Publications by authors named "Tao Luo"

515 Publications

Population genomics provides insights into the evolution and adaptation to humans of the waterborne pathogen Mycobacterium kansasii.

Nat Commun 2021 05 3;12(1):2491. Epub 2021 May 3.

Shanghai Institute of Infectious Disease and Biosecurity, Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology (MOE/NHC/CAMS), Shanghai Medical College and School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Mycobacterium kansasii can cause serious pulmonary disease. It belongs to a group of closely-related species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria known as the M. kansasii complex (MKC). Here, we report a population genomics analysis of 358 MKC isolates from worldwide water and clinical sources. We find that recombination, likely mediated by distributive conjugative transfer, has contributed to speciation and on-going diversification of the MKC. Our analyses support municipal water as a main source of MKC infections. Furthermore, nearly 80% of the MKC infections are due to closely-related M. kansasii strains, forming a main cluster that apparently originated in the 1900s and subsequently expanded globally. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that several genes involved in metabolism (e.g., maintenance of the methylcitrate cycle), ESX-I secretion, metal ion homeostasis and cell surface remodelling may have contributed to M. kansasii's success and its ongoing adaptation to the human host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22760-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Purification of Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid via Donnan Dialysis with a Perfluorinated Sulfonic Acid Cation-Exchange Membrane.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Ministry of Education's Research Centre for Comprehensive Utilization and Clean Process Engineering of Phosphorus Resources, School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

This work reports the application of an electromembrane process, Donnan dialysis (DD), for the purification of so-called wet-process phosphoric acid (WPA). Nitric acid is used as the stripping solution to remove metallic cations (mostly Fe, Al, and Mg) that are harmful to the further processing of WPA. The paper first presents a set of experimental data on the measurements of the metallic cation fluxes through a perfluorinated sulfonic acid cation-exchange membrane. Not only WPA, but also synthetic phosphoric acid solutions with mixed metallic cations (MPA) and with a single metallic cation (SPA) were studied. This confrontation confirms (1) that the order of metallic cations fluxes is Mg > Al > Fe; (2) that, compared with MPA, the purification effect of WPA causes only negligible change; (3) that, by comparing the DD processes with SPA and MPA solutions, the reason for the low transmembrane fluxes of Fe and Al could be explained by the large ionic charge and large hydrated ion radius. Furthermore, by analyzing the ion composition of membranes equilibrated in SPA solutions, we conclude that the forms of cations in the membrane are most likely Fe, Al, and Mg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11040298DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074172PMC
April 2021

Improvement of the immunogenicity of ESAT-6 via fusion with the dodecameric protein dodecin of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 26;155:104890. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease that creates a heavy medical burden worldwide. The only approved vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), cannot fully protect adolescents and adults from TB. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop an effective new vaccine. Previous studies have found that dodecin, a flavin-binding protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), can form stable dodecamers and has the potential to improve the immunogenicity of Mtb antigens. In this study, we constructed the fusion protein dodecin-ESAT-6 and evaluated the immunogenicity of dodecin, ESAT-6, and dodecin-ESAT-6 separately. Our results showed that dodecin-ESAT-6 is a dodecameric protein that can withstand heat at 95 °C and under SDS-PAGE conditions. Dodecin-ESAT-6 increased the expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) on the surface of RAW264.7 macrophages. Mice immunized with dodecin-ESAT-6 exhibited higher percentages of antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes, higher levels of spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion, and a lower level of IL-4 secretion than those immunized with ESAT-6. The IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a titers of the dodecin-ESAT-6 group were significantly higher than those of the ESAT-6 group. Dodecin-ESAT-6 elicited a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and tended to produce a predominantly Th1-like response. These results support the conclusion that the dodecin-ESAT-6 dodecameric protein induced strong Th1 immune responses and improved the immunogenicity of ESAT-6, which provides a new strategy for TB vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104890DOI Listing
April 2021

Fatty Liver Disease Prediction Model Based on Big Data of Electronic Physical Examination Records.

Front Public Health 2021 12;9:668351. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Computer Engineering, Changji University, Changji, China.

Fatty liver disease (FLD) is a common liver disease, which poses a great threat to people's health, but there is still no optimal method that can be used on a large-scale screening. This research is based on machine learning algorithms, using electronic physical examination records in the health database as data support, to a predictive model for FLD. The model has shown good predictive ability on the test set, with its AUC reaching 0.89. Since there are a large number of electronic physical examination records in most of health database, this model might be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for FLD for large-scale screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.668351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072129PMC
April 2021

Molecular identification of common hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Xinjiang, China.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 29;4950(1):zootaxa.4950.1.2. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Emergency Response and Plague Control, Xinjiang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Urumqi 830002, China.

