Publications by authors named "Tae-Hyun Kim"

717 Publications

Impairment of Decidualization of Endometrial Stromal Cells by hsa-miR-375 Through NOX4 Targeting.

Reprod Sci 2022 Jan 24. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Priority Research Center, Myunggok Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Decidualization of the endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) is essential for successful embryo implantation. It involves the transformation of fibroblastic cells into epithelial-like cells that secrete cytokines, growth factors, and proteins necessary for implantation. Previous studies have revealed altered expression of miR-375 in the endometrium of patients with recurrent implantation failure and the ectopic stromal cells of patients with endometriosis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms, particularly the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of decidualization, remain elusive. In this study, we investigated whether decidualization is affected by miR-375 and its potential target(s). The findings demonstrated the downregulation of the expression of miR-375 in the secretory phase compared to its expression in the proliferative phase of the endometrium in normal donors. In contrast, it was upregulated in the secretory phase of the endometrium in infertility patients. Furthermore, during decidualization of ESCs in vitro, overexpression of miR-375 significantly reduced the transcript-level expression of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1), prolactin (PRL), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP1), the well-known decidual cell markers. Overexpression of miR-375 also resulted in reduced decidualization-derived intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Using the luciferase assay, we confirmed that NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is a direct target of miR-375. Collectively, the study showed that the miR-375-mediated NOX4 downregulation reduced ROS production and attenuated the decidualization of ESCs. It provides evidence that miR-375 is a negative regulator of decidualization and could serve as a potential target for combating infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-022-00854-wDOI Listing
January 2022

The association between nurse staffing level and length of stay in general ward and intensive care unit in Korea.

Appl Nurs Res 2022 Feb 4;63:151558. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Healthcare Management, Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Although many studies investigating the relationship between nurse staffing and quality of care have been published, the appropriate nurse-to-patient ratio with patient severity considered remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of nurse staffing levels on length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) and general ward.

Methods: This study used a retrospective cohort study. The nurse staffing level was classified into nine grades for ICU based on a nurse-to-bed ratio, and eight grades for general wards based on a nurse-to-patient ratio. A generalized estimating equation model was used to evaluate the associations between the nurse staffing level and LOS. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess these associations according to patient nursing needs at each hospital type.

Results: This study included 13,135 ICU patients and 263,818 patients admitted to the general ward. In the ICU, the level of nurse staffing (based on the nurse-to-bed ratio) in grade 4 and above (grade 2: <0.63, grade 3: <0.77, grade 4: <0.88) was significantly associated with reduced LOS compared to grade 7 (<1.25). In the general ward, the level of nurse staffing in grade 4 and above was linked to reduced LOS compared to grade 7.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that an appropriate nurse-to-patient ratio is associated with a shorter LOS. In particular, hospitals with a higher proportion of severely ill patients require a larger staff of nurses, making it necessary to develop standards for determining nurse staffing level with patient severity taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2021.151558DOI Listing
February 2022

The Pattern of Care for Brain Metastasis from Breast Cancer Over the Past 10 Years in Korea: A Multicenter Retrospective Study (KROG 16-12).

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Dec 31. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate manifestations and patterns of care for patients with brain metastasis (BM) from breast cancer (BC) and compared their overall survival (OS) from 2005 through 2014 in Korea.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 600 BC patients with BM diagnosed between 2005 and 2014. The median follow-up duration was 12.5 months. We categorized the patients into three groups according to the year when BM was initially diagnosed [group I (2005-2008), 98 patients; group II (2009-2011), 200 patients; and group III (2012-2014), 302 patients].

Results: Over time, the median age at BM diagnosis increased by 2.2 years (group I, 49.0 years; group II, 48.3 years; and group III, 51.2 years; p=0.008). The percentage of patients with extracranial metastasis was 73.5%, 83.5%, and 86.4% for group I, II, and III, respectively (p=0.011). The time interval between BC and BM was prolonged in patients with stage III primary BC (median, 2.4 to 3 years, p=0.029). As an initial brain-directed treatment, whole-brain radiotherapy alone decreased from 80.0% in 2005 to 41.1% in 2014. Meanwhile, stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy alone increased from 13.3% to 34.7% during the same period (p=0.005). The median OS for group I, II, and III was 15.6, 17.9, and 15.0 months, respectively, with no statistical significance.

Conclusion: The manifestations of BM from BC and the pattern of care have changed from 2005 to 2014 in Korea. However, the OS has remained relatively unchanged over the 10 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2021.1083DOI Listing
December 2021

Active small bowel sparing in intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Dec 27. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Objective: To propose and evaluate an active method for sparing the small bowel in the treatment field of cervical cancer brachytherapy by prone position procedure.

Methods: The prone position procedure consists of five steps: making bladder empty, prone-positioning a patient on belly board, making the small bowel move to abdomen, filling the bladder with Foley catheter and finally turning the patient into the supine position. The proposed method was applied for the treatment of seven cervical cancer patients. Its effectiveness was evaluated and a correlation between the patient characteristics and the volumetric dose reduction of small bowel was also investigated. Brachytherapy treatment plans were built before and after the proposed method, and their dose-volume histograms were compared for targets and organs-at-risk. In this comparison, all plans were normalized to satisfy the same D90% for high-risk clinical target volume.

