Publications by authors named "Theo Rispens"

182 Publications

Is there a potential for therapeutic drug monitoring of subcutaneously administered tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in daily practice?

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Reade, Amsterdam, and Immunopathology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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November 2021

Evaluation of Natalizumab Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Toward Individualized Doses.

Front Neurol 2021 7;12:716548. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Servicio de Inmunología, Hospital de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.

Plasma concentration of natalizumab falls above the therapeutic threshold in many patients who, therefore, receive more natalizumab than necessary and have higher risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. To assess in a single study the individual and treatment characteristics that influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in the real-world practice. Prospective observational study to analyse the impact of body weight, height, body surface area, body mass index, gender, age, treatment duration, and dosage scheme on natalizumab concentrations and the occupancy of α4-integrin receptor (RO) by natalizumab. Natalizumab concentrations ranged from 0.72 to 67 μg/ml, and RO from 26 to 100%. Body mass index inversely associated with natalizumab concentration (beta = -1.78; ≤ 0.001), as it did body weight (beta = -0.34; = 0.001), but not height, body surface area, age or gender Extended vs. standard dose scheme, but not treatment duration, was inversely associated with natalizumab concentration (beta = -7.92; = 0.016). Similar to natalizumab concentration, body mass index (beta = -1.39; = 0.001) and weight (beta = -0.31; = 0.001) inversely impacted RO. Finally, there was a strong direct linear correlation between serum concentrations and RO until 9 μg/ml (rho = 0.71; = 0.003). Nevertheless, most patients had higher concentrations of natalizumab resulting in the saturation of the integrin. Body mass index and dosing interval are the main variables found to influence the pharmacology of natalizumab. Plasma concentration of natalizumab and/or RO are wide variable among patients and should be routinely measured to personalize treatment and, therefore, avoid either over and underdosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.716548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8529019PMC
October 2021

A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, crossover trial to investigate the effect of a wearable device in addition to a daily symptom diary for the Remote Early Detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections (COVID-RED): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Oct 11;22(1):694. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Julius Clinical, Zeist, the Netherlands.

Objectives: It is currently thought that most-but not all-individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop symptoms, but the infectious period starts on average 2 days before the first overt symptoms appear. It is estimated that pre- and asymptomatic individuals are responsible for more than half of all transmissions. By detecting infected individuals before they have overt symptoms, wearable devices could potentially and significantly reduce the proportion of transmissions by pre-symptomatic individuals. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests [to determine if there are antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 in the blood] or SARS-CoV-2 infection tests such as polymerase chain reaction [PCR] or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the following two algorithms to detect first time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: • The algorithm using Ava bracelet data when coupled with self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo; experimental condition) • The algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone (Symptom Only Algo; control condition) In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing.

Trial Design: The trial is a randomized, single-blinded, two-period, two-sequence crossover trial. The study will start with an initial learning phase (maximum of 3 months), followed by period 1 (3 months) and period 2 (3 months). Subjects entering the study at the end of the recruitment period may directly start with period 1 and will not be part of the learning phase. Each subject will undergo the experimental condition (the Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) in either period 1 or period 2 and the control condition (Symptom Only Algo) in the other period. The order will be randomly assigned, resulting in subjects being allocated 1:1 to either sequence 1 (experimental condition first) or sequence 2 (control condition first). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence.

Participants: The trial will be conducted in the Netherlands. A target of 20,000 subjects will be enrolled. Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence. This results in approximately 6500 normal-risk individuals and 3500 high-risk individuals per sequence. Subjects will be recruited from previously studied cohorts as well as via public campaigns and social media. All data for this study will be collected remotely through the Ava COVID-RED app, the Ava bracelet, surveys in the COVID-RED web portal and self-sampling serology and PCR kits. More information on the study can be found in www.covid-red.eu . During recruitment, subjects will be invited to visit the COVID-RED web portal. After successfully completing the enrolment questionnaire, meeting eligibility criteria and indicating interest in joining the study, subjects will receive the subject information sheet and informed consent form. Subjects can enrol in COVID-RED if they comply with the following inclusion and exclusion criteria: Inclusion criteria: • Resident of the Netherlands • At least 18 years old • Informed consent provided (electronic) • Willing to adhere to the study procedures described in the protocol • Must have a smartphone that runs at least Android 8.0 or iOS 13.0 operating systems and is active for the duration of the study (in the case of a change of mobile number, the study team should be notified) • Be able to read, understand and write Dutch Exclusion criteria: • Previous positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (confirmed either through PCR/antigen or antibody tests; self-reported) • Current suspected (e.g. waiting for test result) COVID-19 infection or symptoms of a COVID-19 infection (self-reported) • Participating in any other COVID-19 clinical drug, vaccine or medical device trial (self-reported) • Electronic implanted device (such as a pacemaker; self-reported) • Pregnant at the time of informed consent (self-reported) • Suffering from cholinergic urticaria (per the Ava bracelet's user manual; self-reported) • Staff involved in the management or conduct of this study INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: All subjects will be instructed to complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app daily, wear their Ava bracelet each night and synchronize it with the app each day for the entire period of study participation. Provided with wearable sensor and/or self-reported symptom data within the last 24 h, the Ava COVID-RED app's underlying algorithms will provide subjects with a real-time indicator of their overall health and well-being. Subjects will see one of three messages, notifying them that no seeming deviations in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected; some changes in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected and they should self-isolate; or alerting them that deviations in their symptoms and/or physiological parameters could be suggestive of a potential COVID-19 infection and to seek additional testing. We will assess the intraperson performance of the algorithms in the experimental condition (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) and control conditions (Symptom Only Algo). Note that both algorithms will also instruct to seek testing when any SARS-CoV-2 symptoms are reported in line with those defined by the Dutch national institute for public health and the environment 'Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu' (RIVM) guidelines.

