moreover, the role of heme as a direct and indirect trigger of TLR4 activation and species-specific differences in the regulation of heme-dependent TLR4 signaling are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481328PMC
August 2020

Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Triggers CXCL13 Release and B-Cell Recruitment After Allogenic Kidney Transplantation.

Front Immunol 2020 6;11:1204. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School (MHH), Hannover, Germany.

Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is linked with inflammation in kidney transplantation (ktx). The chemokine CXCL13, also known as B lymphocyte chemoattractant, mediates recruitment of B cells within follicles of lymphoid tissues and has recently been identified as a biomarker for acute kidney allograft rejection. The goal of this study was to explore whether IRI contributes to the up-regulation of CXCL13 levels in ktx. It is demonstrated that systemic levels of CXCL13 were increased in mouse models of uni- and bilateral renal IRI, which correlated with the duration of IRI. Moreover, in unilateral renal IRI CXCL13 expression in ischemic kidneys was up-regulated. Immunohistochemical studies revealed infiltration of CD22+ B-cells and, single-cell RNA sequencing analysis a higher number of cells expressing the CXCL13 receptor CXCR5, in ischemic kidneys 7 days post IRI, respectively. The potential relevance of these findings was also evaluated in a mouse model of ktx. Increased levels of serum CXCL13 correlated with the lengths of cold ischemia times and were further enhanced in allogenic compared to isogenic kidney transplants. Taken together, these findings indicate that IRI is associated with increased systemic levels of CXCL13 in renal IRI and ktx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424013PMC
August 2020

Effect of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic on Pediatric Resident Well-Being.

J Med Educ Curric Dev 2020 Jan-Dec;7:2382120520947062. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Valley Children's Healthcare, Madera, CA, USA.

Objectives: This study aims to identify factors specific to the COVID-19 pandemic that affect resident physicians' well-being, identify potential sources of anxiety, and assess for depression and stress among residents.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in April 2020 that evaluated resident perceptions about COVID-19 pandemic, its impact on their personal lifestyle, and coping mechanisms adopted. The respondents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10).

Results: Of 37 residents, 29 completed the survey for a response rate of 78%. We found that 50% of residents harbored increased anxiety due to the pandemic and reported fears of spreading disease. Factors that negatively impacted their well-being included social isolation from colleagues (78%), inability to engage in outdoor activities (82%), and social gatherings (86%). Residents expressed concern about the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on their didactic education and clinical rotations. The mean PSS-10 total score was 17 (SD = 4.96, range = 0-33) and the mean BDI-II total score was 6.79 (SD = 6.00). Our residents adopted a number of coping mechanisms in response to COVID-19.

Conclusions: We identified factors specific to the COVID-19 pandemic that adversely affected resident physician well-being. Trainees were concerned about the risk of developing COVID-19 and spreading this to their family. Residents also harbored anxiety regarding the effect of COVID-19 on their education. Lifestyle changes including social isolation also resulted in a negative effect on resident well-being. Developing strategies and resources directed to addressing these concerns may help support well-being and alleviate stress and anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2382120520947062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418226PMC
July 2020

Superhard Boron-Rich Boron Carbide with Controlled Degree of Crystallinity.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Aug 16;13(16). Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Superhard boron-rich boron carbide coatings were deposited on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) under controlled conditions, which led to either a disordered or crystalline structure, as measured by X-ray diffraction. The control of either disordered or crystalline structures was achieved solely by the choice of the sample being placed either directly on top of the sample holder or within an inset of the sample holder, respectively. The carbon content in the B-C bonded disordered and crystalline coatings was 6.1 at.% and 4.5 at.%, respectively, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystalline coating provided a good match with a BC-type structure in which two carbon atoms replaced boron in the α-tetragonal B structure, or in which the carbon atoms occupied different interstitial sites. Density functional theory predictions were used to evaluate the dynamical stability of the potential BC structural forms and were consistent with the measurements. The measured nanoindentation hardness of the coatings was as high as 64 GPa, well above the 40 GPa threshold for superhardness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13163622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475823PMC
August 2020

Targeted Theranostic Nano Vehicle Endorsed with Self-Destruction and Immunostimulatory Features to Circumvent Drug Resistance and Wipe-Out Tumor Reinitiating Cancer Stem Cells.

