Publications by authors named "Turi K Aarnes"

32 Publications

Effects of a four-week group class created for dogs at least eight years of age on the development and progression of signs of cognitive dysfunction syndrome.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021 09;259(6):637-643

Objective: To assess the effects of a 4-week group class specifically created for dogs ≥ 8 years old (senior dogs) on the development and progression of signs consistent with cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).

Animals: 86 dogs with or without signs of CDS at the time of study enrollment.

Procedures: Dog owners completed a proprietary CDS survey at baseline and then 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of the baseline survey. Twenty owners with their dogs attended 4 weekly 50-minute classes that were specifically developed for senior dogs, addressed common behavior problems for these dogs, and included training and enrichment activities. Survey results were compared between class and nonclass groups and within groups at 3, 6, and 12 months.

Results: The association between age and CDS score was significant, such that older dogs had signs consistent with a higher degree of impairment. Cognitive dysfunction syndrome scores for dogs that attended the class did not significantly differ at 12 months, compared with scores at 3 months, whereas the CDS scores for dogs that did not attend the class were significantly increased at 12 months, compared with scores at 3 months.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Signs of CDS developed or worsened as dogs aged. Participation in the senior dog class mitigated the progression of signs of CDS and may improve a senior dog's quality of life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.259.6.637DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation of perfusion index as a noninvasive tool to determine epidural anesthesia effectiveness in dogs.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Sep 1;48(5):782-788. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Population Health Sciences, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Objective: To evaluate perfusion index (PI) as a noninvasive tool to determine effectiveness and onset of epidural anesthesia in dogs.

Study Design: Prospective clinical trial.

Animals: A total of 21 adult dogs, aged 6.5 ± 3 years and weighing 34.9 ± 6.4 kg, undergoing a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

Methods: Dogs were premedicated intramuscularly with acepromazine (0.03 mg kg) and hydromorphone (0.1 mg kg) and anesthetized with intravenous propofol (to effect) and isoflurane in oxygen. A surface transflectance probe was secured to the tail base to monitor PI and a dorsal pedal artery catheter was placed for invasive blood pressure monitoring. A lumbosacral epidural was performed with the dog in sternal recumbency. Dogs were randomly assigned for inclusion of epidural morphine (0.1 mg kg) or morphine (0.1 mg kg) and lidocaine (4 mg kg). PI was recorded following instrumentation of each dog just prior to the epidural (baseline), at 10 minute intervals for 30 minutes, before and after the surgical skin incision and before and after completion of the osteotomy. Physiological variables and end-tidal isoflurane were recorded at the same time points.

Results: There was no significant difference in PI between the groups at any time point. There was a significant change in end-tidal isoflurane before and after the skin incision in the epidural morphine and epidural morphine-lidocaine groups (p = 0.04, p = 0.05, respectively) and before and after the osteotomy in each group for heart rate (p = 0.001, p = 0.04), diastolic (p = 0.01, p = 0.01) and mean arterial blood pressure (p = 0.03, p = 0.05).

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: PI did not provide an objective means for determining the onset or effectiveness of epidural anesthesia in anesthetized dogs and alternate methods of noninvasive assessment should be investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2021.06.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation of intramuscular anesthetic protocols in healthy domestic horses.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Sep 23;48(5):663-670. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Objective: To assess anesthetic induction, recovery quality and cardiopulmonary variables after intramuscular (IM) injection of three drug combinations for immobilization of horses.

Study Design: Randomized, blinded, three-way crossover prospective design.

Animals: A total of eight healthy adult horses weighing 470-575 kg.

Methods: Horses were administered three treatments IM separated by ≥1 week. Combinations were tiletamine-zolazepam (1.2 mg kg), ketamine (1 mg kg) and detomidine (0.04 mg kg) (treatment TKD); ketamine (3 mg kg) and detomidine (0.04 mg kg) (treatment KD); and tiletamine-zolazepam (2.4 mg kg) and detomidine (0.04 mg kg) (treatment TD). Parametric data were analyzed using mixed model linear regression. Nonparametric data were compared using Skillings-Mack test. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: All horses in treatment TD became recumbent. In treatments KD and TKD, one horse remained standing. PaO 15 minutes after recumbency was significantly lower in treatments TD (p < 0.0005) and TKD (p = 0.001) than in treatment KD. Times to first movement (25 ± 15 minutes) and sternal recumbency (55 ± 11 minutes) in treatment KD were faster than in treatments TD (57 ± 17 and 76 ± 19 minutes; p < 0.0005, p = 0.001) and TKD (45 ± 18 and 73 ± 31 minutes; p = 0.005, p = 0.021). There were no differences in induction quality, muscle relaxation score, number of attempts to stand or recovery quality.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: In domestic horses, IM injections of tiletamine-zolazepam-detomidine resulted in more reliable recumbency with a longer duration when compared with ketamine-detomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam-ketamine-detomidine. Recoveries were comparable among protocols.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2021.06.006DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of perioperative saphenous and sciatic nerve blocks, lumbosacral epidural or morphine-lidocaine-ketamine infusion on postoperative pain and sedation in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 May 4;48(3):415-421. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare the quality of postoperative analgesia and sedation after preoperative saphenous and sciatic nerve blockade, preoperative lumbosacral epidural injection and perioperative intravenous (IV) morphine, lidocaine and ketamine infusions in dogs undergoing stifle arthroscopy and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) under general anesthesia.