Main Outcomes: The trial will evaluate the use and performance of the Ava COVID-RED app and Ava bracelet, which uses sensors to measure breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature and heart rate variability for the purpose of early and asymptomatic detection and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in general and high-risk populations. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests, PCR tests and/or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each of the following two algorithms to detect first-time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: the algorithm using Ava bracelet data when coupled with the self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data and the algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone. In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. The protocol contains an additional twenty secondary and exploratory objectives which address, among others, infection incidence rates, health resource utilization, symptoms reported by SARS-CoV-2-infected participants and the rate of breakthrough and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among individuals vaccinated against COVID-19. PCR or antigen testing will occur when the subject receives a notification from the algorithm to seek additional testing. Subjects will be advised to get tested via the national testing programme and report the testing result in the Ava COVID-RED app and a survey. If they cannot obtain a test via the national testing programme, they will receive a nasal swab self-sampling kit at home, and the sample will be tested by PCR in a trial-affiliated laboratory. In addition, all subjects will be asked to take a capillary blood sample at home at baseline (between month 0 and 3.5 months after the start of subject recruitment), at the end of the learning phase (month 3; note that this sampling moment is skipped if a subject entered the study at the end of the recruitment period), period 1 (month 6) and period 2 (month 9). These samples will be used for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody testing in a trial-affiliated laboratory, differentiating between antibodies resulting from a natural infection and antibodies resulting from COVID-19 vaccination (as vaccination will gradually be rolled out during the trial period). Baseline samples will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of the learning phase is positive, or if the subject entered the study at the end of the recruitment period, and samples collected at the end of period 1 will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of period 2 is positive. When subjects obtain a positive PCR/antigen or serology test result during the study, they will continue to be in the study but will be moved into a so-called COVID-positive mode in the Ava COVID-RED app. This means that they will no longer receive recommendations from the algorithms but can still contribute and track symptom and bracelet data. The primary analysis of the main objective will be executed using the data collected in period 2 (months 6 through 9). Within this period, serology tests (before and after period 2) and PCR/antigen tests (taken based on recommendations by the algorithms) will be used to determine if a subject was infected with SARS-CoV-2 or not. Within this same time period, it will be determined if the algorithms gave any recommendations for testing. The agreement between these quantities will be used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms and how these compare between the study conditions.

Randomization: All eligible subjects will be randomized using a stratified block randomization approach with an allocation ratio of 1:1 to one of two sequences (experimental condition followed by control condition or control condition followed by experimental condition). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence, resulting in approximately equal numbers of high-risk and normal-risk individuals between the sequences.

Blinding (masking): In this study, subjects will be blinded to the study condition and randomization sequence. Relevant study staff and the device manufacturer will be aware of the assigned sequence. The subject will wear the Ava bracelet and complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app for the full duration of the study, and they will not know if the feedback they receive about their potential infection status will only be based on the data they entered in the Daily Symptom Diary within the Ava COVID-RED app or based on both the data from the Daily Symptom Diary and the Ava bracelet.

Numbers To Be Randomized (sample Size): A total of 20,000 subjects will be recruited and randomized 1:1 to either sequence 1 (experimental condition followed by control condition) or sequence 2 (control condition followed by experimental condition), taking into account their risk level. This results in approximately 6500 normal-risk and 3500 high-risk individuals per sequence.

Trial Status: Protocol version: 3.0, dated May 3, 2021. Start of recruitment: February 19, 2021. End of recruitment: June 3, 2021. End of follow-up (estimated): November 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Netherlands Trial Register on the 18 of February, 2021 with number NL9320 ( https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9320 ) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05643-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8503725PMC
October 2021

Saliva SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Prevalence in Children.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 10 15;9(2):e0073121. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Rheumatology, & Immunology, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

COVID-19 patients produce circulating and mucosal antibodies. In adults, specific saliva antibodies have been detected. Nonetheless, seroprevalence is routinely investigated, while little attention has been paid to mucosal antibodies. We therefore assessed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody prevalence in serum and saliva in children in the Netherlands. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence in serum and saliva of 517 children attending medical services in the Netherlands (irrespective of COVID-19 exposure) from April to October 2020. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), receptor binding domain (RBD), and nucleocapsid (N)-specific IgG and IgA were evaluated with an exploratory Luminex assay in serum and saliva and with the Wantai SARS-CoV-2 RBD total antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum. Using the Wantai assay, the RBD-specific antibody prevalence in serum was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]. 1.9 to 5.3%). With the Luminex assay, we detected heterogeneity between antibodies for S, RBD, and N antigens, as IgG and IgA prevalence ranged between 3.6 and 4.6% in serum and between 0 and 4.4% in saliva. The Luminex assay also revealed differences between serum and saliva, with SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG present in saliva but not in serum for 1.5 to 2.7% of all children. Using multiple antigen assays, the IgG prevalence for at least two out of three antigens (S, RBD, or N) in serum or saliva can be calculated as 3.8% (95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6%). Our study displays the heterogeneity of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response in children and emphasizes the additional value of saliva antibody detection and the combined use of different antigens. Comprehending humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2, including in children, is crucial for future public health and vaccine strategies. Others have suggested that mucosal antibody measurement could be an important and more convenient tool to evaluate humoral immunity compared to circulating antibodies. Nonetheless, seroprevalence is routinely investigated, while little attention has been paid to mucosal antibodies. We show the heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, in terms of both antigen specificity and differences between circulating and mucosal antibodies, emphasizing the additional value of saliva antibody detection next to detection of antibodies in serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/Spectrum.00731-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8557814PMC
October 2021

Analysing cord blood levels of TNF inhibitors to validate the EULAR points to consider for TNF inhibitor use during pregnancy.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Rheumatology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: To minimise placental transfer of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi), the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) created points to consider (PtC) for the use of TNFi during pregnancy. We are the first to validate the EULAR-PtC by analysing TNFi concentrations in cord blood.

Methods: Patients were derived from the Preconceptional Counselling in Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Study. TNFi was stopped at the time points recommended by the EULAR. Maternal blood and cord blood were collected and analysed for the concentration of TNFi.

Results: 111 patients were eligible for the analysis. Median stop time points were gestational age (GA) 37.0 weeks for certolizumab pegol, GA 25.0 weeks for etanercept, GA 19.0 weeks for adalimumab and GA 18.4 weeks for infliximab. Certolizumab pegol (n=68) was detectable in 5.9% of cord blood samples, with a median concentration of 0.3 µg/mL (IQR: 0.2-1.3) and a median cord/maternal concentration ratio of 0.010. Etanercept (n=30) was not detected in any cord blood samples. Adalimumab (n=25) was detectable in 48.0% of cord blood samples, with a median concentration of 0.5 µg/mL (IQR: 0.2-0.7) and a median concentration ratio of 0.062 (IQR: 0.018-0.15). Infliximab (n=14) was detectable in 57.1% of cord blood samples, with a median concentration of 0.4 µg/mL (IQR: 0.1-1.2) and a median concentration ratio of 0.012 (IQR: 0.006-0.081).