Results: For the enrolled patients, the average dose of small bowel was significantly reduced from 75.2 ± 4.9 Gy before to 60.2 ± 4.0 Gy after the prone position procedure, while minor dosimetric changes were observed in rectum, sigmoid and bladder. The linear correlation to body mass index, thickness and width of abdominopelvic cavity and bladder volume were 76.2, 69.7, 28.8 and -36.3%, respectively.

Conclusions: The application of prone position procedure could effectively lower the volumetric dose of the small bowel. The dose reduction in the small bowel had a strong correlation with the patient's obesity and abdominal thickness. This means the patients for whom the proposed method would be beneficial can be judiciously selected for safe brachytherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyab197DOI Listing
December 2021

Dosimetric Comparisons between Proton Beam Therapy and Modern Photon Radiation Techniques for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer According to Tumor Location.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Dec 17;13(24). Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea.

Herein, we investigated the dosimetric benefits for proton beam therapy (PBT) over modern photon radiation techniques according to tumor location (central, peripheral, and close to the chest wall) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 42 patients with stage I NSCLC were treated with PBT with a total dose of 50-70 Gy in four or 10 fractions considering the risk of treatment-related toxicities. Simulation plans for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), static-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were retrospectively generated using the same treatment volumes as implemented in the PBT plans for these patients. Dosimetric improvements were observed with PBT as compared with all the photon-based radiation techniques with regards to the mean lung dose, lung V5 and V10, mean heart dose, and heart V5 and V10 in all locations. Moreover, lower radiation exposure to the chest wall was observed within PBT for peripherally located and close to the chest wall tumors. All radiotherapy modalities achieved clinically satisfactory treatment plans in the current study. Notably, the usage of PBT resulted in significant dosimetric improvements in the lung and heart over photon-based techniques at all tumor locations, including the periphery, for stage I NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13246356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8699272PMC
December 2021

Hepatokines and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Linking Liver Pathophysiology to Metabolism.

Biomedicines 2021 Dec 14;9(12). Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The liver plays a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis by sensing and responding to changes in nutrient status under various metabolic conditions. Recently highlighted as a major endocrine organ, the contribution of the liver to systemic glucose and lipid metabolism is primarily attributed to signaling crosstalk between multiple organs via hepatic hormones, cytokines, and hepatokines. Hepatokines are hormone-like proteins secreted by hepatocytes, and a number of these have been associated with extra-hepatic metabolic regulation. Mounting evidence has revealed that the secretory profiles of hepatokines are significantly altered in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common hepatic manifestation, which frequently precedes other metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, deciphering the mechanism of hepatokine-mediated inter-organ communication is essential for understanding the complex metabolic network between tissues, as well as for the identification of novel diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets in metabolic disease. In this review, we describe the hepatokine-driven inter-organ crosstalk in the context of liver pathophysiology, with a particular focus on NAFLD progression. Moreover, we summarize key hepatokines and their molecular mechanisms of metabolic control in non-hepatic tissues, discussing their potential as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the treatment of metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9121903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8698516PMC
December 2021

Cost-effectiveness analysis of intensive blood pressure control in Korea.

Hypertens Res 2021 Dec 21. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Department of Healthcare Management, Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

This study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of intensive blood pressure (BP) control among hypertensive patients in Korea. We constructed a Markov model comparing intensive versus standard BP control treatment and calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The study population consisted of hypertensive patients over 50 years old with systolic blood pressures (SBPs) exceeding 140 mmHg and at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Treatment alternatives included lowering the SBP below 120 mmHg (intensive) and 140 mmHg (standard) for target BP. We assumed five scenarios with different medication adherence. The effectiveness variable was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs included medical costs related to hypertension (HT), complications, and nonmedical costs. In addition, we performed a sensitivity analysis to confirm the robustness of the results of this study. Scenario 5, with 100% medication adherence, showed the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $1,373 USD, followed by scenario 1 (first 15 years: 62.5%, 16-30 years: 65.2%, after 30 years: 59.5%), scenario 2 (first five years: 62.5% decrease by 5% every five years), and scenario 3 (first 10 years: 62.5% decrease by 10% every 10 years). The ICERs in all scenarios were lower than the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of $9,492-$32,907 USD in Korea. Tornado analysis showed that the ICERs were changed greatly according to stroke incidence. Intensive treatment of HT prevents cardiovascular disease (CVD); therefore, intensive treatment is more cost-effective than standard treatment despite the consumption of more health resources. ICERs are considerably changed according to medication adherence, confirming the importance of patient adherence to treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00774-3DOI Listing
December 2021

A review on physico-chemical delignification as a pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for enhanced bioconversion.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Dec 17;346:126591. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Effective pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is one of the most important steps in biorefinery, ensuring the quality and commercial viability of the overall bioprocess. Lignin recalcitrance in LCB is a major bottleneck in biological conversion as the polymerization of lignin with hemicellulose hinders enzyme accessibility and further bioconversion to fuels and chemicals. Therefore, there is a need to delignify LCB to ease further bioprocessing. The efficiency of delignification, quality and quantity of the desired products, and generation of inhibitors depend upon the type of pretreatment employed. This review summarizes different single and integrated physicochemical pretreatments for delignification. Additionally, conditions required for effective delignification and the advantages and drawbacks of each method were evaluated. Advances in overcoming the recalcitrance of residual lignin to saccharification and the methods to recover lignin after delignification are also discussed. Efficient lignin recovery and valorization strategies provide an avenue for the sustainable lignocellulose biorefinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126591DOI Listing
December 2021

Role of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with resected gallbladder carcinoma: a multi-institutional analysis (KROG 19-04).

