Publications by authors named "Taylor Brackin"

3 Publications

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Safety and Effectiveness of Paclitaxel Drug-Coated Devices in Peripheral Artery Revascularization: Insights From VOYAGER PAD.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 11;78(18):1768-1778

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA; CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: Paclitaxel drug-coated devices (DCDs) were developed to improve lower extremity revascularization (LER) patency in peripheral artery disease (PAD) but have been associated with long-term mortality.

Objectives: This study assessed DCD safety and effectiveness in LER for PAD.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) randomized patients with PAD who underwent LER to rivaroxaban or placebo. The primary VOYAGER PAD study efficacy and safety outcomes were composite cardiovascular and limb events and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. For prespecified DCD analyses, primary safety and effectiveness outcomes were mortality and unplanned index limb revascularization (UILR). Major adverse limb events (MALE) were a secondary outcome. Inverse probability treatment weighting was used to account for each subject's propensity for DCD treatment. Effects of rivaroxaban were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Among 4,316 patients who underwent LER, 3,478 (80.6%) were treated for claudication, and 1,342 (31.1%) received DCDs. Median follow-up was 31 months, vital status was ascertained in 99.6% of patients, and there were 394 deaths. After weighting, DCDs were not associated with mortality (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.83-1.09) or MALE (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.90-1.30) but were associated with reduced UILR (3-year Kaplan-Meier: 21.5% vs 24.6%; HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.76-0.92). Irrespective of DCD use, consistent benefit of rivaroxaban for composite cardiovascular and limb events (P = 0.88) and safety of rivaroxaban with respect to bleeding (P = 0.57) were observed.

Conclusions: In >4,000 patients with PAD who underwent LER, DCDs were not associated with mortality or MALE but were associated with persistent reduction in UILR. These findings provide insight into the safety and effectiveness of DCDs in PAD. (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [acetylsalicylic acid] Along with Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD [VOYAGER PAD]; NCT02504216).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.08.052DOI Listing
November 2021

Effect of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease Undergoing Surgical Revascularization: Insights From the VOYAGER PAD Trial.

Circulation 2021 10 12;144(14):1104-1116. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

CPC Clinical Research, Aurora, CO (M.R.N., N.G., W.H.C., T.B., N.J., C.N.H., W.R.H., M.P.B.).

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease requiring lower extremity revascularization (LER) are at high risk of adverse limb and cardiovascular events. The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA [Acetylsalicylic Acid] Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for PAD) demonstrated that rivaroxaban significantly reduced this risk. The efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described in patients who underwent surgical LER.

Methods: The VOYAGER PAD trial randomized patients with peripheral artery disease after surgical and endovascular LER to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin or matching placebo plus aspirin and followed for a median of 28 months. The primary end point was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major vascular amputation, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety outcome was Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding. International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding was a secondary safety outcome. All efficacy and safety outcomes were adjudicated by a blinded independent committee.

Results: Of the 6564 randomized, 2185 (33%) underwent surgical LER and 4379 (67%) endovascular. Compared with placebo, rivaroxaban reduced the primary end point consistently regardless of LER method (-interaction, 0.43). After surgical LER, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 199 (18.4%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 242 (22.0%) patients in the placebo group with a cumulative incidence at 3 years of 19.7% and 23.9%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]; =0.026). In the overall trial, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding were increased with rivaroxaban. There was no heterogeneity for Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding (-interaction, 0.17) or International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding (-interaction, 0.73) on the basis of the LER approach. After surgical LER, the principal safety outcome occurred in 11 (1.0%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and 13 (1.2%) patients in the placebo group; 3-year cumulative incidence was 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.39-1.95]; =0.75) Among surgical patients, the composite of fatal bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage (=0.95) and postprocedural bleeding requiring intervention (=0.93) was not significantly increased.

Conclusions: The efficacy of rivaroxaban is associated with a benefit in patients who underwent surgical LER. Although bleeding was increased with rivaroxaban plus aspirin, the incidence was low, with no significant increase in fatal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, or postprocedural bleeds requiring intervention. Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02504216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.054835DOI Listing
October 2021

Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Peripheral Artery Disease Lower Extremity Revascularization: Impact of Concomitant Clopidogrel on Efficacy and Safety.

Circulation 2020 12 3;142(23):2219-2230. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Germany (R.B.).

Background: The VOYAGER PAD trial (Vascular Outcomes Study of ASA Along With Rivaroxaban in Endovascular or Surgical Limb Revascularization for Peripheral Artery Disease) demonstrated superiority of rivaroxaban plus aspirin versus aspirin to reduce major cardiac and ischemic limb events after lower extremity revascularization. Clopidogrel is commonly used as a short-term adjunct to aspirin after endovascular revascularization. Whether clopidogrel modifies the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban has not been described.

Methods: VOYAGER PAD was a phase 3, international, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with symptomatic PAD undergoing lower extremity revascularization randomized to rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus 100 mg aspirin daily or rivaroxaban placebo plus aspirin. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of acute limb ischemia, major amputation of a vascular cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death. The principal safety end point was TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major bleeding, with International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding a secondary safety outcome. Clopidogrel use was allowed at the discretion of the investigator for up to 6 months after the qualifying revascularization.

Results: Of the randomized patients, 3313 (50.6%) received clopidogrel for a median duration of 29.0 days. Over 3 years, the hazard ratio for the primary outcome of rivaroxaban versus placebo was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.71-1.01) with clopidogrel and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.73-1.01) without clopidogrel without statistical heterogeneity ( for interaction=0.92). Rivaroxaban resulted in an early apparent reduction in acute limb ischemia within 30 days (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.14-1.46] with clopidogrel; hazard ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.22-1.01] without clopidogrel; for interaction=0.93). Compared with aspirin, rivaroxaban increased TIMI major bleeding similarly regardless of clopidogrel use ( for interaction=0.71). With clopidogrel use >30 days, rivaroxaban was associated with more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding within 365 days (hazard ratio, 3.20 [95% CI, 1.44-7.13]) compared with shorter durations of clopidogrel ( for trend=0.06).

Conclusions: In the VOYAGER PAD trial, rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced the risk of adverse cardiovascular and limb events with an early benefit for acute limb ischemia regardless of clopidogrel use. The safety of rivaroxaban was consistent regardless of clopidogrel use but with a trend for more International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding with clopidogrel use >30 days than with a shorter duration. These data support the addition of rivaroxaban to aspirin after lower extremity revascularization regardless of concomitant clopidogrel, with a short course (≤30 days) associated with less bleeding. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02504216.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050465DOI Listing
December 2020
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