Study Design: Prospective, blinded, randomized, clinical comparison study.

Animals: A total of 45 dogs weighing 33.9 (15.9-56.7) kg and aged 5.2 (1.0-12.0) years, mean (range), undergoing elective unilateral TPLO for spontaneous cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Methods: Client-owned dogs were enrolled. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of three groups: group MLK, perioperative IV morphine, lidocaine and ketamine infusion; group EPID, lumbosacral epidural with ropivacaine and morphine; or group SSNB, saphenous and sciatic nerve blockade with ropivacaine. Routine stifle arthroscopy followed by TPLO surgery was performed. Sedation and pain scores were assessed at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours following extubation. Rescue analgesia was administered as prescribed by Glasgow composite pain score-short form score >5.

Results: Sedation scores for MLK were higher than EPID and SSNB. Pain scores for SSNB were lower than those for EPID and MLK. No significant differences were found in anesthesia duration or surgery duration among groups. No dogs required rescue analgesia.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Although analgesia was adequate in all groups, the best combination of analgesia without increased sedation was recorded for SSNB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2021.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107141PMC
May 2021

Short-term efficacy of epidural pain management in dogs undergoing cystoscopy.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Mar 3;35(2):980-986. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Background: The effects of epidural anesthesia in dogs undergoing cystoscopy are unknown.

Objective: To investigate the effect of epidural analgesia on postcystoscopy pain in dogs.

Animals: Twenty-six dogs undergoing routine cystoscopy for lower urinary tract disease.

Methods: Prospective, randomized, blinded observational study. Dogs were assigned either to a treatment group that received epidural anesthesia (preservative free morphine sulfate, 0.09 mg/kg; 1% ropivacaine, 0.2 mg/kg; total volume delivered, 1 mL/4.5 kg of body weight to a maximum of 10 mL; n = 9) or to a nonepidural control group (n = 13). Vital signs were monitored for 24 hours, and sedation and pain scores, behavioral assessments, and presence or absence of complications was evaluated for 5 days postprocedure.

Results: All dogs tolerated the epidural without complications. Four dogs were removed from the study because of status unblinding, lack of patient cooperation, or incomplete follow-up. No significant differences were noted in postprocedural pain scores in dogs that received epidural analgesia. Significant differences in postprocedural pain scores were noted in the nonepidural control group. No significant differences were noted in vital signs, behavioral assessments, or the proportion of dogs with a 50% increase in pain scores between the epidural and nonepidural groups.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Epidural anesthesia was well-tolerated. Dogs not receiving the epidural had poor postprocedural pain control. A consistent benefit for the epidural vs nonepidural group could not be identified. Additional studies are required to better assess the impact and efficacy of epidural anesthesia for cystoscopic procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995430PMC
March 2021

Anesthetic risk during subsequent anesthetic events in brachycephalic dogs that have undergone corrective airway surgery: 45 cases (2007-2019).

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020 Oct;257(7):744-749

Objective: To determine whether previous corrective upper airway surgery in brachycephalic dogs would decrease perianesthetic complications in subsequent anesthetic events.

Animals: 45 client-owned dogs.

Procedures: Brachycephalic dogs undergoing any combination of staphylectomy, nasal alaplasty, or laryngeal sacculectomy that were anesthetized at a later date for additional surgical procedures or imaging from August 2, 2007, to February 8, 2019, had their medical records reviewed during both anesthetic events for signalment, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, perianesthetic drug administration, anesthetic duration, presence and total time of positive-pressure ventilation, procedure invasiveness, and perianesthetic complications such as bradycardia, hypothermia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, vomiting or regurgitation, dysphoria, respiratory distress, hypoxemia, reintubation, and prolonged periods of recovery.

Results: The odds of having complications during the postanesthetic period following subsequent anesthetic events were decreased by 79% in dogs having previous surgical intervention to correct clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. Intra-anesthetic bradycardia increased the odds of developing a postanesthetic complication by 4.56 times. Every 15-minute increase in anesthetic duration increased the odds of having a postanesthetic complication by 12% and having an intra-anesthetic complication by 11%.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Previous corrective upper airway surgery decreased odds of postanesthetic complications in brachycephalic dogs that underwent subsequent anesthetic events. Findings in this study indicated that corrective upper airway surgery for brachycephalic dogs may reduce postanesthetic complications following subsequent anesthetic events, which may reduce perianesthetic morbidity in patients undergoing multiple surgical or diagnostic imaging procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.257.7.744DOI Listing
October 2020

Effectiveness of tapentadol hydrochloride for treatment of orthopedic pain in dogs: A pilot study.

Can Vet J 2020 03;61(3):289-293

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

This pilot study evaluated the short-term analgesic effect of oral tapentadol hydrochloride (tapentadol) in dogs with unilateral hind limb lameness secondary to naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Baseline data including pharmacodynamic parameters, sedation scores, lameness scores, and objective gait analyses were collected. Tapentadol was administered orally (30 mg/kg body weight). Four hours following administration of tapentadol all data were collected again. Plasma concentrations of tapentadol 4 hours after administration were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. No significant side effects were noted. All dogs had measurable plasma concentrations of tapentadol (mean concentration: 18.9 ng/mL). There were no significant differences in pharmacodynamic parameters or sedation over time. Subjective lameness scores were significantly lower than baseline at 4 hours post-drug administration. No significant improvement was seen in objective gait analysis. Further studies are needed to assess dosing regimens which may lead to effective treatment of acute pain and long-term use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020636PMC
March 2020

Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2020 Jan;81(1):65-76

Objective: To evaluate the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs.