Conclusion: Compliance with the EULAR-PtC results in absence or low levels of TNFi in cord blood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221036DOI Listing
September 2021

Cross-reactivity of IgM anti-modified protein antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis despite limited mutational load.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 09 3;23(1):230. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Anti-modified protein antibodies (AMPA) targeting citrullinated, acetylated and/or carbamylated self-antigens are hallmarks of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although AMPA-IgG cross-reactivity to multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) is evident, it is unknown whether the first responding B cells, expressing IgM, display similar characteristics or if cross-reactivity is crucially dependent on somatic hypermutation (SHM). We now studied the reactivity of (germline) AMPA-IgM to further understand the breach of B cell tolerance and to identify if cross-reactivity depends on extensive SHM. Moreover, we investigated whether AMPA-IgM can efficiently recruit immune effector mechanisms.

Methods: Polyclonal AMPA-IgM were isolated from RA patients and assessed for cross-reactivity towards PTM antigens. AMPA-IgM B cell receptor sequences were obtained by single cell isolation using antigen-specific tetramers. Subsequently, pentameric monoclonal AMPA-IgM, their germline counterparts and monomeric IgG variants were generated. The antibodies were analysed on a panel of PTM antigens and tested for complement activation.

Results: Pentameric monoclonal and polyclonal AMPA-IgM displayed cross-reactivity to multiple antigens and different PTMs. PTM antigen recognition was still present, although reduced, after reverting the IgM into germline. Valency of AMPA-IgM was crucial for antigen recognition as PTM-reactivity significantly decreased when AMPA-IgM were expressed as IgG. Furthermore, AMPA-IgM was 15- to 30-fold more potent in complement-activation compared to AMPA-IgG.

Conclusions: We provide first evidence that AMPA-IgM are cross-reactive towards different PTMs, indicating that PTM (cross-)reactivity is not confined to IgG and does not necessarily depend on extensive somatic hypermutation. Moreover, our data indicate that a diverse set of PTM antigens could be involved in the initial tolerance breach in RA and suggest that AMPA-IgM can induce complement-activation and thereby inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-021-02609-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413699PMC
September 2021

Fc Galactosylation Promotes Hexamerization of Human IgG1, Leading to Enhanced Classical Complement Activation.

J Immunol 2021 09 18;207(6):1545-1554. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands;

Human IgG contains one evolutionarily conserved -linked glycan in its Fc region at position 297. This glycan is crucial for Fc-mediated functions, including its induction of the classical complement cascade. This is induced after target recognition through the IgG-Fab regions, allowing neighboring IgG-Fc tails to associate through Fc:Fc interaction, ultimately leading to hexamer formation. This hexamerization seems crucial for IgG to enable efficient interaction with the globular heads of the first complement component C1q and subsequent complement activation. In this study, we show that galactose incorporated in the IgG1-Fc enhances C1q binding, C4, C3 deposition, and complement-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in human erythrocytes and Raji cells. IgG1-Fc sialylation slightly enhanced binding of C1q, but had little effect on downstream complement activation. Using various mutations that decrease or increase hexamerization capacity of IgG1, we show that IgG1-Fc galactosylation has no intrinsic effect on C1q binding to IgG1, but enhances IgG1 hexamerization potential and, thereby, complement activation. These data suggest that the therapeutic potential of Abs can be amplified without introducing immunogenic mutations, by relatively simple glycoengineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2100399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428746PMC
September 2021

Antibody development after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases in the Netherlands: a substudy of data from two prospective cohort studies.

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Nov 6;3(11):e778-e788. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, location Reade, Department of Rheumatology, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Data are scarce on immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with autoimmune diseases, who are often treated with immunosuppressive drugs. We aimed to investigate the effect of different immunosuppressive drugs on antibody development after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with autoimmune diseases.

Methods: In this study, we used serum samples collected from patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy controls who were included in two ongoing prospective cohort studies in the Netherlands. Participants were eligible for inclusion in this substudy if they had been vaccinated with any COVID-19 vaccine via the Dutch national vaccine programme, which at the time was prioritising vaccination of older individuals. Samples were collected after the first or second COVID-19 vaccination. No serial samples were collected. Seroconversion rates and IgG antibody titres against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between medication use at the time of vaccination and at least until sampling, seroconversion rates, and IgG antibody titres. The studies from which data were collected are registered on the Netherlands Trial Register, Trial ID NL8513, and ClinicalTrials.org, NCT04498286.

Findings: Between April 26, 2020, and March 1, 2021, 3682 patients with rheumatic diseases, 546 patients with multiple sclerosis, and 1147 healthy controls were recruited to participate in the two prospective cohort studies. Samples were collected from patients with autoimmune diseases (n=632) and healthy controls (n=289) after their first (507 patients and 239 controls) or second (125 patients and 50 controls) COVID-19 vaccination. The mean age of both patients and controls was 63 years (SD 11), and 423 (67%) of 632 patients with autoimmune diseases and 195 (67%) of 289 controls were female. Among participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, seroconversion after first vaccination were significantly lower in patients than in controls (210 [49%] of 432 patients 154 [73%] of 210 controls; adjusted odds ratio 0·33 [95% CI 0·23-0·48]; p<0·0001), mainly due to lower seroconversion in patients treated with methotrexate or anti-CD20 therapies. After the second vaccination, seroconversion exceeded 80% in all patient treatment subgroups, except among those treated with anti-CD20 therapies (three [43%] of seven patients). We observed no difference in seroconversion and IgG antibody titres between patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection who had received a single vaccine dose (72 [96%] of 75 patients, median IgG titre 127 AU/mL [IQR 27-300]) and patients without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection who had received two vaccine doses (97 [92%] of 106 patients, median IgG titre 49 AU/mL [17-134]).

Interpretation: Our data suggest that seroconversion after a first COVID-19 vaccination is delayed in older patients on specific immunosuppressive drugs, but that second or repeated exposure to SARS-CoV-2, either via infection or vaccination, improves humoral immunity in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Therefore, delayed second dosing of COVID-19 vaccines should be avoided in patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Future studies that include younger patients need to be done to confirm the generalisability of our results.

Funding: ZonMw, Reade Foundation, and MS Center Amsterdam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(21)00222-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346242PMC
November 2021

Anti-rituximab antibodies affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rituximab in children with immune-mediated diseases.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Paediatric Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious diseases, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Rituximab (RTX) is a chimeric monoclonal CD20-antibody. Lack of efficacy has been suggested to be related to the presence of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). The aims of this study were to determine if ADA impact the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of RTX in children, whether the formation of ADA differs between various immune-mediated diseases and if it is related to the occurrence of infusion-related reactions (IRR).

Methods: All children <18 years who had received RTX treatment in our centre between December 2006 and February 2020 with known ADA/RTX-levels, were retrospectively included. The presence of ADA was defined as a titre >8 AU/ml.