Small 2020 09 14;16(38):e2003309. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Chemical Sciences and Technology Division (CSTD), CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR-NIIST), Industrial Estate, Pappanamcode, Thiruvananthapuram, 695019, India.

The downsides of conventional cancer monotherapies are profound and enormously consequential, as drug-resistant cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) are typically not eliminated. Here, a targeted theranostic nano vehicle (TTNV) is designed using manganese-doped mesoporous silica nanoparticle with an ideal surface area and pore volume for co-loading an optimized ratio of antineoplastic doxorubicin and a drug efflux inhibitor tariquidar. This strategically framed TTNV is chemically conjugated with folic acid and hyaluronic acid as a dual-targeting entity to promote folate receptor (FR) mediated cancer cells and CD44 mediated CSC uptake, respectively. Interestingly, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is exploited to evaluate the molecular changes associated with therapeutic progression. Tumor microenvironment selective biodegradation and immunostimulatory potential of the MSN-Mn core are safeguarded with a chitosan coating which modulates the premature cargo release and accords biocompatibility. The superior antitumor response in FR-positive syngeneic and CSC-rich human xenograft murine models is associated with a tumor-targeted biodistribution, favorable pharmacokinetics, and an appealing bioelimination pattern of the TTNV with no palpable signs of toxicity. This dual drug-loaded nano vehicle offers a feasible approach for efficient cancer therapy by on demand cargo release in order to execute complete wipe-out of tumor reinitiating cancer stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202003309DOI Listing
September 2020

Identification of promising drug candidates against NSP16 of SARS-CoV-2 through computational drug repurposing study.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Aug 3:1-15. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The recent outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus leading to the disease COVID 19, a global pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented loss of life and economy worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need to discover effective drugs to control this pandemic. NSP16 is a methyltransferase that methylates the ribose 2'-O position of the viral nucleotide. Taking advantage of the recently solved structure of NSP16 with its inhibitor, S-Adenosylmethionine, we have virtually screened FDA approved drugs, drug candidates and natural compounds. The compounds with the best docking scores were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations followed by binding free energy calculations using the MM-PBSA method. The known drugs which were identified as potential inhibitors of NSP16 from SARS-CoV-2 included DB02498, DB03909, DB03186, Galuteolin, ZINC000029416466, ZINC000026985532, and ZINC000085537017. DB02498 (Carba-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide) is an approved drug which has been used since the late 1960s in intravenous form to significantly lessen withdrawal symptoms from a variety of drugs and alcohol addicts and it has the best MM-PBSA binding free energy of-12.83 ± 0.52 kcal/mol. The second best inhibitor, Galuteolin is a natural compound that inhibits tyrosinase enzyme with MM-PBSA binding free energy value of -11.21 ± 0.47 kcal/mol. Detailed ligand and protein interactions were analyzed and common residues across SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV were identified. We propose Carba-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide and Galuteolin as the potential inhibitors of NSP16. The results in this study can be used for the treatment of COVID-19 and can also form the basis of rational drug design against NSP16 of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1802349DOI Listing
August 2020

Identification of potential drug candidates to combat COVID-19: a structural study using the main protease (mpro) of SARS-CoV-2.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Aug 3:1-11. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