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Dec 20. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Hwasun 58128, Korea.

Objective: The effectiveness of adjuvant treatments for resected gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) has remained unclear due to lack of randomized controlled trials; thus, the aim of present study was to evaluate the role of adjuvant treatments, including chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and/or chemotherapy (CTx), in patients with resected GBC.

Methods: A total of 733 GBC patients who received curative-intent surgical resection were identified in a multi-institutional database. Of 733 patients, 372 (50.8%) did not receive adjuvant treatment, whereas 215 (29.3%) and 146 (19.9%) received adjuvant CTx and CRT, respectively. The locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) of the adjuvant treatment groups were compared according to tumor stage (stage II stage III-IV).

Results: In stage II disease ( = 381), the 5-year LRFS, RFS, and OS were not significantly different among the no-adjuvant therapy, CTx, and CRT groups, and positive resection margin, presence of perineural invasion, and Nx classification were consistently associated with worse LRFS, RFS, and OS in the multivariate analysis ( < 0.05). For stage III-IV ( = 352), the CRT group had significantly higher 5-year LRFS, RFS, and OS than the no-adjuvant therapy and CTx groups (67.8%, 45.2%, and 56.9%; 37.9%, 28.8%, and 35.4%; and 45.0%, 30.0%, and 45.7%, respectively) ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: CRT has value as adjuvant treatment for resected GBC with stage III-IV disease. Further study is needed for stage II disease with high-risk features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0667DOI Listing
December 2021

Novel prognostic classification predicts overall survival of patients receiving salvage whole-brain radiotherapy for recurrent brain metastasis from breast cancer: A recursive partitioning analysis (KROG 16-12).

Breast 2021 Dec 15;60:272-278. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, South Korea; Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: To investigate outcomes of salvage whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for recurrent brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer (BC), to identify prognostic factors of overall survival (OS), and to propose a novel prognostic classification for OS in these patients.

Materials And Methods: We identified 54 patients who had received salvage WBRT as the second brain-focused treatment for recurrent BM from BC (2000-2014). The median follow-up duration was 4.9 months. A recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was conducted to develop a model to predict OS at the time of salvage WBRT.

Results: The median OS was 6.8 months. OS according to BC-specific graded prognostic assessment (breast-GPA), modified breast-GPA, and updated breast-GPA did not represent our cohort. In the multivariate analysis, a long time before salvage WBRT (≥16 months), control of primary BC or extracranial metastases, systemic treatment after salvage WBRT, and administration of a biologically effective dose for an α/β of 10 Gy (BED10) of salvage WBRT >37.5 Gy showed superior OS. We proposed three RPA classes based on the control of both primary BC and extracranial metastasis and BED10 of salvage WBRT: class I, class II, and class III. In this model, patients with class I experienced the best OS (34.6 months; class II, 5.0 months; class III, 2.4 months; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In our RPA classification according to the control of both primary BC and extracranial metastasis and the dose of salvage WBRT, significant differences in OS were observed. The subsequent use of a systemic treatment showed better OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8609050PMC
December 2021

Test-Time Adaptation for Video Frame Interpolation via Meta-Learning.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Nov 23;PP. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Video frame interpolation is a challenging problem that involves various scenarios depending on the variety of foreground and background motions, frame rate, and occlusion. Therefore, generalizing across different scenes is difficult for a single network with fixed parameters. Ideally, one could have a different network for each scenario, but this will be computationally infeasible for practical applications. In this work, we propose MetaVFI, an adaptive video frame interpolation algorithm that uses additional information readily available at test time but has not been exploited in previous works. We initially show the benefits of test-time adaptation through simple fine-tuning of a network and then greatly improve its efficiency by incorporating meta-learning. Thus, we obtain significant performance gains with only a single gradient update without introducing any additional parameters. Moreover, the proposed MetaVFI algorithm is model-agnostic which can be easily combined with any video frame interpolation network. We show that our adaptive framework greatly improves the performance of baseline video frame interpolation networks on multiple benchmark datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3129819DOI Listing
November 2021

Clinical Effectiveness of Hypofractionated Proton Beam Therapy for Liver Metastasis From Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 3;11:783327. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang, South Korea.

Background: Few studies of proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer (LMBC) are available to date. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of PBT for patients with LMBC.

Material And Methods: Seventeen patients with LMBC treated with PBT were included in this study. The median prescribed dose of PBT was 66 GyE (range, 60-80) in 10 fractions, 5 times a week. In patients with LMBC receiving PBT, freedom from local progression (FFLP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were assessed.