Animals: 6 young healthy mixed-breed hounds.

Procedures: Dogs received each of 3 treatments (alfaxalone [2 mg/kg] and butorphanol [0.4 mg/kg] combined with acepromazine [0.02 mg/kg; AB-ace], midazolam [0.2 mg/kg; AB-mid], or dexmedetomidine [0.005 mg/kg; AB-dex], IM) in a blinded, randomized crossover-design study with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Sedation scores and cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at predetermined time points. Data were analyzed by use of mixed-model ANOVA and linear generalized estimating equations with post hoc adjustments.

Results: All treatments resulted in moderate to deep sedation (median score, ≥ 15/21) ≤ 5 minutes after injection. Sedation scores did not differ among treatments until the 40-minute time point, when the score was higher for AB-dex than for other treatments. Administration of AB-dex resulted in median scores reflecting deep sedation until 130 minutes, versus 80 and 60 minutes for AB-ace and AB-mid, respectively, after injection. Heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery decreased significantly after AB-dex, but not AB-ace or AB-mid administration. Respiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges after all treatments. Undesirable recovery characteristics were observed in 4 dogs after AB-mid treatment. Four dogs required atipamezole administration 180 minutes after AB-dex injection.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: All protocols produced reliable sedation. The results indicated that in young, healthy dogs, AB-mid may produce undesirable recovery characteristics; AB-dex treatment caused cardiovascular depression and should be used with caution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.81.1.65DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of oral administration of gabapentin on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2019 Nov;80(11):1007-1009

Objective: To determine the effect of oral administration of gabapentin (20 mg/kg) on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in dogs.

Animals: 6 healthy adult dogs (3 males and 3 females with a mean ± SD body weight of 24.8 ± 1.3 kg).

Procedures: Each dog was anesthetized twice. Dogs were initially assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (gabapentin [20 mg/kg, PO] followed 2 hours later by anesthesia maintained with isoflurane or anesthesia maintained with isoflurane alone). A minimum of 7 days later, dogs received the other treatment. The MAC of isoflurane was determined by use of an iterative bracketing technique with stimulating electrodes placed in the maxillary buccal mucosa. Hemodynamic variables and vital parameters were recorded at the lowest end-tidal isoflurane concentration at which dogs did not respond to the stimulus. Effect of treatment on outcome variables was analyzed by use of a paired test.

Results: Mean ± SD MAC of isoflurane was significantly lower when dogs received gabapentin and isoflurane (0.71 ± 0.12%) than when dogs received isoflurane alone (0.91 ± 0.26%). Mean reduction in MAC of isoflurane was 20 ± 14%. Hemodynamic variables did not differ significantly between treatments. Mean time to extubation was significantly less when dogs received gabapentin and isoflurane (6 ± 4 minutes) than when dogs received isoflurane alone (23 ± 15 minutes).

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Oral administration of gabapentin 2 hours before anesthesia maintained with isoflurane had a MAC-sparing effect with no effect on hemodynamic variables or vital parameters of dogs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.80.11.1007DOI Listing
November 2019

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of oral transmucosal and intravenous administration of dexmedetomidine in dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2019 Oct;80(10):969-975

Objective: To determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine administered via the oral transmucosal (OTM) route to healthy dogs.

Animals: 6 healthy dogs.

Procedures: Injectable dexmedetomidine was administered IV (5 μg/kg) or via the OTM route (20 μg/kg) in a blinded, single-observer, randomized crossover study. Dogs received dexmedetomidine and a sham treatment at each administration. Serial blood samples were collected from a catheter in a saphenous vein. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and subjective sedation score were assessed for 24 hours after administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for dexmedetomidine concentrations by use of ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: For the OTM route, the mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3 ng/mL, which was detected 73 ± 33 minutes after administration. The mean maximum concentration for the IV dose, when extrapolated to the time of administration, was 18.6 ± 3.3 ng/mL. The mean terminal-phase half-life was 152 ± 146 minutes and 36 ± 6 minutes for OTM and IV administration, respectively. After IV administration, total clearance was 8.0 ± 1.6 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution at steady state was 371 ± 72 mL/kg. Bioavailability for OTM administration of dexmedetomidine was 11.2 ± 4.5%. Peak sedation scores did not differ significantly between routes of administration. Decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate, and peak sedation score were evident sooner after IV administration.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: OTM administration of the injectable formulation of dexmedetomidine resulted in a similar degree of sedation and prolonged duration of action, compared with results for IV administration, despite relatively low bioavailability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.80.10.969DOI Listing
October 2019