The recent outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus leading to the disease COVID 19 has become a global pandemic that is spreading rapidly and has caused a global health emergency. Hence, there is an urgent need of the hour to discover effective drugs to control the pandemic caused by this virus. Under such conditions, it would be imperative to repurpose already known drugs which could be a quick and effective alternative to discovering new drugs. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-COV-2 is an attractive drug target because of its essential role in the processing of the majority of the non-structural proteins which are translated from viral RNA. Herein, we report the high-throughput virtual screening and molecular docking studies to search for the best potential inhibitors against Mpro from FDA approved drugs available in the ZINC database as well as the natural compounds from the Specs database. Our studies have identified six potential inhibitors of Mpro enzyme, out of which four are commercially available FDA approved drugs (Cobicistat, Iopromide, Cangrelor, and Fortovase) and two are from Specs database of natural compounds (Hopeaphenol and Cyclosieversiodide-A). While Cobicistat and Fortovase are known as HIV drugs, Iopromide is a contrast agent and Cangrelor is an anti-platelet drug. Furthermore, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations using GROMACS were performed to calculate the stability of the top-ranked compounds in the active site of Mpro. After extensive computational studies, we propose that Cobicistat and Hopeaphenol show potential to be excellent drugs that can form the basis of treating COVID-19 disease. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1798286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7441759PMC
August 2020

Abatacept in the Treatment of Juvenile Dermatomyositis-Associated Calcifications in a 16-Year-Old Girl.

Case Rep Rheumatol 2020 28;2020:4073879. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Valley Children's Hospital, Madera, CA, USA.

Calcinosis is a feared complication of JDM that may be seen in up to 40% of children with JDM. It is associated with negative impact on the patients' quality of life due to weakness, functional disability, joint contractures, muscle atrophy, skin ulcers, and secondary infections. Calcinosis can present as superficial nodules or plaques, larger nodular deposits extending into deeper tissue layers, accumulation of calcifications along the fascial planes of muscles or tendons, or an exoskeleton of calcium leading to limitations in mobility and joint contractures. Currently, there are no known effective treatments for calcinosis and current therapy is based on anecdotal retrospective studies and cases series. We report the case of a child with JDM-associated calcinosis with extensive intramuscular calcifications who failed conventional therapies but demonstrated improvement as evident by decrease in calcinosis and improved physical function with use of abatacept. We found that use of abatacept was associated with improvement in functional outcome and recurrence did not occur. This case suggests use of abatacept as a safe and effective treatment option for calcinosis due to JDM. Furthermore, large-scale clinical studies are needed to validate our findings and to evaluate the long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4073879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275234PMC
May 2020

Vascular Signaling in Allogenic Solid Organ Transplantation - The Role of Endothelial Cells.

Front Physiol 2020 8;11:443. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Graft rejection remains the major obstacle after vascularized solid organ transplantation. Endothelial cells, which form the interface between the transplanted graft and the host's immunity, are the first target for host immune cells. During acute cellular rejection endothelial cells are directly attacked by HLA I and II-recognizing NK cells, macrophages, and T cells, and activation of the complement system leads to endothelial cell lysis. The established forms of immunosuppressive therapy provide effective treatment options, but the treatment of chronic rejection of solid organs remains challenging. Chronic rejection is mainly based on production of donor-specific antibodies that induce endothelial cell activation-a condition which phenotypically resembles chronic inflammation. Activated endothelial cells produce chemokines, and expression of adhesion molecules increases. Due to this pro-inflammatory microenvironment, leukocytes are recruited and transmigrate from the bloodstream across the endothelial monolayer into the vessel wall. This mononuclear infiltrate is a hallmark of transplant vasculopathy. Furthermore, expression profiles of different cytokines serve as clinical markers for the patient's outcome. Besides their effects on immune cells, activated endothelial cells support the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. In turn, muscle cell recruitment leads to neointima formation followed by reduction in organ perfusion and eventually results in tissue injury. Activation of endothelial cells involves antibody ligation to the surface of endothelial cells. Subsequently, intracellular signaling pathways are initiated. These signaling cascades may serve as targets to prevent or treat adverse effects in antibody-activated endothelial cells. Preventive or therapeutic strategies for chronic rejection can be investigated in sophisticated mouse models of transplant vasculopathy, mimicking interactions between immune cells and endothelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227440PMC
May 2020