Results: Of twenty-six children treated with RTX for various immune-mediated diseases, six patients were ADA-positive (23.1%). In all ADA-positive patients, RTX concentrations were undetectable in contrast to ADA-negative patients (median RTX concentration 3.1 μg/ml; IQR 0.57-12.0; p<0.001). Failure of B cell depletion was found in 5/6 ADA-positive and 1/19 ADA-negative patients (p=0.003). In SLE-patients, 50.0% (n=4/8) had developed RTX-ADA. Severe anaphylaxis (n=3) occurred only in the ADA-positive group.

Conclusions: In our cohort of paediatric patients, undetectable RTX concentrations were found in ADA-positive patients, indicative that these ADA have a PK impact. RTX-ADA also seem to affect the PD, as in the majority of these patients, B cell depletion failed. ADA were most present in SLE-patients and anaphylactic reactions occurred only in ADA-positive patients. With this knowledge, a change of drug might be considered in the presence of RTX-ADA.
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June 2021

A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, crossover trial to investigate the effect of a wearable device in addition to a daily symptom diary for the remote early detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections (COVID-RED): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jun 22;22(1):412. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Julius Clinical, Zeist, the Netherlands.

Objectives: It is currently thought that most-but not all-individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop symptoms, but that the infectious period starts on average two days before the first overt symptoms appear. It is estimated that pre- and asymptomatic individuals are responsible for more than half of all transmissions. By detecting infected individuals before they have overt symptoms, wearable devices could potentially and significantly reduce the proportion of transmissions by pre-symptomatic individuals. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests [to determine if there are antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 in the blood] or SARS-CoV-2 infection tests such as polymerase chain reaction [PCR] or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the following two algorithms to detect first time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: the algorithm using Ava bracelet data when coupled with self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo; experimental condition) the algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone (Symptom Only Algo; control condition) In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing.

Trial Design: The trial is a randomized, single-blinded, two-period, two-sequence crossover trial. All subjects will participate in an initial Learning Phase (varying from 2 weeks to 3 months depending on enrolment date), followed by two contiguous 3-month test phases, Period 1 and Period 2. Each subject will undergo the experimental condition (the Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) in one of these periods and the control condition (Symptom Only Algo) in the other period. The order will be randomly assigned, resulting in subjects being allocated 1:1 to either Sequence 1 (experimental condition first) or Sequence 2 (control condition first). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence.

Participants: The trial will be conducted in the Netherlands. A target of 20,000 subjects will be enrolled. Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence. This results in approximately 6,500 normal-risk individuals and 3,500 high-risk individuals per sequence. Subjects will be recruited from previously studied cohorts as well as via public campaigns and social media. All data for this study will be collected remotely through the Ava COVID-RED app, the Ava bracelet, surveys in the COVID-RED web portal, and self-sampling serology and PCR kits. During recruitment, subjects will be invited to visit the COVID-RED web portal ( www.covid-red.eu ). After successfully completing the enrolment questionnaire, meeting eligibility criteria and indicating interest in joining the study, subjects will receive the subject information sheet and informed consent form. Subjects can enrol in COVID-RED if they comply with the following inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Inclusion Criteria: Resident of the Netherlands At least 18 years old Informed consent provided (electronic) Willing to adhere to the study procedures described in the protocol Must have a smartphone that runs at least Android 8.0 or iOS 13.0 operating systems and is active for the duration of the study (in the case of a change of mobile number, study team should be notified) Be able to read, understand and write Dutch Exclusion criteria: Previous positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (confirmed either through PCR/antigen or antibody tests; self-reported) Previously received a vaccine developed specifically for COVID-19 or in possession of an appointment for vaccination in the near future (self-reported) Current suspected (e.g., waiting for test result) COVID-19 infection or symptoms of a COVID-19 infection (self-reported) Participating in any other COVID-19 clinical drug, vaccine, or medical device trial (self-reported) Electronic implanted device (such as a pacemaker; self-reported) Pregnant at time of informed consent (self-reported) Suffering from cholinergic urticaria (per the Ava bracelet's User Manual; self-reported) Staff involved in the management or conduct of this study INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: All subjects will be instructed to complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app daily, wear their Ava bracelet each night and synchronise it with the app each day for the entire period of study participation. Provided with wearable sensor and/or self-reported symptom data within the last 24 hours, the Ava COVID-RED app's underlying algorithms will provide subjects with a real-time indicator of their overall health and well-being. Subjects will see one of three messages, notifying them that: no seeming deviations in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected; some changes in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected and they should self-isolate; or alerting them that deviations in their symptoms and/or physiological parameters could be suggestive of a potential COVID-19 infection and to seek additional testing. We will assess intraperson performance of the algorithms in the experimental condition (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) and control conditions (Symptom Only Algo).

Main Outcomes: The trial will evaluate the use and performance of the Ava COVID-RED app and Ava bracelet, which uses sensors to measure breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature, and heart rate variability for the purpose of early and asymptomatic detection and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in general and high-risk populations. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests, PCR tests and/or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each of the following two algorithms to detect first-time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: the algorithm using Ava Bracelet data when coupled with the self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data, and the algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone. In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. The protocol contains an additional seventeen secondary outcomes which address infection incidence rates, health resource utilization, symptoms reported by SARS-CoV-2 infected participants, and the rate of breakthrough and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among individuals vaccinated against COVID-19. PCR or antigen testing will occur when the subject receives a notification from the algorithm to seek additional testing. Subjects will be advised to get tested via the national testing programme, and report the testing result in the Ava COVID-RED app and a survey. If they cannot obtain a test via the national testing programme, they will receive a nasal swab self-sampling kit at home, and the sample will be tested by PCR in a trial-affiliated laboratory. In addition, all subjects will be asked to take a capillary blood sample at home at baseline (Month 0), and at the end of the Learning Phase (Month 3), Period 1 (Month 6) and Period 2 (Month 9). These samples will be used for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody testing in a trial-affiliated laboratory, differentiating between antibodies resulting from a natural infection and antibodies resulting from COVID-19 vaccination (as vaccination will gradually be rolled out during the trial period). Baseline samples will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of the Learning Phase is positive, and samples collected at the end of Period 1 will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of Period 2 is positive. When subjects obtain a positive PCR/antigen or serology test result during the study, they will continue to be in the study but will be moved into a so-called "COVID-positive" mode in the Ava COVID-RED app. This means that they will no longer receive recommendations from the algorithms but can still contribute and track symptom and bracelet data. The primary analysis of the main objective will be executed using data collected in Period 2 (Month 6 through 9). Within this period, serology tests (before and after Period 2) and PCR/antigen tests (taken based on recommendations by the algorithms) will be used to determine if a subject was infected with SARS-CoV-2 or not. Within this same time period, it will be determined if the algorithms gave any recommendations for testing. The agreement between these quantities will be used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms and how these compare between the study conditions.