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after a single intramuscular or intravascular injection in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2019 Nov 21;42(6):713-721. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone was performed in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after single bolus injections of 10 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (IM; n = 10) or intravenously (IV; n = 10), in a randomized cross-over design with a washout period between doses. Mean (±SD) C following IM injection was 1.6 (±0.8) µg/ml with T at 15.0 (±10.5) min. Area under the curve (AUC) was 84.66 and 104.58 min*mg/ml following IV and IM administration, respectively. Volume of distribution (V ) after IV dose was 3.0 L/kg. The mean plasma clearance after 10 mg/kg IV was 139.5 (±67.9) ml min  kg . Elimination half-lives (mean [±SD]) were 15.0 and 16.1 (±3.0) min following IV and IM administration, respectively. Mean bioavailability at 10 mg/kg IM was 108.6%. None of the ducks achieved a sufficient anesthetic depth for invasive procedures, such as surgery, to be performed. Heart and respiratory rates measured after administration remained stable, but many ducks were hyperexcitable during recovery. Based on sedation levels and duration, alfaxalone administered at dosages of 10 mg/kg IV or IM in mallard ducks does not induce clinically acceptable anesthesia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12804DOI Listing
November 2019

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intranasal and intravenous naloxone hydrochloride administration in healthy dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2019 Jul;80(7):696-701

Objective: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of naloxone hydrochloride in dogs following intranasal (IN) and IV administration.

Animals: 6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures: In a blinded crossover design involving 2 experimental periods separated by a washout period (minimum of 7 days), dogs were randomly assigned to receive naloxone IN (4 mg via a commercially available fixed-dose naloxone atomizer; mean ± SD dose, 0.17 ± 0.02 mg/kg) or IV (0.04 mg/kg) in the first period and then the opposite treatment in the second period. Plasma naloxone concentrations, dog behavior, heart rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated for 24 hours/period.

Results: Naloxone administered IN was well absorbed after a short lag time (mean ± SD, 2.3 ± 1.4 minutes). Mean maximum plasma concentration following IN and IV administration was 9.3 ± 2.5 ng/mL and 18.8 ± 3.9 ng/mL, respectively. Mean time to maximum concentration following IN administration was 22.5 ± 8.2 minutes. Mean terminal half-life after IN and IV administration was 47.4 ± 6.7 minutes and 37.0 ± 6.7 minutes, respectively. Mean bioavailability of naloxone administered IN was 32 ± 13%. There were no notable changes in dog behavior, heart rate, or respiratory rate following naloxone administration by either route.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Use of a naloxone atomizer for IN naloxone administration in dogs may represent an effective alternative to IV administration in emergency situations involving opioid exposure. Future studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of IN naloxone administration in dogs with opioid intoxication, including a determination of effective doses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.80.7.696DOI Listing
July 2019

Effect of oral trazodone on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2018 Nov 5;45(6):754-759. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Objective: To determine the effect of oral trazodone on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in dogs.

Study Design: Prospective blinded, single-observer, randomized crossover experimental study.

Animals: Six adult (age 6.8 ± 1.6 months) healthy dogs (three males and three females), weighing 24.8 ± 3.4 kg (mean ± standard deviation).

Methods: Each dog was anesthetized twice with a minimum of 7 days between anesthetic episodes. Dogs were randomly assigned to be administered two treatments in a crossover design: premedication with trazodone (8 mg kg; TRAZ-ISO) orally 2 hours prior to an anesthetic episode or no (ISO). Dogs were anesthetized with intravenous propofol (6 mg kg) and isoflurane in >95% oxygen. Isoflurane MAC was determined using an iterative bracketing technique with electrodes placed in the buccal mucosa. Hemodynamic variables were compared at the lowest end-tidal isoflurane concentration at which each dog did not respond. A paired t test was used to assess the effect of treatment on outcome variables with significance set to a value of p < 0.05.

Results: The MAC concentration (mean ± standard deviation) in dogs administered TRAZ-ISO was 0.85 ± 0.17% compared with 1.02 ± 0.11% in those administered ISO (p = 0.01, 95% confidence interval -0.25 to -0.05), resulting in a mean MAC reduction of 17 ± 12%. There were no differences in hemodynamic variables between treatments.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Premedication of dogs with oral trazodone (8 mg kg) 2 hours prior to anesthetic induction has a significant isoflurane MAC sparing effect with no significant observed hemodynamic benefit.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2018.08.002DOI Listing
November 2018

Risk of anesthesia-related complications in brachycephalic dogs.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2018 Aug;253(3):301-306

OBJECTIVE To determine whether brachycephalic dogs were at greater risk of anesthesia-related complications than nonbrachycephalic dogs and identify other risk factors for such complications. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 223 client-owned brachycephalic dogs undergoing general anesthesia for routine surgery or diagnostic imaging during 2012 and 223 nonbrachycephalic client-owned dogs matched by surgical procedure and other characteristics. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from the medical records regarding dog signalment, clinical signs, anesthetic variables, surgery characteristics, and complications noted during or following anesthesia (prior to discharge from the hospital). Risk of complications was compared between brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs, controlling for other factors. RESULTS Perianesthetic (intra-anesthetic and postanesthetic) complications were recorded for 49.1% (n = 219) of all 446 dogs (49.8% [111/223] of brachycephalic and 48.4% [108/223] of nonbrachycephalic dogs), and postanesthetic complications were recorded for 8.7% (39/446; 13.9% [31/223] of brachycephalic and 3.6% [8/223] of nonbrachycephalic dogs). Factors associated with a higher perianesthetic complication rate included brachycephalic status and longer (vs shorter) duration of anesthesia; the risk of perianesthetic complications decreased with increasing body weight and with orthopedic or radiologic procedures (vs soft tissue procedures). Factors associated with a higher postanesthetic complication rate included brachycephalic status, increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists status, use of ketamine plus a benzodiazepine (vs propofol with or without lidocaine) for anesthetic induction, and invasive (vs noninvasive) procedures. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Controlling for other factors, brachycephalic dogs undergoing routine surgery or imaging were at higher risk of peri- and postanesthetic complications than nonbrachycephalic dogs. Careful monitoring is recommended for brachycephalic dogs in the perianesthetic period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.253.3.301DOI Listing
August 2018