Tuberculous otitis media in children: Series of 4 cases.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Aug 13;135:110118. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of ENT and Head & Neck Surgery, St Stephen's Hospital, Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Four cases of tuberculous otitis media in children are reported. One case presented with a postaural fistula, another case with signs of meningeal irritation and ear discharge and two cases as chronic otitis media refractory to conventional treatment. All patients underwent modified radical mastoidectomy and the diagnosis was made postoperativelyby histopathology in three cases and Ziehl-Neelson stainig of the discharge from the mastoid cavity in one. Clinical presentation and management of the cases are discussed. Tuberculosis should be considered in the diagnosis of children with chronic otitis media not responding to conventional antibiotic treatment.Targeted chemotherapy along with surgery provides rapid and complete healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2020.110118DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of Pediatric Surgical Site Infections Associated with Colorectal Surgeries at an Academic Children's Hospital.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Apr 9;8(2). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Valley Children's Hospital, Madera, CA 93636, USA.

Appropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) is a key measure for the prevention of surgical site infections (SSI) in colorectal surgeries; however, despite the presence of national and international guidelines, compliance with AP recommendations remains low. The purpose of this study is to evaluate compliance with recommendations for the use of AP in children undergoing colorectal surgeries and to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotics in the prevention of SSI. We collected demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who underwent colorectal surgeries, as well as microbiological and antimicrobial susceptibility data for patients who developed SSI. AP data were collected and compared with national guidelines. Antibiotic dosing and duration were most frequently in concordance with national guidelines, while antibiotic timing and selection had the lowest rates of compliance. Twelve of the 192 colorectal procedures evaluated resulted in SSI. Only 2 of the 12 children with SSI received appropriate AP for all four categories evaluated. Eight cases that resulted in SSI were due to organisms not covered by the recommended AP. We identified multiple areas for the improvement of AP in children undergoing colorectal surgery. A multidisciplinary approach to development of standardized protocols, educational interventions, and EHR-based algorithms may facilitate or improve appropriate AP use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8020091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7348892PMC
April 2020

Multicentre Covariate Adjustment Analysis of Short-Term and 5-Year Outcomes after Endovascular Repair according to Sex.

Surg Res Pract 2020 9;2020:8970759. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

School of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Several studies have reported worse outcomes in women compared to men after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). This study aimed to evaluate sex-specific short-term and 5-year outcomes after EVAR.

Methods: A total of 409 consecutive patients underwent elective EVAR from 2004 to 2017 at two tertiary hospitals in Western Australia. Baseline, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined retrospectively according to sex. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality (death within 30 days after EVAR). Secondary outcomes were 30-day composite endpoint, length of stay after EVAR, 5-year survival, freedom from reintervention, residual aneurysm size after EVAR, and major adverse event rate at 5-year follow-up.

Results: A cohort of 409 patients, comprising 57 women (14%) and 352 men (86%), was analysed. Female patients were older (median age, 76.8 versus 73.5 years, =0.017). Male patients were more likely to be past smokers (40.9% versus 22.8%, =0.017). Male patients were more likely to be past smokers (40.9% versus 22.8%, =0.017). Male patients were more likely to be past smokers (40.9% versus 22.8%, =0.017). Male patients were more likely to be past smokers (40.9% versus 22.8%, =0.017). Male patients were more likely to be past smokers (40.9% versus 22.8%, =0.017). Male patients were more likely to be past smokers (40.9% versus 22.8%, =0.017). Male patients were more likely to be past smokers (40.9% versus 22.8%.

Conclusion: This study found no significant differences in 30-day and 5-year outcomes between female and male patients treated with EVAR, implying that EVAR remains a safe treatment choice for female patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8970759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085369PMC
March 2020

Trade-offs between host tolerances to different pathogens in plant-virus interactions.

Virus Evol 2020 Jan 18;6(1):veaa019. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas UPM-INIA and E.T.S. Ingeniería Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Autopista M40, km.38, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid 28223, Spain.