We provide data on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rDNA genes for eight species of common hard ticks in Xinjiang: Dermacentor montanus, D. niveus, Haemaphysalis sulcate, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum, Hya. detritum, Hya. scupense, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. pumilio. Genetic distances, calculated based on the Kimura two-parameter (K2P) distance model, found the same trend of intraspecies level≤interspecies levelintragenus level. Phylogenetic trees, constructed with the neighbor-joining (NJ) and minimum-evolution (ME) methods, demonstrated that each species clustered into separate clades, thus confirming the usefulness of CO1 and 16S rDNA genes for tick species identification. The genera Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis and Rhipicephalus were all recovered in the phylogenetic analysis, as was the subfamily Rhipicephalinae, but a monophyletic Hyalomma was not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4950.1.2DOI Listing
March 2021

Cholinergic Modulation of General Anesthesia.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Anesthesia, Peking University, Shenzhen, China.

Acetylcholine in the brain serves arousal and cognitive functions. Cholinergic neurons in the mesopontine brainstem and basal forebrain are important for activation of the cerebral cortex, which is characterized by suppression of irregular slow waves and increase in gamma (30-100 Hz) activity in the electroencephalogram, and appearance of a hippocampal theta rhythm. During general anesthesia, decrease in acetylcholine release and cholinergic functions contribute to the desirable outcomes of general anesthesia such as amnesia, loss of awareness and consciousness, and immobility. Animal experiments indicate that inactivation, lesion or genetic ablation of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain potentiated the effects of inhalational and injectable anesthetics, including isoflurane, halothane, propofol, pentobarbital and in some cases, ketamine. Increased behavioral sensitivity to general anesthetic, faster induction time and delayed recovery of a loss of righting reflex have been shown in rodents with basal forebrain cholinergic deficits. Cholinergic stimulation in the prefrontal cortex, thalamus and basal forebrain hastens recovery from general anesthesia. Anticholinesterase accelerates emergence from general anesthesia, but with mixed success, in part depending on the anesthetic used. Cholinergic deficits may contribute to cognitive impairments after anesthesia and operations, which are severe in aged subjects. We propose a cholinergic hypothesis for postoperative cognitive disorder, in line with the cholinergic deficits and cognitive decline in aging and Alzheimer's disease. The current animal literature suggests that brain cholinergic neurons can regulate the immune and inflammatory response after surgical operation and anesthetic exposure, and anticholinesterase and α7-nicotinic cholinergic agonists can alleviate postoperative inflammatory response and cognitive deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X19666210421095504DOI Listing
April 2021

A novel role of claudin-5 in prevention of mitochondrial fission against ischemic/hypoxic stress in cardiomyocytes.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Downregulation of claudin-5 in the heart is associated with the end-stage heart failure. However, the underlying mechanism of claudin-5 is unclear. Here we investigated the molecular actions of claudin-5 in perspective of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes to better understand the role of claudin-5 in cardioprotection during ischemia.

Methods And Results: Claudin-5 was detected in the murine heart tissue and the neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM). Its protein level was severely decreased after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R; 30 min/24 h) or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R; 24 h/4 h). Claudin-5 was present in the mitochondria of NRCM as determined by confocal microscopy. H/R-induced downregulation of claudin-5 was accompanied by mitochondrial fragmentation. The protein level of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) was dramatically decreased while the expression of dynamin-related protein (Drp) 1 was significantly increased after H/R. H/R-induced mitochondrial swelling and fission were observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Overexpression of claudin-5 by adenoviral infection reversed these structural disintegration of mitochondria. The mitochondria-centered intrinsic pathway of apoptosis triggered by H/R and indicated by the expression of cytochrome c and cleaved caspase 3 in the cytoplasm of NRCMs was also reduced by overexpressing claudin-5. Overexpression of claudin-5 in mouse heart also significantly decreased cleaved caspase 3 expression and the infarct size in ischemic heart with improved systolic function.

Conclusion: We demonstrated for the first time the presence of claudin-5 in the mitochondria in cardiomyocytes and provided the firm evidence for the cardioprotective role of claudin-5 in the preservation of mitochondrial dynamics and cell fate against hypoxia- or ischemia-induced stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2021.03.021DOI Listing
April 2021

Factors associated with dysfunction of autogenous arteriovenous fistula in patients with maintenance hemodialysis: a retrospective study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of General Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Patients in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) need a patent vascular access for optimal treatment. Autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the optimal vascular access for patients with MHD. However, AVF dysfunction may limit its use. The aim of this article is to explore the factors associated with primary dysfunction of AVF in patients with MHD.

Methods: This is a retrospective study. A total of 121 patients who underwent anastomosis for AVF in our hospital from January 1st, 2016 through December 31st, 2018 were screened for eligibility. Of these patients, 44 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. The remaining patients were divided into two groups based on the function of vascular access. The complete blood count and other blood biochemical parameters were compared between two groups. The risk factors associated with AVF dysfunction were analyzed by multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Results: There were significant differences in serum phosphorus (P), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and gender between patency and dysfunction groups of AVFs (P<0.05). Further multivariate COX proportional risk regression showed that hypercholesterolemia and hyperphosphatemia were independent risk factors for AVF dysfunction.