Total intravenous anesthesia using a midazolam-ketamine-xylazine infusion in horses: 46 cases (2011-2014).

Can Vet J 2018 05;59(5):500-504

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

This study evaluated use of midazolam, ketamine, and xylazine (MKX) for total intravenous (IV) anesthesia (TIVA) in horses. Medical records of 46 horses undergoing a clinical procedure using MKX for TIVA were reviewed. Age, breed, procedure, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), pre-anesthetic drugs, induction drugs, and total volume of MKX were recorded. Duration of anesthesia, time to standing, number of attempts to stand, and recovery score were also recorded. All horses were premedicated with an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist and anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam. Duration of MKX infusion was 33 ± 14 min. Heart rate and RR decreased during the infusion of MKX. Time to endotracheal extubation was 19 ± 12 min. Horses stood at 33 ± 13 min. Median number of attempts to stand was 1. Maintenance of anesthesia of horses with MKX was useful for a variety of procedures and recovery from anesthesia was good.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901856PMC
May 2018

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after oral administration of tapentadol hydrochloride in dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2018 Apr;79(4):367-375

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of 3 doses of tapentadol hydrochloride orally administered in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES In a prospective, randomized crossover study, dogs were assigned to receive each of 3 doses of tapentadol (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, PO); there was a 1-week washout period between subsequent administrations. Plasma concentrations and physiologic variables were measured for 24 hours. Samples were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS Tapentadol was rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Mean maximum plasma concentrations after 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg were 10.2, 19.7, and 31 ng/mL, respectively. Geometric mean plasma half-life of the terminal phase after tapentadol administration at 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg was 3.5 hours (range, 2.7 to 4.5 hours), 3.7 hours (range, 3.1 to 4.0 hours), and 3.7 hours (range, 2.8 to 6.5 hours), respectively. Tapentadol and its 3 quantified metabolites (tapentadol sulfate, tapentadol-O-glucuronide, and desmethyltapentadol) were detected in all dogs and constituted 0.16%, 2.8%, 97%, and 0.04% of the total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), respectively. Plasma AUCs for tapentadol, tapentadol sulfate, and tapentadol-O-glucuronide increased in a dose-dependent manner. Desmethyltapentadol AUC did not increase in a linear manner at the 30-mg/kg dose. Sedation scores and heart and respiratory rates were not significantly affected by dose or time after administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of tapentadol was tolerated well, and the drug was rapidly absorbed. Adverse events were not apparent in any dogs at any doses in this study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.79.4.367DOI Listing
April 2018

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of buprenorphine and sustained-release buprenorphine after administration to adult alpacas.

Am J Vet Res 2017 Mar;78(3):321-329

OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of buprenorphine after IV and SC administration and of sustained-release (SR) buprenorphine after SC administration to adult alpacas. ANIMALS 6 alpacas. PROCEDURES Buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IV and SC) and SR buprenorphine (0.12 mg/kg, SC) were administered to each alpaca, with a 14-day washout period between administrations. Twenty-one venous blood samples were collected over 96 hours and used to determine plasma concentrations of buprenorphine. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by use of noncompartmental analysis. Pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed via sedation, heart and respiratory rates, and thermal and mechanical antinociception indices. RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum concentration after IV and SC administration of buprenorphine were 11.60 ± 4.50 ng/mL and 1.95 ± 0.80 ng/mL, respectively. Mean clearance was 3.00 ± 0.33 L/h/kg, and steady-state volume of distribution after IV administration was 3.8 ± l.0 L/kg. Terminal elimination half-life was 1.0 ± 0.2 hours and 2.7 ± 2.8 hours after IV and SC administration, respectively. Mean residence time was 1.3 ± 0.3 hours and 3.6 ± 3.7 hours after IV and SC administration, respectively. Bioavailability was 64 ± 28%. Plasma concentrations after SC administration of SR buprenorphine were below the LLOQ in samples from 4 alpacas. There were no significant changes in pharmacodynamic parameters after buprenorphine administration. Alpacas exhibited mild behavioral changes after all treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Buprenorphine administration to healthy alpacas resulted in moderate bioavailability, rapid clearance, and a short half-life. Plasma concentrations were detectable in only 2 alpacas after SC administration of SR buprenorphine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.3.321DOI Listing
March 2017

Effect of pre-warming on perioperative hypothermia and anesthetic recovery in small breed dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

Can Vet J 2017 Feb;58(2):175-179

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon L. Tharp Sreet, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

