Publications by authors named "Suzanne Laberge"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Barriers to cross-disciplinary knowledge flow: The case of medical education research.

Perspect Med Educ 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

School of Kinesiology and Physical Activity Sciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Introduction: The medical education research field operates at the crossroads of two distinct academic worlds: higher education and medicine. As such, this field provides a unique opportunity to explore new forms of cross-disciplinary knowledge exchange.

Methods: Cross-disciplinary knowledge flow in medical education research was examined by looking at citation patterns in the five journals with the highest impact factor in 2017. To grasp the specificities of the knowledge flow in medical education, the field of higher education was used as a comparator. In total, 2031 citations from 64 medical education and 41 higher education articles published in 2017 were examined.

Results: Medical education researchers draw on a narrower range of knowledge communities than their peers in higher education. Medical education researchers predominantly cite articles published in health and medical education journals (80% of all citations), and to a lesser extent, articles published in education and social science journals. In higher education, while the largest share of the cited literature is internal to the domain (36%), researchers cite literature from across the social science spectrum. Findings suggest that higher education scholars engage in conversations with academics from a broader range of communities and perspectives than their medical education colleagues.

Discussion: Using Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of doxa and field, it is argued that the variety of epistemic cultures entering the higher education research space contributes to its interdisciplinary nature. Conversely, the existence of a relatively homogeneous epistemic culture in medicine potentially impedes cross-disciplinary knowledge exchange.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40037-021-00685-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Health-Related and Lifestyle Factors as Predictors of Intentions to Improve Lifestyle Habits in Employees Participating in a Workplace Health Promotion Program.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 09;63(9):e612-e621

School of Kinesiology and Physical Activity Science, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada (Ms Kugathasan, Mr Lecot, Dr Laberge, Dr Tremblay, and Dr Mathieu); Sainte-Justine University Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada (Dr Mathieu).

Objectives: To explore employees' intentions to improve lifestyle habits, investigate the health and lifestyle-related predictors of these intentions, and how it translated into behavioral improvement.

Methods: Employees participating in the Activate Your Health WHPP completed a questionnaire of their demographics, health-related variables, as well as six lifestyle habits and intention to improve them.

Results: At baseline (n = 2729), most employees wanted to focus on physical activity and eating habits. Many predictors were identified for each intention. Majority of intentions were associated with behavioral improvement post-program (n = 525), especially in High.

Conclusions: In the context of WHPPs, intention to improve may lead to actual behavioral improvement. Exploring employees' intentions to improve various lifestyle habits at the start of the program could improve the effectiveness of these programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002306DOI Listing
September 2021

Socioeconomic and gender-based disparities in the motor competence of school-age children.

J Sports Sci 2021 Feb 24;39(3):341-350. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

School of Kinesiology and Physical Activity Sciences, Université de Montréal , Québec, Canada.

This study examined socioeconomic and gender-based disparities in motor competence (MC) amongst 6-12-year-old children (N = 2654). Validated product-oriented tests assessing agility, balance and coordination were used to measure MC. School-level socioeconomic status (low, middle, high) was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were conducted and odds ratios were calculated for the likelihood of having low MC by gender and socioeconomic status (SES). Girls displayed lower MC than boys for agility and coordination involving object-control ( ) while boys scored lower than girls for balance and hand-foot coordination ( ). Children in high SES schools displayed the highest level of MC for agility, balance and coordination ( ). Compared to the children in high SES schools, odds of having low competence in balance was higher for the children in low SES schools and odds of having low competence in agility and coordination were higher for the children in both low and middle SES schools. Newell's model of constraints (1986) and Bourdieu's concept of habitus (1984) were used to consider potential explanations of the observed disparities. To level up inequalities in children's MC, resources invested in school-based interventions should be proportionate to the school SES.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1822585DOI Listing
February 2021

Can school-based physical activity foster social mobility?

Can J Public Health 2021 02 12;112(1):115-119. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

École de kinésiologie et des sciences de l'activité physique, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada.