Results: The median follow-up time was 34.2 months (range, 11.5-56.1). The median FFLP time was not yet reached, and the 3-year FFLP rates were 94.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.9-105.3). The median times of PFS and OS were 7.9 months (95% CI, 5.3-10.5) and 39.3 months (95% CI, 33.2-51.9), respectively, and the 3-year PFS and OS rates were 19.6% (95% CI, -1.8-41.0) and 71.7% (95% CI, 46.8-96.6), respectively. Grade 3 or higher adverse events were not observed.

Conclusion: PBT for patients with LMBC showed promising FFLP and OS with safe toxicity profiles. These findings suggest that PBT can be considered a local treatment option in patients with LMBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.783327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595332PMC
November 2021

COVID-19 Case Surge and Telemedicine Utilization in a Tertiary Hospital in Korea.

Telemed J E Health 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Healthcare Management, Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2021.0157DOI Listing
November 2021

RRM1 Expression as a Prognostic Biomarker for Unresectable or Recurrent Biliary Tract Cancer Treated with Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 11;10(20). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Center for Liver and Pancreatobiliary Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang-Si 10408, Gyeonggi-Do, Korea.

The combination of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) is regarded as a first-line treatment for patients with unresectable or recurrent biliary tract cancer (BTC). Several proteins including human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (hENT1), deoxycytidine kinase (DCK), cytidine deaminase (CDA), and ribonucleotide reductase subunit 1 (RRM1) are known to be involved in gemcitabine uptake and metabolism. This study was aimed to identify the predictive and prognostic values of these biomarkers in patients who treated with GP for advanced BTC. Tumor samples were obtained from 34 patients with unresectable or recurrent BTC who were treated with GP between August 2015 and February 2018. Intratumoral expression of hENT1, DCK, CDA and RRM1 was determined by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for association with chemotherapy response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median OS was significantly longer in the RRM1-negative group than in the RRM1-positive (9.9 months vs. 5.9 months, = 0.037). Multivariate adjustment analyses also demonstrated RRM1 expression as an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients treated with GP chemotherapy. Increased intratumoral expression of RRM1 on immunohistochemical staining may be a biomarker predicting poor survival in patients with GP chemotherapy for advanced BTC. Large-scale well-predefined prospective research is needed to validate the utility of biomarkers in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8538709PMC
October 2021

Sex-Related Outcomes of Successful Drug-Coated Balloon Treatment in De Novo Coronary Artery Disease.

Yonsei Med J 2021 Nov;62(11):981-989

Department of Cardiology, Peking University Shougang Hospital, Peking, China.

Purpose: Although drug-coated balloon (DCB) treatment is known to be effective for de novo lesions, the influence of sex on angiographic and clinical outcomes remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the angiographic and clinical impact of DCB treatment in patients with de novo coronary lesions according to sex.

Materials And Methods: A total of 227 patients successfully treated with DCB were retrospectively enrolled and divided into two groups according to sex. The primary endpoint was late lumen loss (LLL) at 6-month angiography, and the secondary endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF), which included cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and target vessel thrombosis.

Results: The study enrolled 60 women (26.4%) and 167 men (73.6%). Compared to men, women had a smaller vessel size, larger DCB to reference vessel ratio, and more dissections after DCB treatment (55.0% vs. 37.1%, =0.016). Women also had a significantly higher LLL compared to men (0.12±0.26 mm vs. 0.02±0.22 mm, =0.012) at the 6-month follow-up angiography. During a median follow-up of 3.4 years (range 12.7-28.9 months), TVF was similar (women 6.7% vs. men 7.8%, =0.944). In multivariable analysis, women were independently associated with a higher LLL.

Conclusion: LLL was higher in women, but there was no difference in TVF between women and men. Based on multivariable analysis, the women sex was an independent predictor of higher LLL (Impact of Drug-coated Balloon Treatment in de Novo Coronary Lesion; NCT04619277).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2021.62.11.981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542469PMC
November 2021

PIM-PI-1 and Poly(ethylene glycol)/Poly(propylene glycol)-Based Mechanically Robust Copolyimide Membranes with High CO-Selectivity and an Anti-aging Property: A Joint Experimental-Computational Exploration.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 13;13(42):49890-49906. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Organic Material Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, Republic of Korea.

Polymer membranes with excellent thermomechanical properties and good gas separation performance are desirable for efficient CO separation. A series of copolyimide membranes are prepared for the first time using PIM-PI-1, a hard segment with high CO permeability, and poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(propylene glycol) (PEG/PPG), a soft segment with high CO selectivity. Two different unit polymers are combined to compensate the limitations of each polymer (e.g., the fast aging and moderate selectivity of PIM-PI-1 and the poor mechanical properties and lower permeability of PEG/PPG). The corresponding PIM-(durene-PEG/PPG) membranes exhibit an excellent combination of mechanical properties and gas separation performance compared to the typical PI-PEG-based copolymer membrane. The improved mechanical property is attributed to the unique chain threading and the reinforcement between the spiro unit of PIM and the flexible PEG/PPG at the molecular level, which has not previously been exploited for membranes. The PIM-(durene-PEG/PPG) membranes show a high CO permeability of 350-669 Barrer and a high CO/N selectivity of 33.5-40.3. The experimental results are further evaluated with theoretical results obtained from molecular simulation studies, and a very good agreement between the experimental results and simulation results is found. Moreover, the PIM-(durene-PEG/PPG) copolymer membranes display excellent anti-aging performance for up to 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c14034DOI Listing
October 2021

Prognosis of patients with axillary lymph node metastases from occult breast cancer: analysis of multicenter data.