This study compared perianesthetic body temperatures and times to recovery from general anesthesia in small dogs that were either warmed for 20 minutes prior to anesthesia or not warmed. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs that were presented for ovariohysterectomy were included in the study. Small (<10 kg body weight) dogs with normal circulatory status were randomly assigned to receive pre-warming for 20 minutes or no treatment. Body temperature was measured during the procedure using a calibrated rectal probe. Duration of anesthesia and surgery, time to rescue warming, time to extubation, presence and duration of shivering, and time to return to normal temperature were recorded. Temperature at the end of surgery was significantly higher in the control group than the pre-warmed group. There was no difference in time to extubation or duration of postoperative shivering between groups. Pre-warming did not result in improved temperature or recovery from anesthesia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5234317PMC
February 2017

Effects of repetition within trials and frequency of trial sessions on quantitative parameters of vertical force peak in horses with naturally occurring lameness.

Am J Vet Res 2016 Jul;77(7):756-65

OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of vertical force peak (VFP) of repition within trials and between trial sessions in horses with naturally occurring appendicular lameness. ANIMALS 20 lame horses acclimated to trotting over a force plate. PROCEDURES Kinetic gait data were collected by use of a force plate regarding affected and contralateral limbs of lame horses that completed 5 valid repetitions in each of 5 sessions performed at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, constituting 1 trial/horse. Data were compared within and among repetitions and sessions, and factors influencing VFP values were identified. RESULTS VFP values differed for lame limbs after 3 valid repetitions were performed within a session and when the interval between sessions was 3 hours. Direction of change reflected less lameness (greater VFP). Lamer horses (≥ grade 4/5) had this finding to a greater degree than did less lame horses. Results were similar for contralateral limbs regarding valid repetitions within a session; however, VFP decreased when the interval between sessions exceeded 6 hours. The coefficient of variation for VFP was ≤ 8% within sessions and ≤ 6% between sessions. The asymmetry index for VFP did not change throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lameness profiles obtained through kinetic gait analysis of horses with naturally occurring lameness were most accurate when valid repetitions were limited to 3 and the interval between sessions within a trial was > 3 hours. Findings suggested that natural lameness may be as suitable as experimentally induced lameness for lameness research involving horses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.77.7.756DOI Listing
July 2016

COMPARISON OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND ABDOMINAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF CANINE MECHANICAL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2016 Jul 2;57(4):366-75. Epub 2016 Apr 2.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon Tharp, St. Columbus, OH, 43210.

Vomiting, often caused by mechanical intestinal obstruction, is common in dogs. Equivocal radiographic signs often necessitate repeat radiographs or additional imaging procedures. For our prospective, case-controlled, accuracy study, we hypothesized the following: (1) using computed tomography (CT), radiologists will be more sensitive and specific for detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery compared to using radiographs; and (2) using measurements, radiologists will be more sensitive and specific using radiographs or CT for detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery. Twenty dogs had abdominal radiographs and abdominal CT. Seventeen dogs had abdominal surgery and three dogs were not obstructed based on clinical follow-up. Confidence levels (five-point scale) of three experienced radiologists for mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery were recorded before and after making selected measurements. Eight dogs had surgically confirmed mechanical intestinal obstruction, and 12 dogs did not have obstruction. For detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction, CT was more sensitive (95.8% vs. 79.2%) and specific (80.6% vs. 69.4%) compared to radiographs, but the difference was not statistically significant. For recommending surgery, radiography was more sensitive (91.7% vs. 83.3%) and specific (83.3% vs. 72.2%) than using CT, but differences were not statistically significant. We reported objective CT measurements for predicting small mechanical intestinal obstruction. By incorporating these objective data, the diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction changed in five of 120 instances (radiographs and CT). In no instance (0/120), did the objective data change the recommendation for surgery. Using CT or abdominal radiographs for the detection of canine mechanical intestinal obstruction is sensitive and specific when evaluated by experienced veterinary radiologists.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12353DOI Listing
July 2016

The effects of preoperative oral administration of carprofen or tramadol on postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing cutaneous tumor removal.

Can Vet J 2015 Aug;56(8):817-22

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon L. Tharp Street, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

This prospective, blinded, controlled clinical study compared the effects of pre-emptive oral administration of carprofen or tramadol on pain scores and analgesic requirement in dogs undergoing cutaneous tumor removal. Thirty-six client-owned dogs presenting for cutaneous tumor removal were randomly assigned to receive carprofen, tramadol, or no treatment prior to surgery. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), the Modified Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Score (MGCMPS), and algometry at enrollment, prior to premedication, at extubation, then hourly for the first 4 h, and every 4 h for 24 h. Dogs scoring ≥ 7 (MGCMPS), or having a VAS measurement ≥ 40 mm were given rescue analgesia. There were no significant differences in pain VAS, MGCMPS, or algometry. There were no differences in rescue analgesia requirement, or time to rescue analgesia among groups. Carprofen, tramadol, or no pre-emptive analgesia, combined with pre-operative hydromorphone and rescue analgesia, resulted in satisfactory analgesia in the 24-hour postoperative period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4502848PMC
August 2015

Comparison of cardiorespiratory variables in dorsally recumbent horses anesthetized with guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine spontaneously breathing 50% or maximal oxygen concentrations.