Social mobility refers to the intergenerational transmission of socio-economic status, and therefore of health status. Hence, it is important to consider social mobility to tackle the social gradient in health in the long term. Fostering social mobility requires developing public policies that ensure equal opportunities for all children. The intent of this commentary is to illustrate how a proportionate universalism approach to school-based physical activity could be a way to promote equal opportunity for children within the school environment. Alberta's Daily Physical Activity policy and the APPLE Schools program are used to illustrate this approach: these two programs not only create enabling environments that can support children in adopting healthy lifestyles but also contribute to the reduction of social inequalities in physical activity by fostering capacity building.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00375-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851199PMC
February 2021

Interdisciplinarity in medical education research: myth and reality.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2020 12 24;25(5):1243-1253. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

School of kinesiology and physical activity sciences, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.

The medical education (Med Ed) research community characterises itself as drawing on the insights, methods, and knowledge from multiple disciplines and research domains (e.g. Sociology, Anthropology, Education, Humanities, Psychology). This common view of Med Ed research is echoed and reinforced by the narrative used by leading Med Ed departments and research centres to describe their activities as "interdisciplinary." Bibliometrics offers an effective method of investigating scholarly communication to determine what knowledge is valued, recognized, and utilized. By empirically examining whether knowledge production in Med Ed research draws from multiple disciplines and research areas, or whether it primarily draws on the knowledge generated internally within the field of Med Ed, this article explores whether the characterisation of Med Ed research as interdisciplinary is substantiated. A citation analysis of 1412 references from research articles published in 2017 in the top five Med Ed journals was undertaken. A typology of six knowledge clusters was inductively developed. Findings show that the field of Med Ed research draws predominantly from two knowledge clusters: the Applied Health Research cluster (made of clinical and health services research), which represents 41% of the references, and the Med Ed research cluster, which represents 40% of the references. These two clusters cover 81% of all references in our sample, leaving 19% distributed among the other knowledge clusters (i.e., Education, disciplinary, interdisciplinary and topic centered research). The quasi-hegemonic position held by the Applied Health and Med Ed research clusters confines the other sources of knowledge to a peripheral role within the Med Ed research field. Our findings suggest that the assumption that Med Ed research is an interdisciplinary field is not convincingly supported by empirical data and that the knowledge entering Med Ed comes mostly from the health research domain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-020-09977-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704507PMC
December 2020

Social return on investment (SROI) method to evaluate physical activity and sport interventions: a systematic review.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2020 02 27;17(1):26. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

École de kinésiologie et des sciences de l'activité physique, Faculté de médecine, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville,, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3J7, Canada.

Background: Physical Activity and Sport (PAS) interventions can reduce the social and economic burden of non-communicable diseases and improve the wellbeing of the population. Social return on investment (SROI) has the capacity to measure broader socio-economic outcomes in a singular monetary ratio to help identify the most impactful and cost-beneficial intervention. This review aimed to systematically identify and review studies using the SROI method within the field of PAS and assess their quality.

Methods: Peer-reviewed and grey literature SROI studies were identified through a systematic search of six databases. Two reviewers independently assessed the identified studies to determine eligibility. Study quality was assessed using the Krelv et al. 12-point framework. For each included study, information was extracted and classified into summary tables. Extracted information included study and participant characteristics, type of outcomes and SROI ratio. The PRISMA guidelines were followed.

Results: Seventeen studies published between 2010 and 2018 met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (94%) were non-peer reviewed publicly available reports, primarily conducted in the UK (76%), by private consulting firms (41%) and included all types of stakeholders (76%). PAS interventions included Primary prevention (47%), Sport for development (29%), Secondary and tertiary prevention (18%) and High-performance sport (6%). SROI ratios, which report the social value created in relation to the cost of an intervention, vary between 3:1 and 124:1 for the high-quality studies.