Randomisation: All eligible subjects will be randomized using a stratified block randomization approach with an allocation ratio of 1:1 to one of two sequences (experimental condition followed by control condition or control condition followed by experimental condition). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence, resulting in equal numbers of high-risk and normal-risk individuals between the sequences.

Blinding (masking): In this study, subjects will be blinded as to study condition and randomization sequence. Relevant study staff and the device manufacturer will be aware of the assigned sequence. The subject will wear the Ava bracelet and complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app for the full duration of the study, and they will not know if the feedback they receive about their potential infection status will only be based on data they entered in the Daily Symptom Diary within the Ava COVID-RED app or based on both the data from the Daily Symptom Diary and the Ava bracelet.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): 20,000 subjects will be recruited and randomized 1:1 to either Sequence 1 (experimental condition followed by control condition) or Sequence 2 (control condition followed by experimental condition), taking into account their risk level. This results in approximately 6,500 normal-risk and 3,500 high-risk individuals per sequence.

Trial Status: Protocol version: 1.2, dated January 22, 2021 Start of recruitment: February 22, 2021 End of recruitment (estimated): April 2021 End of follow-up (estimated): December 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered at the Netherlands Trial Register on the 18 of February, 2021 with number NL9320 ( https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9320 ) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05241-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218271PMC
June 2021

Using adalimumab serum concentration to choose a subsequent biological DMARD in rheumatoid arthritis patients failing adalimumab treatment (ADDORA-switch): study protocol for a fully blinded randomised superiority test-treatment trial.

Trials 2021 Jun 19;22(1):406. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Rheumatology, Sint Maartenskliniek, PO box 9011, 6500 GM, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: A substantial proportion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients discontinues treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) due to inefficacy or intolerance. After the failure of treatment with a TNFi, treatment can be switched to another TNFi or a bDMARD with a different mode of action (non-TNFi). Measurement of serum drug concentrations and/or anti-drug antibodies (therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)) may help to inform the choice for the next step. However, the clinical utility of TDM to guide switching has not been investigated in a randomised test-treatment study.

Methods: ADDORA-switch is a 24-week, multi-centre, triple-blinded, superiority test-treatment randomised controlled trial. A total of 84 RA patients failing adalimumab treatment (treatment failure defined as DAS28-CRP > 2.9) will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to a switching strategy to either TNFi or non-TNFi based on adalimumab serum trough level (intervention group) or random allocation (control group). The primary outcome is the between-group difference in mean time-weighted DAS28 over 24 weeks.

Discussion: The trial design differs in many aspects from previously published and ongoing TDM studies and is considered the first blinded test-treatment trial using TDM in RA. Several choices in the design of this trial are described, and overarching principles regarding test-treatment trials and clinical utility of TDM are discussed in further detail.

Trial Registration: Dutch Trial Register NL8210 . Registered on 3 December 2019 (CMO NL69841.091.19).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05358-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214249PMC
June 2021

Human Milk from Previously COVID-19-Infected Mothers: The Effect of Pasteurization on Specific Antibodies and Neutralization Capacity.

Nutrients 2021 May 13;13(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, University of Amsterdam Emma Children's Hospital, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many put their hopes in the rapid availability of effective immunizations. Human milk, containing antibodies against syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may serve as means of protection through passive immunization. We aimed to determine the presence and pseudovirus neutralization capacity of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA in human milk of mothers who recovered from COVID-19, and the effect of pasteurization on these antibodies.

Methods: This prospective case control study included lactating mothers, recovered from (suspected) COVID-19 and healthy controls. Human milk and serum samples were collected. To assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies we used multiple complementary assays, namely ELISA with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (specific for IgA and IgG), receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N) protein for IgG in serum, and bridging ELISA with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and N protein for specific Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA in human milk and serum). To assess the effect of pasteurization, human milk was exposed to Holder (HoP) and High Pressure Pasteurization (HPP).

Results: Human milk contained abundant SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 83% of the proven cases and in 67% of the suspected cases. Unpasteurized milk with and without these antibodies was found to be capable of neutralizing a pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2 in (97% and 85% of the samples respectively). After pasteurization, total IgA antibody levels were affected by HoP, while SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody levels were affected by HPP. Pseudovirus neutralizing capacity of the human milk samples was only retained with the HPP approach. No correlation was observed between milk antibody levels and neutralization capacity.

Conclusions: Human milk from recovered COVID-19-infected mothers contains SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies which maintained neutralization capacity after HPP. All together this may represent a safe and effective immunization strategy after HPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152997PMC
May 2021

Minimalistic In Vitro Culture to Drive Human Naive B Cell Differentiation into Antibody-Secreting Cells.

Cells 2021 05 12;10(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

High-affinity antibody-secreting cells (ASC) arise from terminal differentiation of B-cells after coordinated interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in germinal centers (GC). Elucidation of cues promoting human naive B-cells to progress into ASCs is challenging, as this process is notoriously difficult to induce in vitro while maintaining enough cell numbers to investigate the differentiation route(s). Here, we describe a minimalistic in vitro culture system that supports efficient differentiation of human naive B-cells into antibody-secreting cells. Upon initial stimulations, the interplay between level of CD40 costimulation and the Tfh cell-associated cytokines IL-21 and IL-4 determined the magnitude of B-cell expansion, immunoglobulin class-switching and expression of ASC regulator . In contrast, the B-cell-specific transcriptional program was maintained, and efficient ASC formation was hampered. Renewed CD40 costimulation and Tfh cytokines exposure induced rapid secondary STAT3 signaling and extensive ASC differentiation, accompanied by repression of B-cell identity factors and and further induction of Our work shows that, like in vivo, renewed CD40L costimulation also induces efficient terminal ASC differentiation after initial B-cell expansion in vitro. This culture system for efficient differentiation of human naive B-cells into ASCs, while also maintaining high cell numbers, may form an important tool in dissecting human naive B-cell differentiation, thereby enabling identification of novel transcriptional regulators and biomarkers for desired and detrimental antibody formation in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10051183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151070PMC
May 2021

Dynamics of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent plasma donors.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 16;10(5):e1285. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Immunopathology Sanquin Research Amsterdam The Netherlands.

Objectives: Characterisation of the human antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is vital for serosurveillance purposes and for treatment options such as transfusion with convalescent plasma or immunoglobulin products derived from convalescent plasma. In this study, we longitudinally and quantitatively analysed antibody responses in RT-PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 convalescent adults during the first 250 days after onset of symptoms.