Can Vet J 2015 Apr;56(4):387-92

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon L. Tharp Street, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

This study compared cardiorespiratory variables in dorsally recumbent horses anesthetized with guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine and spontaneously breathing 50% or maximal (> 90%) oxygen (O2) concentrations. Twelve healthy mares were randomly assigned to breathe 50% or maximal O2 concentrations. Horses were sedated with xylazine, induced to recumbency with ketamine-diazepam, and anesthesia was maintained with guaifenesin-ketamine-xylazine to effect. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, respiratory rate, lithium dilution cardiac output (CO), inspired and expired O2 and carbon dioxide partial pressures, and tidal volume were measured. Arterial and mixed-venous blood samples were collected prior to sedation (baseline), during 30 minutes of anesthesia, 10 minutes after disconnection from O2, and 30 minutes after standing. Shunt fraction, O2 delivery, and alveolar-arterial O2 partial pressures difference [P(A-a)O2] were calculated. Recovery times were recorded. There were no significant differences between groups in cardiorespiratory parameters or in P(A-a)O2 at baseline or 30 minutes after standing. Oxygen partial pressure difference in the 50% group was significantly less than in the maximal O2 group during anesthesia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4357912PMC
April 2015

Postoperative comparison of four perioperative analgesia protocols in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014 May;244(9):1041-6

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Objective: To compare 4 analgesic protocols in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery.

Design: Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial. Animals-48 client-owned dogs that underwent stifle joint surgery.

Procedures: Dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy were randomly assigned to receive a constant rate infusion of a combination of morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine; a lumbosacral epidural with morphine and ropivacaine; both treatments (ie, constant rate infusion and lumbosacral epidural); or only IM premedication with morphine. Indices of cardiorespiratory function and isoflurane requirement were recorded at 5-minute intervals during anesthesia. A validated sedation scoring system and the modified Glasgow composite measure pain score were used to assess comfort and sedation after surgery and anesthesia once the swallowing reflex returned and a body temperature of ≥ 36.7°C (98.1°F) was attained. Pain and sedation scores were acquired at 60-minute intervals for 4 hours, then at 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Dogs with a postoperative pain score > 5 of 24 were given morphine as rescue analgesia.

Results: No differences in heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic arterial blood pressure, end-tidal Pco2, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, and vaporizer setting were detected among groups. No differences in pain score, sedation score, rescue analgesia requirement, or time to first rescue analgesia after surgery were detected.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Pain scores were similar among groups, and all 4 groups had similar rescue analgesia requirements and similar times to first administration of rescue analgesia. All 4 analgesic protocols provided acceptable analgesia for 24 hours after stifle joint surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.244.9.1041DOI Listing
May 2014

Recovery from desflurane anesthesia in horses with and without post-anesthetic xylazine.

Can J Vet Res 2014 Apr;78(2):103-9

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

The objective of this study was to compare recovery from desflurane anesthesia in horses with or without post-anesthetic xylazine. Six adult horses were anesthetized on 2 occasions, 14 d apart using a prospective, randomized crossover design. Horses were sedated with xylazine, induced to lateral recumbency with ketamine and diazepam, and anesthesia was maintained with desflurane. One of 2 treatments was administered intravenously at the end of anesthesia: xylazine [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)] or an equivalent volume of saline. Recovery parameters were recorded and assessed by 2 blinded observers. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze recovery data. Heart rate, arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gas data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Duration of anesthesia was not different between groups. Administration of xylazine at the end of desflurane anesthesia was associated with significantly longer times to first movement, endotracheal tube removal, first attempt to achieve sternal recumbency, sternal recumbency, first attempt to stand, and standing. Number of attempts to stand and quality of recovery scores were not different between groups. Administering xylazine after desflurane anesthesia resulted in longer recovery times. Recovery scores were not significantly different between groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3962272PMC
April 2014

Comparison of invasive and oscillometric blood pressure measurement techniques in anesthetized sheep, goats, and cattle.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Mar 14;41(2):174-85. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Objective: To determine the level of agreement between an oscillometric (O-NIBP) and an invasive method (IBP) of monitoring arterial blood pressure (ABP) in anesthetized sheep, goats, and cattle.

Study Design: Prospective clinical study.

Animals: Twenty sheep and goats, 20 cattle weighing < 150 kg body weight, and 20 cattle weighing 150 kg body weight.

Methods: Animals were anesthetized and systolic ABP (SABP), mean ABP (MABP), and diastolic ABP (DABP) were measured using IBP and O-NIBP. Differences between IBP and O-NIBP, and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) between SABP, MABP, and DABP values were assessed by the Bland-Altman method.

Results: Mean difference ± standard deviation (range) between SABP, DABP, and MABP measurements in sheep and goats was 0 ± 16 (-57 to 38) mmHg, 13 ± 16 (-37 to 70) mmHg, and 8 ± 13 (-34 to 54) mmHg, respectively. Mean difference between SABP, DABP, and MABP measurements in small cattle was 0 ± 19 (-37 to 37) mmHg, 6 ± 18 (-77 to 48) mmHg, and 4 ± 16 (-73 to 48) mmHg, respectively. Mean difference between SABP, DABP, and MABP measurements in large cattle was -18 ± 32 (-107 to 71) mmHg, 7 ± 29 (-112 to 63) mmHg, and -5 ± 28 (-110 to 60) mmHg, respectively. The 95% LOAs for SABP, DABP, and MABP were -31 to +31, -19 to +44, and -19 to +34 mmHg, respectively in sheep and goats; were -37 to +37, -19 to +44, and -19 to +34 mmHg, respectively in small cattle; and were -81 to +45, -50 to +63, and -59 to +50 mmHg, respectively in large cattle.