Conclusions: The SROI framework can be a useful tool to inform policy-making relating to PAS investment as it can account for the wide societal benefits of PAS. The quality of studies in the field would benefit from the employment of an impact map (or logic model), reporting negative outcomes and using objective study designs. The application of the SROI method in the PAS field is relatively recent, and thus further research would be beneficial to promote its potential for policy-making bodies in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00931-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047368PMC
February 2020

Problematizing assumptions about interdisciplinary research: implications for health professions education research.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2020 08 20;25(3):755-767. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Département de kinésiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

This article critically examines three assumptions underlying recent efforts to advance interdisciplinary research-defined in this article as communication and collaboration between researchers across academic disciplines (e.g. Sociology, Psychology, Biology)-and examines these assumptions' implications for health professions education research (HPER). These assumptions are: (1) disciplines are silos that inhibit the free flowing of knowledge across fields and stifle innovative thinking; (2) interdisciplinary research generates a better understanding of the world as it brings together researchers from various fields of expertise capable of tackling complex problems; and (3) interdisciplinary research reduces fragmentation across groups of researchers by eliminating boundaries. These assumptions are among the new beliefs shaping the contemporary academic arena; they orient academics' and university administrators' decisions toward expanding interdisciplinary research and training, but without solid empirical evidence. This article argues that the field of HPER has largely adopted the premises of interdisciplinary research but has not yet debated the potential effects of organizing around these premises. The authors hope to inspire members of the HPER community to critically examine the ubiquitous discourse promoting interdisciplinarity, and engage in reflection about the future of the field informed by evidence rather than by unsubstantiated assumptions. For example: Should research centres and graduate programs in HPER encourage the development of interdisciplinary or disciplinary-trained researchers? Should training predominantly focus on methods and methodologies or draw more on disciplinary-based knowledge? What is the best route toward increasing the field's profile within academia and attracting the best students and researchers to engage in HPER? These are questions that merit attention at the current juncture as the future of the HPER field relies on decisions made in the present time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-019-09911-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359156PMC
August 2020

Activate Your Health, a 3-year, multi-site, workplace healthy lifestyle promotion program: study design.

BMC Public Health 2019 Aug 19;19(1):1140. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

School of Kinesiology and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, P.O. Box 6128, Downtown Station, 2100 Édouard-Montpetit, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada.

Background: Workplace Health Promotion Programs (WHPP) have been shown to be an efficient way of improving workers' health. These programs can be incorporated in the worker's daily schedule and improve their productivity at work. Improving employees' health also benefits the employers by increasing their return on investment and lowering healthcare costs. The Activate Your Health program, created by Capsana in 2015, is a WHPP targeting multiple lifestyle habits for a three-year period. This WHPP includes tailored web-based interventions and the support of different health professionals throughout the years. We hypothesize that this approach will yield long-term lifestyle changes. The objective of the current paper is to describe the Activate Your Health program's design.

Methods/design: Eleven companies are taking part in this WHPP and had to choose among five different options of this program and all their employees were encouraged to participate. Each option differs by the number and type of interventions included. The limited option, which is considered the control group, only consists in completing a questionnaire regarding their health status, lifestyle habits and behaviors. On the other end, the extensive option receives a combination of multiple interventions: online menus, health challenges, support in creating a healthy work environment, coaching by health professionals (nurse, nutritionist, and kinesiologist), health screening and flexibility assessment, online resources, social health platform, and activity tracking. The remaining options are in between these options and vary by the amount of intervention. Baseline data are already gathered; two other data collection periods will take place after one and 2 years into the program. The primary outcomes of the current program are physical activity and fitness measures, nutritional data, smoking habits, stress and intention to change.

Discussion: The Activate Your Health program will allow us to compare which combinations of interventions are the most effective. It is expected that the extensive option will be the most advantageous to improve lifestyle habits. The results will indicate the strength and weakness of each intervention and how it could be improved.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrails.gov, registration number: NCT02933385 (updated on the 26th of March 2019, initially registered on the 5th of October 2016).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7393-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6701072PMC
August 2019

Examining grounded theory through the lens of rationalist epistemology.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2019 10 9;24(4):827-837. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

School of kinesiology and physical activity sciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