Conclusions: Hypercholesterolemia and hyperphosphatemia are independent risk factors for primary AVF dysfunction in patients with MHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2196DOI Listing
March 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of a cave-dwelling loach (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 26;6(3):1209-1211. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Karst Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang, Guizhou, PR China.

belong to the genus (Teleostei, Nemacheilidae), endemic to Guizhou Province, Southwestern China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of was sequenced and reported for the first time. The circular mitogenome was 16,576 bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 1 non-coding control region. The overall base composition was 30.79% A, 27.62% T, 25.46% C, and 16.13% G with 41.59% GC content. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial genomes of 40 species showed that all species clustered as one monophyletic clade, and was the closest to ( + ()).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1899861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008877PMC
March 2021

Characteristics of the gut microbiome in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

PeerJ 2021 24;9:e10952. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Public Health, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Background: Gut microbiome has recently been identified as a new potential risk factor in addition to well-known diabetes risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in the composition of gut microbiome in prediabetes(PreDM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-diabetic controls.

Methods: A total of 180 participants were recruited for this study: 60 with T2DM, 60 with PreDM and 60 non-diabetics (control group). Fecal samples were collected from the participants and genomic DNA was extracted. The composition and diversity of gut microbiome were investigated in fecal DNA samples using Illumina sequencing of the V3∼V4 regions of 16sRNA.

Results: There were significant differences in the number of bacteria among patients with PreDM and T2DM and the control group. Compared with the control group, Proteobacteria bacteria were significantly higher in the PreDM group ( = 0.006). On the genus level, Compared with the control group, the relative abundance of Prevotella and Alloprevotella was significantly higher in the T2DM group ( = 0.016, = 0.018), and the relative abundance of Paraprevotella in T2DM and PreDM groups was lower than that in the control group ( = 0.011, = 0.045). Compared with the PreDM group and the control group, the relative abundance of Bacteroides in the T2DM group was significantly lower ( = 0.019, = 0.002).

Conclusions: The present study found significant differences in the gut microbiome between PreDM, T2DM and non-diabetic individuals, specifically at the genus level, suggesting that early intervention in PreDM patients could have implications for gut flora transitioning to T2DM. In addition, these results may be valuable for developing strategies to control T2DM by modifying the gut microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000457PMC
March 2021

Rapid, simultaneous detection of mycotoxins with smartphone recognition-based immune microspheres.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

How to achieve simultaneous and rapid detection of various mycotoxins in food has important practical significance in the field of food processing and safety. In this paper, a smartphone immunoassay system based on hydrogel microspheres has been constructed to quickly detect two mycotoxins at the same time. The rapid detection system was reflected in the following three processes: (1) rapid separation of free matter after direct competition reaction based on hydrogel solid-phase carrier particles; (2) rapid detection process based on efficient catalytic function of enzymes; (3) fast capture and analysis of images based on smartphone software. Ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) are secondary toxic metabolites of fungi that can contaminate a wide range of foods and feeds. OTA and ZEN were used as detection model molecules to verify the feasibility of the intelligent rapid detection system. The entire detection process was within 30 min, and the results were analyzed in only 10 s. Detection limits of mycotoxins OTA and ZEN are 0.7711 ng L and 1.0391 ng L. The recoveries of both mycotoxins ranged from 76.72 to 122.05%. This study provides a universal rapid detection method for on-site application of large-scale food security testing. Schematic diagram of the construction of the smartphone detection system: The system is divided into three parts: detection, image capture and analysis, and result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03316-5DOI Listing
April 2021

NPI-GNN: Predicting ncRNA-protein interactions with deep graph neural networks.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Intelligence and Computing, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play crucial roles in many biological processes. Experimental methods for identifying ncRNA-protein interactions (NPIs) are always costly and time-consuming. Many computational approaches have been developed as alternative ways. In this work, we collected five benchmarking datasets for predicting NPIs. Based on these datasets, we evaluated and compared the prediction performances of existing machine-learning based methods. Graph neural network (GNN) is a recently developed deep learning algorithm for link predictions on complex networks, which has never been applied in predicting NPIs. We constructed a GNN-based method, which is called Noncoding RNA-Protein Interaction prediction using Graph Neural Networks (NPI-GNN), to predict NPIs. The NPI-GNN method achieved comparable performance with state-of-the-art methods in a 5-fold cross-validation. In addition, it is capable of predicting novel interactions based on network information and sequence information. We also found that insufficient sequence information does not affect the NPI-GNN prediction performance much, which makes NPI-GNN more robust than other methods. As far as we can tell, NPI-GNN is the first end-to-end GNN predictor for predicting NPIs. All benchmarking datasets in this work and all source codes of the NPI-GNN method have been deposited with documents in a GitHub repo (https://github.com/AshuiRUA/NPI-GNN).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab051DOI Listing
April 2021

Modeling of a Rope-Driven Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester for Low-Frequency and Wideband Energy Harvesting.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Mar 15;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