Conclusions: Agreement was poor between O-NIBP and IBP monitoring techniques.

Clinical Relevance: Arterial BP should be monitored in anesthetized sheep, goats, and cattle using IBP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12101DOI Listing
March 2014

ECG of the month. Accelerated idioventricular rhythm during anesthesia.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013 Nov;243(9):1260-2

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.243.9.1260DOI Listing
November 2013

ECG of the month. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in an anesthesized cat.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013 Mar;242(5):623-5

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.242.5.623DOI Listing
March 2013

Comparison of invasive and oscillometric blood pressure measurement techniques in anesthetized camelids.

Can Vet J 2012 Aug;53(8):881-5

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, 601 Vernon L. Tharp Street, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

This study assessed the accuracy of the oscillometric method for arterial blood pressure (ABP) monitoring in anesthetized camelids. Twenty camelids were anesthetized and systolic ABP (SABP), mean ABP (MABP), and diastolic ABP (DABP) were measured directly and using the oscillometric method. The mean difference between SABP measurements was -9.9 ± 21.9 mmHg with a range of -76 to 54 mmHg, and the 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were -33 to 53 mmHg. The difference between DABP measurements was -1.8 ± 15.6 mmHg with a range of -81 to 36 mmHg, and the 95% LOA were -32 to 29 mmHg. The difference between MABP measurements was -2.9 ± 17.0 mmHg with a range of -81 to 36 mmHg, and the 95% LOA were -30 to 36 mmHg. Accurate ABP monitoring in anesthetized camelids cannot be accomplished using the oscillometric method.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3398528PMC
August 2012

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam after intravenous and intramuscular administration in alpacas.

Am J Vet Res 2013 Feb;74(2):294-9

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Objective: To determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of midazolam after IV and IM administration in alpacas.

Animals: 6 healthy alpacas.

Procedures: Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IV or IM in a randomized crossover design. Twelve hours prior to administration, catheters were placed in 1 (IM trial) or both (IV trial) jugular veins for drug administration and blood sample collection for determination of serum midazolam concentrations. Blood samples were obtained at intervals up to 24 hours after IM and IV administration. Midazolam concentrations were determined by use of tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results: Maximum concentrations after IV administration (median, 1,394 ng/mL [range, 1,150 to 1,503 ng/mL]) and IM administration (411 ng/mL [217 to 675 ng/mL]) were measured at 3 minutes and at 5 to 30 minutes, respectively. Distribution half-life was 18.7 minutes (13 to 47 minutes) after IV administration and 41 minutes (30 to 80 minutes) after IM administration. Elimination half-life was 98 minutes (67 to 373 minutes) and 234 minutes (103 to 320 minutes) after IV and IM administration, respectively. Total clearance after IV administration was 11.3 mL/min/kg (6.7 to 13.9 mL/min/kg), and steady-state volume of distribution was 525 mL/kg (446 to 798 mL/kg). Bioavailability of midazolam after IM administration was 92%. Peak onset of sedation occurred at 0.4 minutes (IV) and 15 minutes (IM). Sedation was significantly greater after IV administration.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Midazolam was well absorbed after IM administration, had a short duration of action, and induced moderate levels of sedation in alpacas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.74.2.294DOI Listing
February 2013

Evaluation of a midazolam-ketamine-xylazine infusion for total intravenous anesthesia in horses.

Am J Vet Res 2012 Apr;73(4):470-5

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the use of midazolam, ketamine, and xylazine for total IV anesthesia (TIVA) in horses.

Animals: 6 healthy Thoroughbred mares.

Procedures: Horses were sedated with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.1 mg/kg, IV) followed by ketamine (2.2 mg/kg, IV) and was maintained with an IV infusion of midazolam (0.002 mg/kg/min), ketamine (0.03 mg/kg/min), and xylazine (0.016 mg/kg/min). Horses underwent surgical manipulation and injection of the palmar digital nerves; duration of the infusion was 60 minutes. Additional ketamine (0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg, IV) was administered if a horse moved its head or limbs during procedures. Cardiopulmonary and arterial blood variables were measured prior to anesthesia; at 10, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes during infusion; and 10 minutes after horses stood during recovery. Recovery quality was assessed by use of a numeric (1 to 10) scale with 1 as an optimal score.

Results: Anesthesia was produced for 70 minutes after induction; supplemental ketamine administration was required in 4 horses. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressures, and cardiac output remained similar to preanesthetic values throughout TIVA. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen saturation of arterial hemoglobin were significantly decreased from preanesthetic values throughout anesthesia; oxygen delivery was significantly decreased at 10- to 30-minute time points. Each horse stood on its first attempt, and median recovery score was 2.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Midazolam, ketamine, and xylazine in combination produced TIVA in horses. Further studies to investigate various dosages for midazolam and ketamine or the substitution of other α(2)-adrenoceptor for xylazine are warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.73.4.470DOI Listing
April 2012
-->