Methods: We measured antibody responses to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the nucleocapsid protein in 844 longitudinal samples from 151 RT-PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 convalescent adults. With a median of 5 (range 2-18) samples per individual, this allowed quantitative analysis of individual longitudinal antibody profiles. Kinetic profiles were analysed by mixed-effects modelling.

Results: All donors were seropositive at the first sampling moment, and only one donor seroreverted during follow-up analysis. Anti-RBD IgG and anti-nucleocapsid IgG levels declined with median half-lives of 62 and 59 days, respectively, 2-5 months after symptom onset, and several-fold variation in half-lives of individuals was observed. The rate of decline of antibody levels diminished during extended follow-up, which points towards long-term immunological memory. The magnitude of the anti-RBD IgG response correlated well with neutralisation capacity measured in a classic plaque reduction assay and in an in-house developed competitive assay.

Conclusion: The result of this study gives valuable insight into the long-term longitudinal response of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126762PMC
May 2021

High titers and low fucosylation of early human anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG promote inflammation by alveolar macrophages.

Sci Transl Med 2021 06 11;13(596). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Centre, Plesmanlaan 125, 1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) become critically ill primarily around the time of activation of the adaptive immune response. Here, we provide evidence that antibodies play a role in the worsening of disease at the time of seroconversion. We show that early-phase severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum of critically ill COVID-19 patients induces excessive inflammatory responses by human alveolar macrophages. We identified that this excessive inflammatory response is dependent on two antibody features that are specific for patients with severe COVID-19. First, inflammation is driven by high titers of anti-spike IgG, a hallmark of severe disease. Second, we found that anti-spike IgG from patients with severe COVID-19 is intrinsically more proinflammatory because of different glycosylation, particularly low fucosylation, of the antibody Fc tail. Low fucosylation of anti-spike IgG was normalized in a few weeks after initial infection with SARS-CoV-2, indicating that the increased antibody-dependent inflammation mainly occurs at the time of seroconversion. We identified Fcγ receptor (FcγR) IIa and FcγRIII as the two primary IgG receptors that are responsible for the induction of key COVID-19-associated cytokines such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor. In addition, we show that anti-spike IgG-activated human macrophages can subsequently break pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity and induce microvascular thrombosis in vitro. Last, we demonstrate that the inflammatory response induced by anti-spike IgG can be specifically counteracted by fostamatinib, an FDA- and EMA-approved therapeutic small-molecule inhibitor of Syk kinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abf8654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158960PMC
June 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Adult Patients With Multiple Sclerosis in the Amsterdam MS Cohort.

JAMA Neurol 2021 07;78(7):880-882

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam MS Center, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087977PMC
July 2021

C-Reactive Protein Enhances IgG-Mediated Cellular Destruction Through IgG-Fc Receptors .

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:594773. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Antibody-mediated blood disorders ensue after auto- or alloimmunization against blood cell antigens, resulting in cytopenia. Although the mechanisms of cell destruction are the same as in immunotherapies targeting tumor cells, many factors are still unknown. Antibody titers, for example, often do not strictly correlate with clinical outcome. Previously, we found C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to be elevated in thrombocytopenic patients, correlating with thrombocyte counts, and bleeding severity. Functionally, CRP amplified antibody-mediated phagocytosis of thrombocytes by phagocytes. To investigate whether CRP is a general enhancer of IgG-mediated target cell destruction, we extensively studied the effect of CRP on IgG-Fc receptor (FcγR)-mediated cell destruction: through respiratory burst, phagocytosis, and cellular cytotoxicity by a variety of effector cells. We now demonstrate that CRP also enhances IgG-mediated effector functions toward opsonized erythrocytes, in particular by activated neutrophils. We performed a first-of-a-kind profiling of CRP binding to all human FcγRs and IgA-Fc receptor I (FcαRI) using a surface plasmon resonance array. CRP bound these receptors with relative affinities of FcγRIa = FcγRIIa/b = FcγRIIIa > FcγRIIIb = FcαRI. Furthermore, FcγR blocking (in particular FcγRIa) abrogated CRP's ability to amplify IgG-mediated neutrophil effector functions toward opsonized erythrocytes. Finally, we observed that CRP also amplified killing of breast-cancer tumor cell line SKBR3 by neutrophils through anti-Her2 (trastuzumab). Altogether, we provide for the first time evidence for the involvement of specific CRP-FcγR interactions in the exacerbation of IgG-mediated cellular destruction; a trait that should be further evaluated as potential therapeutic target e.g., for tumor eradication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.594773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006934PMC
June 2021

Comprehensive evaluation of microneedle-based intradermal adalimumab delivery vs. subcutaneous administration: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 08 2;87(8):3162-3176. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology Willem-Alexander Children's Hospital, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Aims: To evaluate feasibility of intradermal (i.d.) adalimumab administration using hollow microneedles, and to compare a single i.d. dose of adalimumab using a hollow microneedle with a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose using a conventional needle.

Methods: In this single-centre double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-dummy clinical trial in 24 healthy adults we compared 40 mg adalimumab (0.4 mL) administered i.d. using a hollow microneedle with a s.c. dose using a conventional needle. Primary parameters were pain, acceptability and local tolerability; secondary parameters safety, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity. We explored usability of optical coherence tomography, clinical photography, thermal imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging to evaluate skin reaction after i.d. injections. In vitro protein analysis was performed to assess compatibility of adalimumab with the hollow microneedle device.

Results: While feasible and safe, injection pain of i.d. adalimumab was higher compared to s.c. adalimumab (35.4 vs. 7.9 on a 100-point visual analogue scale). Initial absorption rate and relative bioavailability were higher after i.d. adalimumab (time to maximum plasma concentration = 95 h [47-120]; F = 129% [6.46%]) compared to s.c. adalimumab (time to maximum plasma concentration = 120 h [96-221]). Anti-adalimumab antibodies were detected in 50% and 83% of the subjects after i.d. and s.c. adalimumab, respectively. We observed statistically significantly more erythema and skin perfusion after i.d. adalimumab, compared to s.c. adalimumab and placebo injections (P < .0001). Cytokine secretion after whole blood lipopolysaccharide challenge was comparable between administration routes.

Conclusions: Intradermal injection of adalimumab using hollowing microneedles was perceived as more painful and less accepted than s.c. administration, but yields a higher relative bioavailability with similar safety and pharmacodynamic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8359405PMC
August 2021

Afucosylated IgG characterizes enveloped viral responses and correlates with COVID-19 severity.