In this work, a mechanical model of a rope-driven piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) for low-frequency and wideband energy harvesting was presented. The rope-driven PVEH consisting of one low-frequency driving beam (LFDB) and one high-frequency generating beam (HFGB) connected with a rope was modeled as two mass-spring-damper suspension systems and a massless spring, which can be used to predict the dynamic motion of the LFDB and HFGB. Using this model, the effects of multiple parameters including excitation acceleration, rope margin and rope stiffness in the performance of the PVEH have been investigated systematically by numerical simulation and experiments. The results show a reasonable agreement between the simulation and experimental study, which demonstrates the validity of the proposed model of rope-driven PVEH. It was also found that the performance of the PVEH can be adjusted conveniently by only changing rope margin or stiffness. The dynamic mechanical model of the rope-driven PVEH built in this paper can be used to the further device design or optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12030305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000501PMC
March 2021

Compensatory effects of mutations outside the rifampicin resistance-determining region.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):743-752

Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

has been observed to develop resistance to the frontline anti-tuberculosis drug rifampicin, primarily through mutations in the rifampicin resistance-determining region (RRDR) of . While these mutations have been determined to confer a fitness cost, compensatory mutations in and that may enhance the fitness of resistant strains have been demonstrated. Recent genomic studies identified several non-RRDR mutations that co-occurred with RRDR mutations in clinical isolates without mutations and may confer fitness compensation. In this study, we identified 33 evolutionarily convergent non-RRDR mutations through phylogenomic analysis of public genomic data for clinical isolates. We found that none of these mutations, except V170F and I491F, can cause rifampin resistance in . The compensatory effects of five representative mutations across were evaluated by an competition assay, through which we observed that each of these mutations can significantly improve the relative fitness of the initial S450L mutant (0.97-1.08 vs 0.87). Furthermore, we observed that the decreased RNAP transcription efficiency introduced by S450L was significantly alleviated by each of the five mutations. Structural analysis indicated that the fitness compensation observed for the non-RRDR mutations might be achieved by modification of the RpoB active centre or by changes in interactions between RNAP subunits. Our results provide experimental evidence supporting that compensatory effects are exerted by several non-RRDR mutations, which could be utilized as additional molecular markers for predicting the fitness of clinical rifampin-resistant strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1908096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057087PMC
December 2021

Stable Cells with NF-κB-ZsGreen Fused Genes Created by TALEN Editing and Homology Directed Repair for Screening Anti-inflammation Drugs.

J Inflamm Res 2021 17;14:917-928. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096, People's Republic of China.

Background: NF-κB is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor that plays key roles in inflammation and cancer. It is well known that NF-κB is over-activated in these diseases. NF-κB inhibitors are therefore developed as promising drugs for these diseases. However, finding NF-κB inhibitors is dependent on effective screening platforms.

Methods: For providing an easy and visualizable tool for screening NF-κB inhibitors, and other NF-κB-related studies, this study edited all five genes of NF-κB family (RELA, RELB, CREL, NF-κB1, NF-κB2) in three different cell lines (293T, HepG2, and PANC1) with both TALEN and CRISPR. The edited NF-κB genes were repaired by homology-dependent repair using a linear homologous donor containing ZsGreen coding sequence. The edit efficiency was thus directly evaluated by detecting cellular fluorescence. The editing efficiency was also confirmed by PCR detection of NF-κB-ZsGreen fused genes.

Results: It was found that all genes were more efficiently edited by TALEN in all cells than CRISPR. The positive cells were then isolated from the TALEN-edited cell pool by flow cytometry. The purified positive cells were finally evaluated by regulating NF-κB activity with a known NF-κB inhibitor, BAY 11-7082, and an NF-κB-targeting artificial microRNA, miR533. The results revealed that all the labeled NF-κB genes responded well to the two kinds of NF-κB activity regulators in all cell lines.

Conclusion: This study thus obtained 15 cell lines with NF-κB-ZsGreen fused genes, which provide an easy and visualizable tool for screening NF-κB inhibitors and other NF-κB-related studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S298938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982563PMC
March 2021

First report of Leptosphaeria biglobosa 'canadensis' causing blackleg on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Huazhong Agricultural University, Plant Pathology, Wuhan, China, Wuhan, HuBei, China, 430070;