Radiat Oncol J 2021 Jun 15;39(2):107-112. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate prognosis of patients with level I/II axillary lymph node metastases from occult breast cancer (OBC).

Materials And Methods: Data of 53 patients with OBC who received axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) positive/negative (+/-) breast-conserving surgery between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively collected at seven hospitals in Korea. The median number of positive lymph nodes (+LNs) was 2. Seventeen patients (32.1%) had >3 +LNs. A total of 48 patients (90.6%) received radiotherapy. Extents of radiotherapy were as follows: whole-breast (WB; n = 11), regional lymph node (RLN; n = 2), and WB plus RLN (n = 35).

Results: The median follow-up time was 85 months. Recurrence was found in four patients: two in the breast, one in RLN, and one in the breast and RLN. The 5-year and 7-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 96.1% and 93.5%, respectively. Molecular subtype and receipt of breast radiotherapy were significantly associated with DFS. Patients with estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) subtype had significantly lower 7-year DFS than those with non-ER-/PR-/HER2- tumor (76.9% vs. 100.0%; p = 0.03). Whole breast irradiation (WBI) was significantly associated with a higher 7-year DFS rate (94.7% for WBI group vs. 83.3% for non-WBI group; p = 0.01). Other factors including patient's age, number of +LNs, taxane chemotherapy, and RLN irradiation were not associated with DFS.

Conclusion: Patients with OBC achieved favorable outcome after ALND and breast-targeting treatment. Molecular subtype and receipt of WBI was significant factors for DFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3857/roj.2021.00241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497863PMC
June 2021

Broadband responsivity enhancement of Si photodiodes by a plasmonic antireflection bilayer.

Opt Express 2021 Aug;29(17):26634-26644

Randomly distributed plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with various sizes were fabricated by a reflow process to an island-shaped Ag thin-film deposited on a Si photodiode. These NPs conformally enclosed by an antireflective (AR)-type SiN/SiO bilayer reveal significantly diminished reflectance in a broad wavelength (500 nm - 1100 nm) as compared to the cases of Ag NPs or SiO layer enclosing Ag NPs on the Si substrate. Accordingly, the forward scattering and the total reflection along with wide-angle interference in between the dielectric bilayer incorporating the Ag NPs induce highly increased light absorption in the Si substrate. The fabricated Si photodiode adopting the plasmonic AR bilayer shows the responsivity peak value of 0.72 A/W at 835 nm wavelength and significant responsivity enhancement up to 40% relative to a bare Si photodiode in a wavelength range of 500 nm to 1000 nm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.432689DOI Listing
August 2021

Beam Angle Optimization for Double-Scattering Proton Delivery Technique Using an Eclipse Application Programming Interface and Convolutional Neural Network.

Front Oncol 2021 14;11:707464. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, South Korea.

To automatically identify optimal beam angles for proton therapy configured with the double-scattering delivery technique, a beam angle optimization method based on a convolutional neural network (BAODS-Net) is proposed. Fifty liver plans were used for training in BAODS-Net. To generate a sequence of input data, 25 rays on the eye view of the beam were determined per angle. Each ray collects nine features, including the normalized Hounsfield unit and the position information of eight structures per 2° of gantry angle. The outputs are a set of beam angle ranking scores ( ) ranging from 0° to 359°, with a step size of 1°. Based on these input and output designs, BAODS-Net consists of eight convolution layers and four fully connected layers. To evaluate the plan qualities of deep-learning, equi-spaced, and clinical plans, we compared the performances of three types of loss functions and performed -fold cross-validation ( = 5). For statistical analysis, the volumes V and V as well as the mean, minimum, and maximum doses were calculated for organs-at-risk by using a paired-samples -test. As a result, smooth-L1 loss showed the best optimization performance. At the end of the training procedure, the mean squared errors between the reference and predicted were 0.031, 0.011, and 0.004 for L1, L2, and smooth-L1 loss, respectively. In terms of the plan quality, statistically, Plan has no significant difference from Plan ( >.05). In our test, a deep-learning based beam angle optimization method for proton double-scattering treatments was developed and verified. Using Eclipse API and BAODS-Net, a plan with clinically acceptable quality was created within 5 min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.707464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476903PMC
September 2021