Science 2021 02 23;371(6532). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies are crucial for protection against invading pathogens. A highly conserved N-linked glycan within the IgG-Fc tail, which is essential for IgG function, shows variable composition in humans. Afucosylated IgG variants are already used in anticancer therapeutic antibodies for their increased activity through Fc receptors (FcγRIIIa). Here, we report that afucosylated IgG (approximately 6% of total IgG in humans) are specifically formed against enveloped viruses but generally not against other antigens. This mediates stronger FcγRIIIa responses but also amplifies brewing cytokine storms and immune-mediated pathologies. Critically ill COVID-19 patients, but not those with mild symptoms, had high concentrations of afucosylated IgG antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), amplifying proinflammatory cytokine release and acute phase responses. Thus, antibody glycosylation plays a critical role in immune responses to enveloped viruses, including COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abc8378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919849PMC
February 2021

Glycine 236 in the Lower Hinge Region of Human IgG1 Differentiates FcγR from Complement Effector Function.

J Immunol 2020 12 13;205(12):3456-3467. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, the Netherlands;

Abs of the IgG isotype mediate effector functions like Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis by Fc interactions with FcγRs and complement-dependent cytotoxicity upon IgG-Fc binding to C1q. In this study, we describe the crucial role of the highly conserved dual glycines at position 236-237 in the lower hinge region of human IgG, including the lack of one glycine as found in IgG2. We found several permutations in this region that either silence or largely abrogate FcγR binding and downstream FcγR effector functions, as demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance, Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays. Although the binding regions of FcγRs and C1q on the IgG-Fc largely overlap, IgG1 with a deletion of G236 only silences FcγR-mediated effector functions without affecting C1q-binding or activation. Several mutations resulted in only residual FcγRI binding with differing affinities that are either complement competent or silenced. Interestingly, we also found that IgG2, naturally only binding FcγRIIa, gains binding to FcγRI and FcγRIIIa after insertion of G236, highlighting the crucial importance of G236 in IgG for FcγR interaction. These mutants may become invaluable tools for FcγR-related research as well as for therapeutic purposes in which only complement-mediated functions are required without the involvement of FcγR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000961DOI Listing
December 2020

Development of a SARS-CoV-2 Total Antibody Assay and the Dynamics of Antibody Response over Time in Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Patients with COVID-19.

J Immunol 2020 12 30;205(12):3491-3499. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory Academic Medical Centre, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands;

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infections often cause only mild disease that may evoke relatively low Ab titers compared with patients admitted to hospitals. Generally, total Ab bridging assays combine good sensitivity with high specificity. Therefore, we developed sensitive total Ab bridging assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 Abs to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein in addition to conventional isotype-specific assays. Ab kinetics was assessed in PCR-confirmed, hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients ( = 41) and three populations of patients with COVID-19 symptoms not requiring hospital admission: PCR-confirmed convalescent plasmapheresis donors ( = 182), PCR-confirmed hospital care workers ( = 47), and a group of longitudinally sampled symptomatic individuals highly suspect of COVID-19 ( = 14). In nonhospitalized patients, the Ab response to RBD is weaker but follows similar kinetics, as has been observed in hospitalized patients. Across populations, the RBD bridging assay identified most patients correctly as seropositive. In 11/14 of the COVID-19-suspect cases, seroconversion in the RBD bridging assay could be demonstrated before day 12; nucleocapsid protein Abs emerged less consistently. Furthermore, we demonstrated the feasibility of finger-prick sampling for Ab detection against SARS-CoV-2 using these assays. In conclusion, the developed bridging assays reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 Abs in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients and are therefore well suited to conduct seroprevalence studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000767DOI Listing
December 2020

Divergent SARS-CoV-2-specific T- and B-cell responses in severe but not mild COVID-19 patients.

Eur J Immunol 2020 Dec 16;50(12):1998-2012. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Hematopoiesis, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Understanding the immune response that provides specific immunity but may also lead to immunopathology is crucial for the design of potential preventive and therapeutic strategies. Here, we characterized and quantified SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses in patients with different clinical courses. Compared to individuals with a mild clinical presentation, CD4 T-cell responses were qualitatively impaired in critically ill patients. Strikingly, however, in these patients the specific IgG antibody response was remarkably strong. Furthermore, in these critically ill patients, a massive influx of circulating T cells into the lungs was observed, overwhelming the local T-cell compartment, and indicative of vascular leakage. The observed disparate T- and B-cell responses could be indicative of a deregulated immune response in critically ill COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202048908DOI Listing
December 2020

MS-Based Allotype-Specific Analysis of Polyclonal IgG-Fc -Glycosylation.

Front Immunol 2020 21;11:2049. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Center for Proteomics and Metabolomics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Current approaches to study glycosylation of polyclonal human immunoglobulins G (IgG) usually imply protein digestion or glycan release. While these approaches allow in-depth characterization, they also result in a loss of valuable information regarding certain subclasses, allotypes and co-occuring post-translational modifications (PTMs). Unfortunately, the high variability of polyclonal IgGs makes their intact mass spectrometry (MS) analysis extremely challenging. We propose here a middle-up strategy for the analysis of the intact fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of human plasma IgGs, with the aim of acquiring integrated information of the -glycosylation and other PTMs of subclasses and allotypes. Human plasma IgG was isolated using Fc-specific beads followed by an on-bead C 2 domain digestion with the enzyme IdeS. The obtained mixture of Fc subunits was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) hyphenated with MS. CE-MS provided separation of different IgG-subclasses and allotypes, while HILIC-MS allowed resolution of the different glycoforms and their oxidized variants. The orthogonality of these techniques was key to reliably assign Fc allotypes. Five individual donors were analyzed using this approach. Heterozygosis was observed in all the analyzed donors resulting in a total of 12 allotypes identified. The assignments were further confirmed using recombinant monoclonal IgG allotypes as standards. While the glycosylation patterns were similar within allotypes of the same subclass, clear differences were observed between IgG subclasses and donors, highlighting the relevance of the proposed approach. In a single analysis, glycosylation levels specific for each allotype, relative abundances of subclasses and information on co-occurring modifications are obtained. This middle-up method represents an important step toward a comprehensive analysis of immunoglobulin G-Fc variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.02049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472933PMC
April 2021

Biased anti-idiotype response in rabbits leads to high-affinity monoclonal antibodies to biologics.