Oilseed rape ( L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China. It is widely cultivated in China, with winter oilseed rape in Yangtze River basin and in southern China, and spring oilseed rape in northern China. In August 2017, a survey for spp. on spring oilseed rape was conducted in Minle county, Zhangye city, Gansu Province, China. The symptoms typical of blackleg on basal stems of oilseed rape were observed in the field. A large number of black fruiting bodies (pycnidia) were present on the lesions (Fig. 1A). The disease incidence of basal stem infection in the surveyed field was 19%. A total of 19 diseased stems were collected to isolate the pathogen. After surface sterilizing (75% ethanol for 30 s, 5% NaOCl for 60 s, followed by rinsing in sterilized water three times), diseased tissues were cultured on acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates at 20°C for 7 days. Twelve fungal isolates were obtained. All fungal isolates produced typical tan pigment on PDA medium, and produced pycnidia after two weeks (Fig. 1B). Colony morphological characteristics indicated that these isolates might belong to . To confirm identification, multiple PCR was conducted using the species-specific primers LmacF, LbigF, LmacR (Liu et al. 2006). Genomic DNA of each isolate was extracted using the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method. DNA samples of isolate UK-1 and isolate W10 (Cai et al. 2015) were used as references. Only a 444-bp DNA band was detected in all 12 isolates and W10, whereas a 333-bp DNA band was detected only in the UK-1 isolate (Fig. 1C). PCR results suggested that these 12 isolates all belong to . In addition, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of these 12 isolates was analyzed for subspecies identification (Vincenot et al. 2008). Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequence showed that five isolates (Lb1134, Lb1136, Lb1138, Lb1139 and Lb1143) belonged to 'brassicae' (Lbb) with 78% bootstrap support, and the other seven isolates (Lb1135, Lb1137, Lb1140, Lb1141, Lb1142, Lb1144 and Lb1145) belonged to 'canadensis' (Lbc) with 95% bootstrap support (Fig. 1D). Two Lbb isolates (Lb1134 and Lb1136) and two Lbc isolates (Lb1142 and Lb1144) were randomly selected for pathogenicity testing on cultivar Zhongshuang No. 9 (Wang et al. 2002). Conidial suspensions (10 μL, 1 × 107 conidia mL-1) of these four isolates were inoculated on needle-wounded cotyledons (14-day-old seedling), with 10 cotyledons (20 wounded sites) per isolate. A further 10 wounded cotyledons were inoculated with water and served as controls. Seedlings were maintained in a growth chamber at 20°C with 100% relative humidity and a 12-h photoperiod. After 7 days, cotyledons inoculated with the four isolates showed necrotic lesions in the inoculated wounds. Control cotyledons had no symptoms (Fig. 2). Fungi re-isolated from the infected cotyledons showed similar colony morphology as the original isolates. Therefore, 'brassicae' and 'canadensis' appear to be the pathogens causing the observed blackleg symptoms on spring oilseed rape in Gansu, China. In previous studies, 'brassicae' has been found in many crops in China, including oilseed rape (Liu et al. 2014; Cai et al. 2015), Chinese radish () (Cai et al. 2014a), ssp. var. (Cai et al. 2014b), broccoli ( var. ) (Luo et al. 2018), ornamental kale ( var. ) (Zhou et al. 2019a), var. (Zhou et al. 2019b), var. (Deng et al. 2020) and Chinese cabbage ( subsp. ) (Yu et al. 2021 accepted). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of 'canadensis' causing blackleg on in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2735-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

Leaf N content regulates the speed of photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light among canola genotypes (Brassica napus L.).

Physiol Plant 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Nitrogen is an essential element for plant growth, and the relationship between leaf N content and photosynthesis has been widely studied in different species under steady-state light. However, under natural conditions, the light intensity at the leaf level is always changing, inherently heterogeneous in time and space. Therefore, the effect of leaf N content on photosynthesis under dynamic light conditions needs further study. At present, the effects of leaf N content on leaf non-steady-state photosynthesis have not been reported in canola (Brassica napus L.). To clarify the relationship between leaf N content and the speed of the response leaf gas exchange to variations in light intensity, eight genotypes of canola varying in leaf N content were used to study the temporal response of gas exchange to a step increase in irradiance. We found there were significant differences in non-steady-state photosynthesis, physiological characteristics, and anatomical traits across genotypes (the maximum amplitude was about fivefold), despite the lack of contrast under normal, steady-state photosynthesis. In addition, initial stomatal conductance to water vapor in the darkness and leaf N content per leaf area were negatively correlated with the time required to achieve 50% and 100% of the maximum photosynthetic rate. Contrarily, the time required to reach 50% of the maximum stomatal conductance was positively correlated with the time required to achieve 90% of the maximum photosynthetic rate across genotypes. It is concluded that the genotypes of canola with higher N content per leaf area show a faster induction of photosynthesis to fluctuating light conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13390DOI Listing
March 2021

Widely targeted metabolic analysis revealed the changed pigmentation and bioactive compounds in the ripening (Wall.) Brongn. fruit.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 20;9(3):1375-1387. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

South China Agricultural University/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Postharvest Science of Fruits and Vegetables/Engineering Research Center for Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops in South China College of Horticulture Ministry of Education Guangzhou China.

plants were important materials for Chinese traditional medicines due to their special secondary metabolites. Unlike the root, stem and leaf tissues, (Wall.) Brongn. fruit was lacked of systematic metabolic investigation. Biochemical analysis found that the total flavonoid and total phenolic content of fruit pulp showed a peak value at red ripe stage, and then decreased, but the total anthocyanin content sharply increased along with the coloration. By widely targeted metabolomic analysis, 644 metabolites were identified and categorized into 23 groups mainly including flavonoid, organic acids, amino acids, lipids, phenylpropanoid, nucleotides, alkaloids, carbohydrates, alcohols, anthocyanins & proanthocyanidins, vitamins, terpenes, polyphenols, phenolamides, quinones, indole derivatives, and sterides. Among them, 111 metabolites and 123 metabolites respectively showed up- and down-regulation from break stage to full mature. KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that active secondary metabolism such as biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, flavonoid, and alkaloids happened during fruit ripening. More importantly, Cyanidin-3--galactoside and other 3 cyanidins were found to be the predominant pigments in mature fruit and increased cyanidins and pelargonidins but decreased anthocyanins might be contributed to the purple pigmentation of fruit. Interestingly, 29 pharmaceutical compounds previously reported in other tissues were also detected in ripening fruit pulp: 8 flavonoid, 2 quinones & sucrose showed up-regulated accumulation while 6 polyphenols, 5 flavonoid, 3 phenylpropanoid, 2 organic acids, 1 quinones and β-sitosterol showed down-regulated accumulation In conclusion, our first comprehensive metabolic fingerprint will promote the further study of fruit and its medical and food application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958575PMC
March 2021