Stereospecific inhibition of AMPK by (R)-crizotinib induced changes to the morphology and properties of cancer and cancer stem cell-like cells.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Nov 25;911:174525. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, Republic of Korea; Research Driven Hospital, Korea University Guro Hospital, Biomedical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Crizotinib is used in the clinic for treating patients with ALK- or ROS1-positive non-small-cell lung carcinoma. The objective of the present study was to determine if crizotinib enantiomers could induce changes to the properties of cancer and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like cells at a high concentration (∼ 3 μM). While (R)-crizotinib induced changes in morphologies or sizes of cells, (S)-crizotinib did not. Pretreatment with (R)-crizotinib suppressed the proliferation of cancer or CSC-like cells in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In vivo administration of (R)-crizotinib inhibited the growth of tumors formed from CSC-like cells by 72%. %. Along with the morphological changes induced by (R)-crizotinib, the expression levels of CD44 (NCI-H23 and HCT-15), ALDH1 (NCI-H460), nanog (PC-3), and Oct-4A (CSC-like cells), which appear to be specific marker proteins, were greatly changed, suggesting that changes in cellular properties accompanied the morphological changes in the cells. The expression levels of Snail, Slug, and E-cadherin were also greatly altered by (R)-crizotinib. Among several signal transduction molecules examined, AMPK phosphorylation appeared to be selectively inhibited by (R)-crizotinib. BML-275 (an AMPK inhibitor) and AMPKα2 siRNA efficiently induced morphological changes to all types of cells examined, suggesting that (R)-crizotinib might cause losses of characteristics of cancer or CSCs via inhibition of AMPK. These results indicate that (R)-crizotinib might be an effective anticancer agent that can cause alteration in cancer cell properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174525DOI Listing
November 2021

Mechanical Properties of Basalt-Based Recycled Aggregate Concrete for Jeju Island.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 19;14(18). Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Construction Test & Assessment Center, Construction Test & Certification Department, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, Goyang-si 10223, Korea.

Recycled aggregate is essential to protect Jeju Island's natural environment, but waste concrete, including porous basalt, is a factor that lowers the quality of recycled aggregate. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to analyze the properties of concrete application of basalt-based recycled aggregate (B-RA) through quality improvement. The absorption of the B-RA ranged from 3-5%; restricting its absorption to less than 3% was challenging owing to its porosity and irregular shape. However, the increase in the solid volume percentage of the concrete when replacing 25 or 50% of fresh basalt aggregate with recycled basalt aggregate improved the mechanical performance of the concrete, especially at 25%, for which a compressive strength of 55.9 MPa and modulus of elasticity of 25.9 GPa exceeded those of concrete with fresh basalt aggregate. Moreover, increasing the replacement ratio of the fresh basalt with recycled aggregate reduced the slump and decreased the air content, consequently increasing the concrete drying shrinkage. However, the replacement of fresh basalt aggregate with recycled basalt aggregate unaltered the mechanical performance of the concrete. The results indicate that efficient use of recycled aggregates can yield superior performance to that of fresh basalt, irrespective of aggregate quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14185429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470170PMC
September 2021

Factors Associated with Health Check-up and Cancer Screening Participation among Family Caregivers of Patients with Dementia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

BMC Public Health 2021 09 26;21(1):1753. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Healthcare Management, Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Background: Providing care for patients with dementia can negatively influence the physical health and health behaviours of family caregivers. A better understanding of the factors associated with health check-up and cancer screening participation is vital for developing effective interventions. Thus, this study aimed to identify factors associated with health check-up and cancer screening participation among family caregivers of patients with dementia.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that analysed the data of 2,414 family caregivers of patients with dementia collected by the Korea Community Health Survey in 2017. A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify demographic, socioeconomic, and health status factors associated with health check-up and cancer screening participation among family caregivers of patients with dementia.

Results: Health check-up and cancer screening rates among family caregivers of patients with dementia were 68.7% and 61.4%, respectively, which were significantly lower than the rates for individuals who were not caregivers of patients with dementia. Those with lower education levels had lower odds ratios (OR) for both health check-up (OR: 0.60) and cancer screening (OR: 0.59) participation. In addition, symptoms of depression were associated with lower participation (health check-up OR: 0.67; cancer screening OR: 0.65).

Conclusions: More targeted disease prevention and management strategies must be developed for family caregivers of patients with dementia, particularly those with depressive symptoms and lower education levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11768-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8474929PMC
September 2021

Modified Graphene Oxide-Incorporated Thin-Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes through Interface Polymerization on Hydrophilic Substrate for CO Separation.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Aug 25;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Incheon National University, 119 Academy-ro, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 22012, Korea.

Thin-film composite mixed matrix membranes (CMMMs) were fabricated using interfacial polymerization to achieve high permeance and selectivity for CO separation. This study revealed the role of substrate properties on performance, which are not typically considered important. In order to enhance the affinity between the substrate and the coating solution during interfacial polymerization and increase the selectivity of CO, a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dopamine (DOPA) was subjected to a spinning process. Then, the surface of the substrate was subjected to interfacial polymerization using polyethyleneimine (PEI), trimesoyl chloride (TMC), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The effect of adding SDS as a surfactant on the structure and gas permeation properties of the fabricated membranes was examined. Thin-film composite hollow fiber membranes containing modified graphene oxide (mGO) were fabricated, and their characteristics were analyzed. The membranes exhibited very promising separation performance, with CO permeance of 73 GPU and CO/N selectivity of 60. From the design of a membrane substrate for separating CO, the CMMMs hollow fiber membrane was optimized using the active layer and mGO nanoparticles through interfacial polymerization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470957PMC
August 2021

Role of adjuvant radiotherapy in extrahepatic bile duct cancer: A multicenter retrospective study (Korean Radiation Oncology Group 18-14).