MAbs 2020 Jan-Dec;12(1):1814661

Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Research, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam , Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Antibody formation to human(ized) therapeutic antibodies in humans is highly skewed toward anti-idiotype responses, probably because the idiotype is the only 'foreign' part of the antibody molecule. Here, we analyzed antibody responses to F(ab')2 fragments of a panel of 17 human(ized) therapeutic antibodies in rabbits. Homology between the rabbit germline and the human(ized) antibodies is moderate not only for the variable domains (both the complementarity-determining regions and the framework regions), but also for the constant domains (66% or less). Nevertheless, we observed a highly skewed anti-idiotype response in all cases, with up to >90% of the antibodies directed toward the idiotype. These results indicate that the idiotype may be inherently immunodominant. We used these biased responses to raise monoclonal rabbit anti-idiotype antibodies against secukinumab, ustekinumab, reslizumab, mepolizumab, palivizumab, and dupilumab and demonstrate the potential to develop sensitive pharmacokinetic assays with these antibodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2020.1814661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7531530PMC
July 2021

Unraveling the Effect of a Potentiating Anti-Factor H Antibody on Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-Associated Factor H Variants.

J Immunol 2020 10 26;205(7):1778-1786. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1066 CX Amsterdam, the Netherlands;

The complement system plays an important role in our innate immune system. Complement activation results in clearance of pathogens, immune complex, and apoptotic cells. The host is protected from complement-mediated damage by several complement regulators. Factor H (FH) is the most important fluid-phase regulator of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Heterozygous mutations in FH are associated with complement-related diseases such as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and age-related macular degeneration. We recently described an agonistic anti-FH mAb that can potentiate the regulatory function of FH. This Ab could serve as a potential new drug for aHUS patients and alternative to C5 blockade by eculizumab. However, it is unclear whether this Ab can potentiate FH mutant variants in addition to wild-type (WT) FH. In this study, the functionality and potential of the agonistic Ab in the context of pathogenic aHUS-related FH mutant proteins was investigated. The binding affinity of recombinant WT FH and the FH variants, W1183L, V1197A, R1210C, and G1194D to C3b was increased upon addition of the potentiating Ab and similarly, the decay-accelerating activity of all mutants is increased. The potentiating anti-FH Ab is able to restore the surface regulatory function of most of the tested FH mutants to WT FH levels on a human HAP-1 cell line and on sheep erythrocytes. In conclusion, our potentiating anti-FH is broadly active and able to enhance both WT FH function as well as most aHUS-associated FH variants tested in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000368DOI Listing
October 2020

Author Correction: Human DC-SIGN and CD23 do not interact with human IgG.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 23;10(1):12560. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68760-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378241PMC
July 2020

Personalized extended interval dosing of natalizumab in MS: A prospective multicenter trial.

Neurology 2020 08 20;95(6):e745-e754. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

From the Department of Neurology, Amsterdam MS Center (Z.L.E.v.K., B.W.v.O., B.M.J.U., J.K.), Department of Radiology (M.P.W., F.B.), and Neurochemistry Lab and Biobank, Department of Clinical Chemistry (C.E.T.), Amsterdam Neuroscience, and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (B.I.L.-W.), Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Vrije Universiteit; Department of Neurology (E.L.J.H.), St. Antonius Hospital, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (M.P.W.), Hannover Medical School, Germany; Department of Neurology (N.F.K.), OLVG Hospital, Amsterdam; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem; Biologics Lab, Bioanalysis (A.d.V.), Sanquin Diagnostic Services; Department of Immunopathology (A.t.B., T.R.), Sanquin Research, Amsterdam; Landsteiner Laboratory (A.t.B., T.R.), Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and UCL Institutes of Neurology & Healthcare Engineering (F.B.), Queen Square, London, UK.

Objective: To determine whether natalizumab efficacy is maintained when switching to personalized extended interval dosing based on individual natalizumab trough concentrations in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

Methods: This was a prospective multicenter single-arm trial with 1 year follow-up and a 1-year extension phase. Participants were adult persons with RRMS treated with natalizumab without disease activity in the year prior to enrollment. The natalizumab treatment interval was based on longitudinal natalizumab trough concentrations. Patients received 3 monthly MRI scans, relapse assessments, and disability scoring during follow-up. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI. Secondary endpoints were new/enlarging T2 lesions on MRI and relapses and progression on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) during follow-up and extension phase.

Results: Sixty-one patients were included. Eighty-four percent extended the interval from a 4-week interval to a 5- to 7-week interval. No patient developed gadolinium-enhancing lesions (95% confidence interval [CI] 0%-7.4%) during follow-up. No new/enlarging T2 lesions (95% CI 0%-7.4%) or relapses (95% CI 0%-7.4%) were reported during follow-up and in the extension phase. Median EDSS was comparable at baseline (3.0, interquartile range [IQR] 2.0-5.0) and after follow-up (3.0, IQR 2.0-5.0).

Conclusion: Personalized extended interval dosing did not induce recurrence of MS disease activity. Natalizumab efficacy was maintained in stable patients with RRMS receiving personalized extended interval dosing based on individual natalizumab concentrations.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that personalized extended interval dosing of natalizumab does not result in recurrence of disease activity in stable patients with RRMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009995DOI Listing
August 2020

Identification of Clinically and Pathophysiologically Relevant Rheumatoid Factor Epitopes by Engineered IgG Targets.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2020 12 25;72(12):2005-2016. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Sanquin Research and Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: Rheumatoid factors (RFs), which are anti-IgG autoantibodies strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are also found in other diseases and in healthy individuals. RFs bind to various epitopes in the constant (Fc-) domain of IgG. Therefore, disease-specific reactivity patterns may exist. This study was undertaken in order to develop a new approach to dissecting RF epitope binding patterns across different diseases.

Methods: We analyzed RF reactivity patterns in serum from patients with seropositive arthralgia, patients with RA, and patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) using bioengineered, natively folded IgG-Fc targets that demonstrated selective RF binding toward several distinct regions of the IgG-Fc domain.

Results: Rheumatoid factor responses primarily bound the Fc Elbow region, with a smaller number of RFs binding the Fc Tail region, while the Fc receptor binding region was hardly targeted. A restricted reactivity against the IgG-Fc Tail region was associated with less positivity for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) and less arthritis development in arthralgia, whereas combined reactivity toward IgG-Fc Tail and Elbow regions was associated with more arthritis development. Reactivity toward the IgG-Fc Tail region was observed far more frequently in RA than in primary SS.

Conclusion: Bioengineered IgG targets enable serologic characterization of RF reactivity patterns, and use of this approach appears to reveal patterns associated with ACPA detection and arthritis development in patients with arthralgia. These patterns are able to distinguish RA patients from primary SS patients. This new methodology improves the clinical value of RFs and our understanding of their pathophysiologic processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41430DOI Listing
December 2020
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