Upregulated IL-6 Indicates a Poor COVID-19 Prognosis: A Call for Tocilizumab and Convalescent Plasma Treatment.

Front Immunol 2021 4;12:598799. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

COVID-19 Research Center, The First School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, China.

A comprehensive understanding of the dynamic changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels is essential for monitoring and treating patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2). By analyzing the correlations between IL-6 levels and health conditions, underlying diseases, several key laboratory detection indices, and the prognosis of 1,473 patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the role of IL-6 during SARS-CoV-2 infection was demonstrated. Our results indicated that IL-6 levels were closely related to age, sex, body temperature, oxygen saturation (SpO) of blood, and underlying diseases. As a stable indicator, the changes in IL-6 levels could indicate the inflammatory conditions during a viral infection. Two specific treatments, namely, tocilizumab and convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), decreased the level of IL-6 and relieved inflammation. CPT has an important role in the therapy for patients with critical COVID-19. We also found that patients with IL-6 levels, which were 30-fold higher than the normal level, had a poor prognosis compared to patients with lower levels of IL-6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.598799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969719PMC
April 2021

Genome-Wide Association Mapping Unravels the Genetic Control of Seed Vigor under Low-Temperature Conditions in Rapeseed ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 24;10(3). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

MOA Key Lab. of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River/College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Low temperature inhibits rapid germination and successful seedling establishment of rapeseed ( L.), leading to significant productivity losses. Little is known about the genetic diversity for seed vigor under low-temperature conditions in rapeseed, which motivated our investigation of 13 seed germination- and emergence-related traits under normal and low-temperature conditions for 442 diverse rapeseed accessions. The stress tolerance index was calculated for each trait based on performance under non-stress and low-temperature stress conditions. Principal component analysis of the low-temperature stress tolerance indices identified five principal components that captured 100% of the seedling response to low temperature. A genome-wide association study using ~8 million SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) markers identified from genome resequencing was undertaken to uncover the genetic basis of seed vigor related traits in rapeseed. We detected 22 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) significantly associated with stress tolerance indices regarding seed vigor under low-temperature stress. Scrutiny of the genes in these QTL regions identified 62 candidate genes related to specific stress tolerance indices of seed vigor, and the majority were involved in DNA repair, RNA translation, mitochondrial activation and energy generation, ubiquitination and degradation of protein reserve, antioxidant system, and plant hormone and signal transduction. The high effect variation and haplotype-based effect of these candidate genes were evaluated, and high priority could be given to the candidate genes , , , and in further study. These findings should be useful for marker-assisted breeding and genomic selection of rapeseed to increase seed vigor under low-temperature stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10030426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996214PMC
February 2021

MicroRNAs Expression Patterns Predict Tumor Mutational Burden in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2020 9;10:550986. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Background: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) could be a measure of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors therapy for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in anticancer immune responses. In the present study, we determined miRNA expression patterns in patients with CRC and built a signature that predicts TMB.

Methods: Next generation sequencing (NGS) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from CRC patients was performed to measure TMB levels. We used datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas to compare miRNA expression patterns in samples with high and low TMB from patients with CRC. We created an miRNA-based signature index using the selection operator (LASSO) and least absolute shrinkage method from the training set. We used an independent test set as internal validation. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to validate the miRNA-based signature classifier.

Results: Twenty-seven samples from CRC patients underwent NGS to determine the TMB level. We identified four miRNA candidates in the training set for predicting TMB (N = 311). We used the test set (N = 204) for internal validation. The four-miRNA-based signature classifier was an accurate predictor of TMB, with accuracy 0.963 in the training set. In the test set, it was 0.902; and it was 0.946 in the total set. The classifier was superior to microsatellite instability (MSI) for predicting TMB in TCGA dataset. In the validation cohort, MSI status more positively correlated with TMB levels than did the classifier. Validation from RT-qPCR showed good target discrimination of the classifier for TMB prediction.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first miRNA-based signature classifier validated using high quality clinical data to accurately predict TMB level in patients with CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.550986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900489PMC
February 2021

The paradoxical problem with COVID-19 ocular infection: Moderate clinical manifestation and potential infection risk.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 30;19:1063-1071. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