Eur J Cancer 2021 11 30;157:31-39. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after curative resection in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer.

Methods: Between January 2000 and December 2015, 1475 patients with EHBD cancer who underwent curative resection were accrued from 14 institutions in Korea. Among these, 959 patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy (RT(-) group), while 516 underwent postoperative RT with or without chemotherapy (RT(+) group).

Results: The median age was 67 years. Nodal involvement was present in 482 patients (32.7%), and resection margin was involved in 293 patients (19.9%). RT(+) group had more patients with proximal tumours, advanced tumours, nodal involvement, perineural invasion, and involved resection margin than RT(-) group (all p < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 36 months, there were 211 locoregional recurrences, 307 distant metastases and 322 combined locoregional and distant failures. On multivariate analysis incorporating age, tumour location, differentiation, pT classification, pN classification, perineural invasion and resection margin, adjuvant RT was associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.86; p < 0.001). When RT(+) group was separated into RT alone, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and CCRT followed by chemotherapy, the greatest benefit was observed in patients treated with CCRT followed by chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.68).

Conclusions: Adjuvant RT combined with chemotherapy improved survival outcomes of resected EHBD cancer patients. Considering the greatest benefit observed in patients receiving CCRT followed by chemotherapy, a randomised controlled trial comparing chemotherapy alone and CCRT followed by chemotherapy is urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.07.045DOI Listing
November 2021

Role of adjuvant radiotherapy in extrahepatic bile duct cancer: A multicenter retrospective study (Korean Radiation Oncology Group 18-14).

Eur J Cancer 2021 11 30;157:31-39. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after curative resection in patients with extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer.

Methods: Between January 2000 and December 2015, 1475 patients with EHBD cancer who underwent curative resection were accrued from 14 institutions in Korea. Among these, 959 patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy (RT(-) group), while 516 underwent postoperative RT with or without chemotherapy (RT(+) group).

Results: The median age was 67 years. Nodal involvement was present in 482 patients (32.7%), and resection margin was involved in 293 patients (19.9%). RT(+) group had more patients with proximal tumours, advanced tumours, nodal involvement, perineural invasion, and involved resection margin than RT(-) group (all p < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 36 months, there were 211 locoregional recurrences, 307 distant metastases and 322 combined locoregional and distant failures. On multivariate analysis incorporating age, tumour location, differentiation, pT classification, pN classification, perineural invasion and resection margin, adjuvant RT was associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.86; p < 0.001). When RT(+) group was separated into RT alone, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and CCRT followed by chemotherapy, the greatest benefit was observed in patients treated with CCRT followed by chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.68).

Conclusions: Adjuvant RT combined with chemotherapy improved survival outcomes of resected EHBD cancer patients. Considering the greatest benefit observed in patients receiving CCRT followed by chemotherapy, a randomised controlled trial comparing chemotherapy alone and CCRT followed by chemotherapy is urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.07.045DOI Listing
November 2021

AMPA Receptor Antagonists Facilitate NEDD4-2-Mediated GRIA1 Ubiquitination by Regulating PP2B-ERK1/2-SGK1 Pathway in Chronic Epilepsy Rats.

Biomedicines 2021 Aug 23;9(8). Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea.

The neural precursor cell expressed by developmentally downregulated gene 4-2 (NEDD4-2) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that has a high affinity toward binding and ubiquitinating glutamate ionotropic receptor α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) type subunit 1 (GRIA1, also referred to GluR1 or GluA1). Since dysregulation of GRIA1 surface expression is relevant to the responsiveness to AMPA receptor (AMPAR) antagonists (perampanel and GYKI 52466) in chronic epilepsy rats, it is likely that NEDD4-2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of intractable epilepsy. However, the role of NEDD4-2-mediated GRIA1 ubiquitination in refractory seizures to AMPAR antagonists is still unknown. In the present study, both AMPAR antagonists recovered the impaired GRIA1 ubiquitination by regulating protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1)-NEDD4-2 signaling pathway in responders (whose seizure activities are responsive to AMPAR), but not non-responders (whose seizure activities were uncontrolled by AMPAR antagonists). In addition, cyclosporin A (CsA, a PP2B inhibitor) co-treatment improved the effects of AMPAR antagonists in non-responders, independent of AKT signaling pathway. Therefore, our findings suggest that dysregulation of PP2B-ERK1/2-SGK1-NEDD4-2-mediated GRIA1 ubiquitination may be responsible for refractory seizures and that this pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for improving the treatment of intractable epilepsy in response to AMPAR antagonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9081069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391511PMC
August 2021

Treatment outcomes of passive scattering proton beam therapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Aug 18;16(1):155. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Proton Therapy Center, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 10408, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: To investigate the treatment outcomes of passive scattering proton beam therapy using stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) for inoperable patients or those who refused surgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: From January 2016 to December 2019, we retrospectively analyzed 42 patients with stage I NSCLC treated with proton beam therapy. The initially intended dose regimen was 60 cobalt Gray equivalents (CGE) in 4 fractions; however, sequentially modified dose regimens were used when the dose-volume constraints could not be met. The median total dose was 50 CGE (range 50-70 CGE), while the corresponding median biologically effective dose using [Formula: see text]= 10 (BED) was 112.5 CGE (range 96-150 CGE).