Although accumulating evidence indicates that tolerance is a plant defence strategy against pathogens as widespread as resistance, how plants evolve tolerance is poorly understood. Theory predicts that hosts will evolve to maximize tolerance or resistance, but not both. Remarkably, most experimental works failed in finding this trade-off. We tested the hypothesis that the evolution of tolerance to one virus is traded-off against tolerance to others, rather than against resistance and identified the associated mechanisms. To do so, we challenged eighteen genotypes with (TuMV) and (CMV). We characterized plant life-history trait modifications associated with reduced effects of TuMV and CMV on plant seed production (fecundity tolerance) and life period (mortality tolerance), both measured as a norm of reaction across viral loads (range tolerance). Also, we analysed resistance-tolerance and tolerance-tolerance trade-offs. Results indicate that tolerance to TuMV is associated with changes in the length of the pre-reproductive and reproductive periods, and tolerance to CMV with resource reallocation from growth to reproduction; and that tolerance to TuMV is traded-off against tolerance to CMV in a virulence-dependent manner. Thus, this work provides novel insights on the mechanisms of plant tolerance and highlights the importance of considering the combined effect of different pathogens to understand how plant defences evolve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veaa019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079720PMC
January 2020

Nitinol stent-assisted maturation of the dysfunctional cannulation zone in the immature arteriovenous fistula.

J Vasc Access 2020 Nov 24;21(6):908-916. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: The native arteriovenous fistula may remain immature despite adequate arterial inflow after formation. This may occur when the puncturable vein segment (cannulation zone) is too small to be reliably punctured, occluded or too deep under the skin for needle access. We performed stenting (stent-assisted maturation) of arteriovenous fistulas with an immature cannulation zone, allowing for a large subcutaneous channel which could then be immediately punctured for dialysis.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 49 patients (mean age was 58.7 ± 16.09 (12-83) years, mean arteriovenous fistula age of 162.6 ± 27.28 days) with end-stage renal failure who underwent balloon dilatation and bare-metal stent implantation (1.6 ± 0.67 (1-3) stents, median diameter and length of 8 (5-14) mm and 80 (40-150) mm, respectively) through their cannulation zone (forced maturation). Radiocephalic (35 arteriovenous fistulas), brachiocephalic (10 arteriovenous fistulas) and autogenous loop arteriovenous fistulas (4 arteriovenous fistulas) were included with 30 patients (61.2%) having an inadequate cannulation zone venous diameter, 9 patients (18.4%) having an absent cannulation zone and 10 patients (20.4%) having a patent cannulation zone deeper than 1 cm which was not reliably puncturable. The study was conducted over 9 years (January 2008-December 2016) with implantation of the SMART stent and Absolute Pro stent in 61.2% and 38.8%, respectively. Long-term outcomes including primary useable segmental and access circuit patency as well as assisted primary access circuit patency, rate of re-intervention, technical success and complications were analysed.

Results: At 6 months, 12 months and 4 years, respectively, cannulation zone primary patency was 84.4%, 74.4% and 56.1% and access circuit primary patency was 62.2%, 45.3% and 23.2%; however, assisted primary access circuit patency was 95.6%, 91.1% and 83.8%, achieved with an endovascular re-intervention rate of 0.53 procedures/year with only four thrombosed circuits occurring.

Discussion: Forced maturation using nitinol stents allows for long-term haemodialysis access with a low rate of re-intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1129729820911787DOI Listing
November 2020

Exploring efficacy of indole-based dual inhibitors for α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes: In silico, biochemical and kinetic studies.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jul 12;154:217-232. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.