COVID-19 Research Center, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing Clinical College of Southern Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which induced mainly the respiratory damage also caused ocular surface symptoms. However, the detailed description of ocular manifestations, severity fluctuations in confirmed COVID-19 adult patients still lacked. We analyzed onset clinical symptoms and duration, ocular symptoms, needs for medication, outcomes in 28 conjunctivitis patients who were extracted from 3198 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Huoshenshan Hospital and Taikangtongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. The expression levels of ACE2, TMPRSS2, ANPEP, DPP4, NRP1 on fetal and adult ocular surface and mouse lacrimal glands were assessed by single cell seq analysis. Our results indicated that conjunctivitis was a rare and self-limited complication in adults with COVID-19 while the existence of coronavirus receptors on human ocular surface and mouse lacrimal glands indicated the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our research firstly examined SARS-CoV-2 receptors, including the new discovered one, NRP1, on the fetal ocular surface and in the mouse lacrimal glands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.01.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881169PMC
January 2021

Insight-HXMT observations of jet-like corona in a black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1820+070.

Nat Commun 2021 Feb 15;12(1):1025. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China.

A black hole X-ray binary produces hard X-ray radiation from its corona and disk when the accreting matter heats up. During an outburst, the disk and corona co-evolves with each other. However, such an evolution is still unclear in both its geometry and dynamics. Here we report the unusual decrease of the reflection fraction in MAXI J1820+070, which is the ratio of the coronal intensity illuminating the disk to the coronal intensity reaching the observer, as the corona is observed to contrast during the decay phase. We postulate a jet-like corona model, in which the corona can be understood as a standing shock where the material flowing through. In this dynamical scenario, the decrease of the reflection fraction is a signature of the corona's bulk velocity. Our findings suggest that as the corona is observed to get closer to the black hole, the coronal material might be outflowing faster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21169-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884741PMC
February 2021

3044 Cases reveal important prognosis signatures of COVID-19 patients.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 9;19:1163-1175. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

COVID-19 Research Center, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing Clinical College of Southern Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002, China.

Critical patients and intensive care unit (ICU) patients are the main population of COVID-19 deaths. Therefore, establishing a reliable method is necessary for COVID-19 patients to distinguish patients who may have critical symptoms from other patients. In this retrospective study, we firstly evaluated the effects of 54 laboratory indicators on critical illness and death in 3044 COVID-19 patients from the Huoshenshan hospital in Wuhan, China. Secondly, we identify the eight most important prognostic indicators (neutrophil percentage, procalcitonin, neutrophil absolute value, C-reactive protein, albumin, interleukin-6, lymphocyte absolute value and myoglobin) by using the random forest algorithm, and find that dynamic changes of the eight prognostic indicators present significantly distinct within differently clinical severities. Thirdly, our study reveals that a model containing age and these eight prognostic indicators can accurately predict which patients may develop serious illness or death. Fourthly, our results demonstrate that different genders have different critical illness rates compared with different ages, in particular the mortality is more likely to be attributed to some key genes (e.g. ACE2, TMPRSS2 and FURIN) by combining the analysis of public lung single cells and bulk transcriptome data. Taken together, we urge that the prognostic model and first-hand clinical trial data generated in this study have important clinical practical significance for predicting and exploring the disease progression of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.01.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870437PMC
February 2021

Potential False-Positive and False-Negative Results for COVID-19 IgG/IgM Antibody Testing After Heat-Inactivation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 18;7:589080. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

COVID-19 Research Center, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing Clinical College of Southern Medical University, Nanjing, China.

With the worldwide spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), various antibody detection kits have been developed to test for SARS-CoV-2- specific IgG, IgM, and total antibody. However, the use of different testing methods under various heat-inactivation conditions might affect the COVID-19 detection results. Seven different antibody detection kits produced by four manufacturers for detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgM, and total antibody were tested at Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital, China. Most of the kits used the indirect immunity, capture, and double-antigen sandwich methods. The effects of various heat-inactivation conditions on SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, and total antibody detection were analyzed for the different test methods. Using the indirect immunity method, values for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody significantly increased and those for IgM antibody decreased with increasing temperature of heat-inactivation using indirect immunity method. However, values for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and total antibody showed no change when the capture and double-antigen sandwich methods were used. The changes in IgG and IgM antibody values with the indirect immunity method indicated that heat-inactivation could affect COVID-19 detection results obtained using this method. In particular, 18 (22.2%) SARS-CoV-2 IgM positive samples were detected as negative with heat-inactivation at 65°C for 30 min, and one (25%) IgG negative sample was detected as positive after heat-inactivation at 56°C for 60 min and 60°C for 30 min. Heat-inactivation could increase SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody values, and decrease IgM antibody values, causing potential false-positive or false-negative results for COVID-19 antibody detection using the indirect immunity method. Thus, before conducting antibody testing, the testing platforms should be evaluated in accordance with the relevant requirements to ensure accurate COVID-19 detection results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.589080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849051PMC
January 2021