Results: The median follow-up time was 40 months (interquartile range 32-48 months). Among the 42 treated patients, 33 had pathologically proven cancers of which most were adenocarcinoma (n = 21, 64%). The 3-year overall survival rate was 71.8%. The estimated rates of local control and progression free survival at 3 years were 91.5% and 66.9%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced disease progression consisting of three local, six regional, and nine distant failures. No grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed.

Conclusion: Passive scattering proton beam therapy for stage I NSCLC using SABR or hypofractionated RT was safe and showed high LC rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-021-01855-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371847PMC
August 2021

External Validation of Deep Learning Algorithm for Detecting and Visualizing Femoral Neck Fracture Including Displaced and Non-displaced Fracture on Plain X-ray.

J Digit Imaging 2021 10 11;34(5):1099-1109. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

This study aimed to develop a method for detection of femoral neck fracture (FNF) including displaced and non-displaced fractures using convolutional neural network (CNN) with plain X-ray and to validate its use across hospitals through internal and external validation sets. This is a retrospective study using hip and pelvic anteroposterior films for training and detecting femoral neck fracture through residual neural network (ResNet) 18 with convolutional block attention module (CBAM) +  + . The study was performed at two tertiary hospitals between February and May 2020 and used data from January 2005 to December 2018. Our primary outcome was favorable performance for diagnosis of femoral neck fracture from negative studies in our dataset. We described the outcomes as area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, Youden index, sensitivity, and specificity. A total of 4,189 images that contained 1,109 positive images (332 non-displaced and 777 displaced) and 3,080 negative images were collected from two hospitals. The test values after training with one hospital dataset were 0.999 AUC, 0.986 accuracy, 0.960 Youden index, and 0.966 sensitivity, and 0.993 specificity. Values of external validation with the other hospital dataset were 0.977, 0.971, 0.920, 0.939, and 0.982, respectively. Values of merged hospital datasets were 0.987, 0.983, 0.960, 0.973, and 0.987, respectively. A CNN algorithm for FNF detection in both displaced and non-displaced fractures using plain X-rays could be used in other hospitals to screen for FNF after training with images from the hospital of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10278-021-00499-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8554912PMC
October 2021

Economic Evaluation of Total Laboratory Automation in the Clinical Laboratory of a Tertiary Care Hospital.

Ann Lab Med 2022 Jan;42(1):89-95

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Total laboratory automation (TLA) is an innovation in laboratory technology; however, the high up-front costs restrict its widespread adoption. To examine whether the capital investment for TLA is worthwhile, we analyzed its clinical- and cost-effectiveness for the expected payback period.

Methods: Clinical chemistry tests and immunoassays performed in the clinical laboratory of a tertiary care hospital were divided into a post-TLA group, including 1,182,419 tests performed during December 2019, and a pre-TLA group, including 1,151,501 tests performed during December 2018. Laboratory information system data were used to measure clinical effectiveness, and depreciation data were used to calculate TLA costs.

Results: Laboratory performance improved after TLA adoption in all four key performance indicators: mean turn-around time (TAT), representing the timeliness of result reporting, decreased by 6.1%; the 99th percentile of TAT, representing the outlier rate, decreased by 13.3%; the TAT CV, representing predictability, decreased by 70.0%; and weighted tube touch moment (wTTM), representing staff safety, improved by 77.6%. Based on these effectiveness results, economic evaluation was performed using two approaches. First, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and wTTM were used as the most cost-effective performance indicators. Second, the expected payback period was calculated. Considering only staff cost reduction, it was anticipated that 4.75 yrs would be needed to payback the initial investment.

Conclusions: TLA can significantly enhance laboratory performance, has a relatively quick payback period, and can reduce total hospital expenses in the long term. Therefore, the capital investment for TLA adoption is considered to be worthwhile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3343/alm.2022.42.1.89DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368223PMC
January 2022

Product Inspection Methodology via Deep Learning: An Overview.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 25;21(15). Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Artificial Intelligence Convergence, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

In this study, we present a framework for product quality inspection based on deep learning techniques. First, we categorize several deep learning models that can be applied to product inspection systems. In addition, we explain the steps for building a deep-learning-based inspection system in detail. Second, we address connection schemes that efficiently link deep learning models to product inspection systems. Finally, we propose an effective method that can maintain and enhance a product inspection system according to improvement goals of the existing product inspection systems. The proposed system is observed to possess good system maintenance and stability owing to the proposed methods. All the proposed methods are integrated into a unified framework and we provide detailed explanations of each proposed method. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we compare and analyze the performance of the methods in various test scenarios. We expect that our study will provide useful guidelines to readers who desire to implement deep-learning-based systems for product inspection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21155039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346960PMC
July 2021
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