α-Glucosidase and α-amylase are enzymes which are associated with diabetic II. These enzymes break macromolecules of sugar into monosugar molecules which is soluble in body, hence increase the sugar level in blood. There is need to develop economical and save inhibitors to prevent them from breaking sugar macromolecules to soluble molecules which will control the level of sugar in blood. Therefore, we synthesized indole-based derivatives (1-18) and evaluated as dual inhibitor for α-glucosidase and α-amylase. These chemical scaffolds were built with variation in aryl ring which were found active with good to moderate activity for α-glucosidase having IC value ranging from 13.99 ± 0.10 to 59.09 ± 0.30 μM when compared with standard acarbose with IC of 11.29 ± 0.10 μM; for α-amylase IC value ranging from 13.14 ± 0.10 to 58.99 ± 0.30 μM when compared with the standard acarbose with IC of 11.12 ± 0.10 μM. Structure activity relationship (SAR) has been established for all compounds. Enzymatic kinetic study and molecular docking study have been carried out to investigate the binding interactions α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.03.090DOI Listing
July 2020

Non-equilibrium organosilane plasma polymerization for modulating the surface of PTFE towards potential blood contact applications.

J Mater Chem B 2020 04;8(14):2814-2825

Center for Nanoscale Materials and Biointegration, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. and Department of Material Science and Engineering, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

We report a novel and facile organosilane plasma polymerization method designed to improve the surface characteristics of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). We hypothesized that the polymerized silane coating would provide an adhesive surface for endothelial cell proliferation due to a large number of surface hydroxyl groups, while the large polymer networks on the surface of PTFE would hinder platelet attachment. The plasma polymerized PTFE surfaces were then systematically characterized via different analytical techniques such as FTIR, XPS, XRD, Contact angle, and SEM. The key finding of the characterization is the time-dependent deposition of an organosilane layer on the surface of PTFE. This layer was found to provide favorable surface properties to PTFE such as a very high surface oxygen content, high hydrophilicity and improved surface mechanics. Additionally, in vitro cellular studies were conducted to determine the bio-interface properties of the plasma-treated and untreated PTFE. The important results of these experiments were rapid endothelial cell growth and decreased platelet attachment on the plasma-treated PTFE compared to untreated PTFE. Thus, this new surface modification technique could potentially address the current challenges associated with PTFE for blood contact applications, specifically poor endothelial cell growth and risk of thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9tb02757bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453349PMC
April 2020

Intermediate hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome among obese Arab children (12-17 years old) in Kuwait.

Prim Care Diabetes 2021 Feb 19;15(1):191-193. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Population Health, Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait.

Objective: To screen 97 obese Arab adolescents for metabolic risk factors.

Results: Insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and intermediate hyperglycaemia was found in 56.7 %, 14.4 % and 27.8 % (HbA1c) while fasting plasma glucose was impaired in 0-16.5 %, using different cut-offs. Interventions to prevent obesity and diabetes are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2020.02.001DOI Listing
February 2021

Residual Dipolar-Coupling-Based Conformational Comparison of Noncovalent Ubiquitin Homodimer with Covalently Linked Diubiquitin.

Chemphyschem 2020 05 7;21(9):888-894. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

School of Chemistry, IISER, Thiruvananthapuram Maruthamala PO, Vithura, Kerala, India.

Although the conformation of the polymer chain of Ubiquitin (Ub) mainly depends on the type of isopeptide linkage connecting two Ub molecules, the non-covalent (noncovalent) interaction between two Ub molecules within the chain could also tune their conformational preference. Here, we studied the conformation of noncovalently formed Ub dimers in solution using residual dipolar couplings (RDCs). Comparing the RDC derived alignment tensor of the noncovalently formed dimer with the two most abundant (K11 and K48) covalent linked Ub dimers revealed that the conformation of K11 linked and noncovalent Ub dimers were similar. Between the various NMR and crystal structures of K11 linked Ub dimers, RDC tensor analysis showed that the structure of K11 linked dimer crystalized at neutral pH is similar to noncovalent dimer. Analogous to the experimental study, the comparison of predicted order matrix of various covalent Ub dimers with that of the experimentally determined order matrix of noncovalent Ub dimer also suggests that the conformation of K11 linked dimers crystalized at neutral pH is similar to the noncovalent dimer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cphc.201901100DOI Listing
May 2020

A 3 Year Old With Fever and Rash: An Atypical Cause of Shock.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2020 06 6;59(7):740-742. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Valley Children's Healthcare, Madera, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922820903514DOI Listing
June 2020

Focusing on Families and Visitors Reduces Healthcare Associated Respiratory Viral Infections in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2019 Nov-Dec;4(6):e242. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Valley Children's Hospital, 9300 Valley Children's Place, Madera, CA.