A naturally derived small molecule NDSM253 inhibits IKK1 to suppress inflammation response and promote bone healing after fracture.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(1):24-37. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Emergency Trauma Surgery, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Bone fracture induces an acute inflammatory response in the resident and peripheral monocyte/macrophage cells. Excessive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines can cause severe tissue damage and inhibit bone healing. The proinflammatory cytokine genes are mainly controlled by TLR4/NF-κB (Toll-like receptor 4/Nuclear factor κB). Thus, targeting the molecules in this signaling pathway to decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines is an effective strategy to inhibit the inflammatory response. Herein, we identified a naturally derived small molecule NDSM253 that specifically inhibited IKKα (Inhibitor of NF-κB kinase subunit-alpha), a critical component of TLR4/NF-κB signaling. Biochemically, NDMS253 decreased phosphorylation of IκB (Inhibitor of NF-κB), thereby increasing the binding of IκB-NF-κB and suppressing the proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. NDMS253 showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on proinflammatory cytokine gene expression than did the known IKK inhibitors, including ACHP (2-Amino-6-[2-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-6-hydroxyphenyl]-4-(4-piperidinyl)-3-pyridinecarbonitrile), IKK16, and Amlexanox. Administration of these IKK inhibitors in a mouse femoral fracture model showed that NDSM253 suppressed proinflammatory cytokine genes, thereby promoting bone healing, while the other three IKK inhibitors showed a weaker improvement of both bone healing and circulating proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, our data suggested that NDSM253 might be an effective inhibitor of IKKα that could inhibit inflammatory cytokine action in bone injury.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847520PMC
January 2021

Information processing based on DNA toehold-mediated strand displacement (TMSD) reaction.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb;13(4):2100-2112

Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. and Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (IBMC), Chinese Academy of Sciences; The Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310022, China.

SemiSynBio is an emerging topic toward the construction of platforms for next-generation information processing. Recent research has indicated its promising prospect toward information processing including algorithm design and pattern manipulation with the DNA TMSD reaction, which is one of the cores of the SemiSynBio technology route. The DNA TMSD reaction is the process in which an invader strand displaces the incumbent strand from the gate strand through initiation at the exposed toehold domain. Also, the DNA TMSD reaction generally involves three processes: toehold association, branch migration and strand disassociation. Herein, we review the recent progress on information processing with the DNA TMSD reaction. We highlight the diverse developments on information processing with the logic circuit, analog circuit, combinational circuit and information relay with the DNA origami structure. Additionally, we explore the current challenges and various trends toward the design and application of the DNA TMSD reaction in future information processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr07865dDOI Listing
February 2021

Out-of-the-Box Nanocapsules Packed with On-Demand Hydrophobic Anticancer Drugs for Lung Targeting, Esterase Triggering, and Synergy Therapy.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 04 12;10(8):e2001803. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Institute of Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, P. R. China.

Most anticancer drugs, particularly paclitaxel (PTX), are suffering the challenges of cancer chemotherapy due to their poor water-solubility, high toxicity under effective therapeutic dosages, and multi-drug resistance. Currently, nanoscale drug delivery systems (DDSs) represent an efficient platform to overcome the above challenges. However, those DDSs generally need a careful design of conjugation, complexation, or co-self-assembly. Herein, a facile out-of-the-box nanocapsule is developed not only to be easily packed with on-demand hydrophobic anticancer drugs (up to 76% of loading efficiency for PTX), but also to be loaded with other concomitant drugs for synergy therapy (Itraconazole (ITA) here as P-glycoprotein inhibitor for drug resistance and antiangiogenic agent for combination therapy with PTX). Three kinds of biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylates (PEGDM) derivatives usually as cross-linking agents are selected and successfully constructed adequate nanocapsules with single monomer as shell materials. More importantly, as-prepared nanocapsules have abilities of esterase triggering and lung targeting. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that the drug-loaded nanocapsules can effectively inhibit tumor growth and vascular proliferation in PTX-resistant tumor models without apparent systemic toxicity. The above results demonstrate that the nanocapsule system provides an effective and universal strategy for lung targeting, esterase triggering, and synergy therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202001803DOI Listing
April 2021

[Detection of DPY19L2 gene mutation in 2 cases of globozoospermia].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Jul;26(7):620-624

Research Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003, China.

Objective: To investigate the mutation of the DPY19L2 gene in patients with globozoospermia.

Methods: We collected the clinical data and peripheral blood from 2 patients with globozoospermia and screened for mutation of the DPY19L2 gene by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing technology.

Results: The sperm from the 2 globozoospermia patients were round morphologically under the light microscope, with deeply stained nuclei but no acrosome. Electron microscopy showed the sperm with a large round head but no acrosomal structure, the nuclei enveloped by a single layer of membrane and the cytoplasm dispersed. PCR amplification revealed homozygous deletion of Exon 5, Exon6 and Exon15 in the DPY19L2 gene in both the patients.

Conclusions: This study proved that the homozygous mutation of DPY19L2 could lead to globozoospermia, which has an important significance for researches on the molecular mechanisms and gene diagnosis of the disease as well as for clinicians in genetic counseling and treatment.
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July 2020

Clinical efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy on treating COVID-19 patients: Evidence from matched study and a meta-analysis.

Clin Transl Med 2020 Dec;10(8):e259

COVID-19 Research Center, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, The First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7752155PMC
December 2020