Publications by authors named "T Inui"

826 Publications

An analysis of the radiological factors associated with respiratory failure in COVID-19 pneumonia and the CT features among different age categories.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate CT patterns of COVID-19 pneumonia associated with respiratory failure (RF) focused on the distribution of lesions.

Materials And Methods: Eighty-five patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were reviewed. CT findings were classified as follows: Type A; patchy ground glass attenuation (GGA) with/without air-space consolidation, Type B; non-segmental GGA with/without air-space consolidation in both the central and peripheral lung portions especially with subpleural spare, and Type C; non-segmental GGA with/without air-space consolidation predominantly distributed in the peripheral lung portion without subpleural spare. We analyzed CT patterns and clinical factors associated with RF, including age categories.

Results: The number of patients with Type A, B and C was 31 (37%), 24 (28%) and 30 (35%), respectively. Type C and hypertension were independently associated with RF. On comparing between Types B and C, the frequency of traction bronchiectasis was higher in Type C than in Type B (P < 0.001). The ratio of Type C in patients ≥ 65 years old (66%) was higher than in patients < 40 years old (P < 0.001) and 40-49 years old (P = 0.001).

Conclusion: The Type C, increasing with age, was associated with RF. Traction bronchiectasis in the lesion was more frequent in Type C than in Type B. Secondary abstract A lesion adjacent to the pleura and hypertension is associated with respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19. The frequency of a lesion adjacent to the pleura increased with age. The distribution of lesions is a useful parameter to predict respiratory failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-021-01118-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040361PMC
April 2021

Focused surface acoustic wave locally removes cells from culture surface.

Lab Chip 2021 04 18;21(7):1299-1306. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan.

Regenerative medicine and drug development require large numbers of high-quality cells, usually delivered from in vitro culturing. During culturing, the appearance of unwanted cells and an inability to remove them without damaging or losing most if not all the surrounding cells in the culture reduce the overall quality of the cultured cells. This is a key problem in cell culturing, as is the inability to sample cells from a culture as desired to verify the quality of the culture. Here, we report a method to locally remove cells from an adherent cell culture using a 100.4 MHz focused surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. After exposing a plated C2C12 mouse myoblast cell culture to phosphate buffered solution (PBS), ultrasound from the SAW device transmitted into the cell culture via a coupling water droplet serves to detach a small grouping of cells. The cells are removed from an area 6 × 10 mm, equivalent to about 12 cells, using a SAW device-Petri dish water gap of 1.5 mm, a PBS immersion time of 300 s, and an input voltage of 75 V to the SAW device. Cells were released as desired 90% of the time, releasing the cells from the target area nine times out of ten runs. In the one trial in ten that fails, the cells partially release and remain attached due to inter-cellular binding. By making it possible to target and remove small groups of cells as desired, the quality of cell culturing may be significantly improved. The small group of cells may be considered a colony of iPS cells. This targeted cell removal method may facilitate sustainable, contamination-free, and automated refinement of cultured cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc01293aDOI Listing
April 2021

The effect of Xenin25 on spontaneous circular muscle contractions of rat distal colon in vitro.

Physiol Rep 2021 Feb;9(4):e14752

Research Unit for Epithelial Physiology, Research Center for Drug Discovery and Pharmaceutical Development Science, Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan.

Xenin25 has a variety of physiological functions in the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including ion transport and motility. However, the motility responses in the colon induced by Xenin25 remain poorly understood. Therefore, the effect of Xenin25 on the spontaneous circular muscle contractions of the rat distal colon was investigated using organ bath chambers and immunohistochemistry. Xenin25 induced the inhibition followed by postinhibitory spontaneous contractions with a higher frequency in the rat distal colon. This inhibitory effect of Xenin25 was significantly suppressed by TTX but not by atropine. The inhibitory time (the duration of inhibition) caused by Xenin25 was shortened by the NTSR1 antagonist SR48692, the NK1R antagonist CP96345, the VPAC2 receptor antagonist PG99-465, the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylate-cyclase inhibitor ODQ, and the Ca -dependent K channel blocker apamin. The higher frequency of postinhibitory spontaneous contractions induced by Xenin25 was also attenuated by ODQ and apamin. SP-, NOS-, and VIP-immunoreactive neurons were detected in the myenteric plexus (MP) of the rat distal colon. Small subsets of the SP-positive neurons were also Calbindin positive. Most of the VIP-positive neurons were also NOS positive, and small subsets of the NK1R-positive neurons were also VIP positive. Based on the present results, we propose the following mechanism. Xenin25 activates neuronal NTSR1 on the SP neurons of IPANs, and transmitters from the VIP and apamin-sensitive NO neurons synergistically inhibit the spontaneous circular muscle contractions via NK1R. Subsequently, the postinhibitory spontaneous contractions are induced by the offset of apamin-sensitive NO neuron activation via the interstitial cells of Cajal. In addition, Xenin25 also activates the muscular NTSR1 to induce relaxation. Thus, Xenin25 is considered to be an important modulator of post prandial circular muscle contraction of distal colon since the release of Xenin25 from enteroendocrine cells is stimulated by food intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891183PMC
February 2021

Ruxolitinib inhibits poly(I:C) and type 2 cytokines-induced CCL5 production in bronchial epithelial cells: A potential therapeutic agent for severe eosinophilic asthma.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Rationale: Severe eosinophilic asthma is characterized by airway eosinophilia and corticosteroid-resistance, commonly overlapping with type 2 inflammation. It has been reported that chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) is involved in the exacerbation of asthma by RNA virus infections. Indeed, treatment with a virus-associated ligand and a T helper type 2 cell (Th2) cytokine can synergistically stimulate CCL5 production in bronchial epithelial cells. We aimed to evaluate the mechanisms underlying CCL5 production in this in vitro model and to assess the potential of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) as a novel therapeutic target via the use of ruxolitinib.

Methods: We stimulated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and BEAS-2B cells with poly(I:C) along with interleukin-13 (IL-13) or IL-4, and assessed CCL5 production. We also evaluated the signals involved in virus- and Th2-cytokine-induced CCL5 production and explored a therapeutic agent that attenuates the CCL5 production.

Results: Poly(I:C) stimulated NHBE and BEAS-2B cells to produce CCL5. Poly(I:C) and IL-13 increased CCL5 production. Poly(I:C)-induced CCL5 production occurred via the TLR3-IRF3 and IFNAR/JAK1-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, but not the IFNAR/JAK1-STATs pathway. In addition, IL-13 did not augment poly(I:C)-induced CCL5 production via the canonical IL-13R/IL-4R/JAK1-STAT6 pathway but likely via subsequent TLR3-IRF3-IFNAR/JAK1-PI3K pathways. JAK1 was identified to be a potential therapeutic target for severe eosinophilic asthma. The JAK1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, was demonstrated to more effectively decrease CCL5 production in BEAS-2B cells than fluticasone propionate.

Conclusion: We have demonstrated that JAK1 is a possible therapeutic target for severe corticosteroid-resistant asthma with airway eosinophilia and persistent Th2-type inflammation, and that ruxolitinib has potential as an alternative pharmacotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.397DOI Listing
February 2021