Healthcare-associated respiratory viral infections (HARVIs) result in significant harm to infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Healthcare workers and visitors can serve as transmission vectors to patients. We hypothesized that improved family and visitor hand hygiene (FVHH) and visitor screening would reduce HARVIs by at least 25%.

Methods: This quality improvement project took place in a large tertiary NICU to reduce HARVIs. Interventions primarily focused on improving FVHH and reducing visitation by symptomatic family members and visitors. We defined correct FVHH as hand hygiene performed immediately before touching their child. Hand hygiene observations were performed by direct observation by NICU staff using a standardized tool. Interventions to improve FVHH included education of staff and visitors, reminder signs, and immediate reminders to families to prevent lapses in hand hygiene. Staff screened family and visitors before NICU entry. Symptomatic individuals were asked to defer visitation until symptoms resolved. HARVIs were identified during prospective surveillance by infection preventionists using standard definitions.

Results: Baseline FVHH was 27% in 2015. After May 2017, the average FVHH remained at 85%. When reminded, family members and visitors performed hand hygiene 99% of the time. Staff screened ~129,000 people for FVHH. Between January 2013 and March 2019, there were 74 HARVIs; 80% were rhinovirus/enterovirus. After the implementation of improved FVHH, the HARVI rate decreased from 0.67 to 0.23/1,000 patient days.

Conclusions: Adding interventions to improve FVHH and visitor management to existing healthcare worker prevention efforts can help reduce HARVIs in the NICU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946222PMC
December 2019

Interplay of Heme with Macrophages in Homeostasis and Inflammation.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jan 23;21(3). Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannove 30625, Germany.

Macrophages are an integral part of the mononuclear phagocyte system that is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis. They play a key role for initiation and modulation of immunological responses in inflammation and infection. Moreover, macrophages exhibit a wide spectrum of tissue-specific phenotypes in steady-state and pathophysiological conditions. Recent clinical and experimental evidence indicates that the ubiquitous compound heme is a crucial regulator of these cells, e.g., in the differentiation of monocytes to tissue-resident macrophages and/ or in activation by inflammatory stimuli. Notably, heme, an iron containing tetrapyrrole, is essential as a prosthetic group of hemoproteins (e.g., hemoglobin and cytochromes), whereas non-protein bound free or labile heme can be harmful via pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory, and cytotoxic effects. In this review, it will be discussed how the complex interplay of heme with macrophages regulates homeostasis and inflammation via modulating macrophage inflammatory characteristics and/ or hematopoiesis. A particular focus will be the distinct roles of intra- and extracellular labile heme and the regulation of its availability by heme-binding proteins. Finally, it will be addressed how heme modulates macrophage functions via specific transcriptional factors, in particular the nuclear repressor BTB and CNC homologue (BACH)1 and Spi-C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036926PMC
January 2020

Labile Heme Aggravates Renal Inflammation and Complement Activation After Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

Front Immunol 2019 20;10:2975. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Nephrology, Hannover Medical School, Hanover, Germany.

Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) plays a major role in solid organ transplantation. The length of warm ischemia time is critical for the extent of tissue damage in renal IRI. In this experimental study we hypothesized that local release of labile heme in renal tissue is triggered by the duration of warm ischemia (15 vs. 45 min IRI) and mediates complement activation, cytokine release, and inflammation. To induce IRI, renal pedicle clamping was performed in male C57BL/6 mice for short (15 min) or prolonged (45 min) time periods. Two and 24 h after experimental ischemia tissue injury labile heme levels in the kidney were determined with an apo-horseradish peroxidase assay. Moreover, renal injury, cytokines, and C5a and C3a receptor (C5aR, C3aR) expression were determined by histology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR, respectively. In addition, studies stimulating bone marrow-derived macrophages with LPS and the combination of LPS and heme were performed and cytokine expression was measured. Inflammation and local tissue injury correlated with the duration of warm ischemia time. Labile heme concentrations in renal tissue were significantly higher after prolonged (45 min) as compared to short (15 min) IRI. Notably, expression of the inducible heme-degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was up-regulated in kidneys after prolonged, but not after short IRI. C5aR, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α as well as pERK were up-regulated after prolonged, but not after short ischemia times. Consecutively, neutrophil infiltration and up-regulation of pro-fibrotic cytokines such as CTGF and PAI were more pronounced in prolonged IRI in comparison to short IRI. stimulation of macrophages with LPS revealed that IL-6 expression was enhanced in the presence of heme. Finally, administration of the heme scavenger human serum albumin (HSA) reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, C3a receptor and improved tubular function indicated by enhanced alpha 1 microglobulin (A1M) absorption after IRI. Our data show that prolonged duration of warm ischemia time increased labile heme levels in the kidney, which correlates with IRI-dependent inflammation and up-regulation of anaphylatoxin receptor expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933315PMC
November 2020

Role of Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in Acquiring Immunotolerance Post-Photothermal Therapy.

J Korean Med Sci 2019 Nov 18;34(44):e272. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Biomedical Science and BK21 PLUS Centre for Creative Biomedical Scientists, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.

Background: Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) has been well studied as a treatment for cancer. However, the therapeutic outcome of PTT is often hindered by the penetration depth of laser light. In the tumor margin beyond the laser penetration limit, tumor recurrence often occurs, bypassing the immune response of the host. Accumulating evidence suggests the prominent role of tumor microenvironment (TME) and its interactions with the immune components contribute to an immunosuppressive milieu during the post-therapy period. Here, we explored the immunosuppressive cascade generated after PTT, which is responsible for tumor recurrence, and identified the potential targets to achieve an effective PTT period.

Methods: Here, we investigated the immunosuppressive cascade generated after PTT in a CT26 tumor bearing mouse. The liposomal system loaded with the indocyanine green (ICG) was utilized for the generation of PTT with high efficiency. Immunological factors such as cytokines and protein expressions post-therapy were investigated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry and western blot analysis.

Results: Our results suggested that PTT with ICG-loaded liposomes (Lipo-ICG) was effective for the first 5 days after treatment, resulting in tumor suppression. However, an immunosuppressive and pro-inflammatory environment developed thereafter, causing the recruitment and upregulation of the immune evasion factors of heat shock protein 70, programmed death ligand 1, indoleamine-dioxygenase, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor-β, regulatory T-cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, to develop immunotolerance.

Conclusion: Collectively, these findings have determined potential therapeutic targets to modulate the TME during PTT and achieve tumor ablation without remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856303PMC
November 2019

Recent Advances in Nanovaccines Using Biomimetic Immunomodulatory Materials.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Oct 14;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 58128, Korea.

The development of vaccines plays a vital role in the effective control of several fatal diseases. However, effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have yet to be developed for completely curing deadly diseases, such as cancer, malaria, HIV, and serious microbial infections. Thus, suitable vaccine candidates need to be designed to elicit appropriate immune responses. Nanotechnology has been found to play a unique role in the design of vaccines, providing them with enhanced specificity and potency. Nano-scaled materials, such as virus-like particles, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), and protein NPs, have received considerable attention over the past decade as potential carriers for the delivery of vaccine antigens and adjuvants, due to their beneficial advantages, like improved antigen stability, targeted delivery, and long-time release, for which antigens/adjuvants are either encapsulated within, or decorated on, the NP surface. Flexibility in the design of nanomedicine allows for the programming of immune responses, thereby addressing the many challenges encountered in vaccine development. Biomimetic NPs have emerged as innovative natural mimicking biosystems that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in biomimetic nanovaccines, and their use in anti-bacterial therapy, anti-HIV therapy, anti-malarial therapy, anti-melittin therapy, and anti-tumor immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11100534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835828PMC
October 2019