The objective of scientific, or more broadly, academic knowledge is to provide an understanding of the social and natural world that lies beyond common sense and everyday thinking. Academics use an array of techniques, methods and conceptual apparatuses to achieve this goal. The question we explore in this essay is the following: Does the grounded theory approach, in the constructivist version developed by Kathy Charmaz, provide the necessary methodological tools for the creation of knowledge and theories beyond everyday thinking? To conduct our analysis, we have drawn on the rationalist epistemology originally developed by Gaston Bachelard and taken up a few decades later by Pierre Bourdieu and colleagues to look at the epistemological foundation of the CGT methods as defined by Charmaz. We focussed on two distinctive epistemological features characterising constructivist grounded theory (CGT): the use of inductive reasoning to generate interpretative theory; and the primacy of subjectivity over objectivity as the preferred path to knowledge making. While the usefulness of CGT for conducting qualitative research and understanding the perspective of social actors has been acknowledged by scholars in health professions education research and other research areas, the inductivist logic on which it draws raises questions concerning the nature of the knowledge yielded by this approach. As we argue in this article, it is still unclear in what way the interpretative theory generated by CGT is not a duplication of everyday thinking expressed through meta-narratives. It is also unclear how the understanding of social phenomena can be refined if the use of inductive procedures logically implies the creation of a new theory each time a study is conducted. We engage with these questions to broaden the epistemological conversation within the health professions education research community. It is our hope that scholars in the field will engage in this epistemological conversation and advance it in new directions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10459-018-9849-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6775034PMC
October 2019

Confined to a tokenistic status: Social scientists in leadership roles in a national health research funding agency.

Soc Sci Med 2017 07 10;185:137-146. Epub 2017 May 10.

Université de Montréal, Département de kinésiologie, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal QC, H3C 3J7, Canada. Electronic address:

The idea of interdisciplinarity has been taken up by academic and governmental organisations around the world and enacted through science policies, funding programs and higher education institutions. In Canada, interdisciplinarity led to a major transformation in health research funding. In 2000, the federal government closed the Medical Research Council (MRC) and created the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). From the outset, CIHR's vision and goals were innovative, as it sought to include the social sciences within its purview alongside more traditional health research sectors. The extent to which it has been successful in this endeavour, however, remains unknown. The aim of our study was to examine how CIHR's intentions to foster inclusiveness and cooperation across disciplines were implemented in the agency's own organisational structure. We focused on social scientists' representation on committees and among decision-makers between 2000 and 2015, one of the key mandates of CIHR being to include the social sciences within its remit and support research in this area. We examined the composition of the Governing Council, the Institute Scientific Directors, the Chairs of the College of Reviewers, and two International Review Panels invited by CIHR. We targeted these committees and decision-makers since they hold the power to influence the field of Canadian health research through the decisions they make. Our findings show that, while CIHR was created with the mandate to support the entire spectrum of health-related research-including the social sciences-this call for inclusiveness has not yet been materialized in the agency's organisational structure. Social scientists, as well as researchers from neighbouring disciplines such as social epidemiology, health promotion and the humanities, are still confined to low levels of representation within CIHR's highest echelons. This imbalance limits social scientists' input into health research in Canada and undermines CIHR's interdisciplinary ambition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.05.018DOI Listing
July 2017

Effects of a culturally tailored physical activity promotion program on selected self-regulation skills and attitudes in adolescents of an underserved, multiethnic milieu.

Am J Health Promot 2012 Mar-Apr;26(4):e105-15

Department of Kinesiology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Purpose: To implement a culturally tailored physical activity (PA) promotion program (FunAction) and to assess its impact on five self-regulation skills and attitudes in adolescents. Design . The design and implementation of the FunAction program were informed by social marketing principles. The study used a quasi-experimental approach to assess the impact of the program on specific outcome variables.

Setting: A multiethnic, underserved middle school in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Subjects: The intervention group was made up of grade 8 students (n  =  165) and the control group was made up of grade 7 students (n  =  137).

Intervention: During the 16-week intervention, adolescents were able to choose from a variety of 45-minute cardiovascular PAs offered daily during their school lunch period. Adolescents participated in the activities on a voluntary basis.

Measures: A self-report questionnaire was administered preintervention and postintervention to measure adolescents' scores on the following self-regulation skills and attitudes: self-control, self-esteem, attention/concentration, social competence, and interethnic relationships.

Analysis: Three-way repeated measures analyses of variance and correlational analyses were used. Results . A significant improvement was observed only in attention/concentration. Girls' attention/concentration scores improved significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (F(1,127)  =  16.26, p < .001). The improvement in attention/concentration scores for boys in the intervention group was correlated with their frequency of participation in the program PAs (r  =  .24, p  =  .008).

Conclusion: Using social marketing principles can help encourage adolescents from underserved, multiethnic milieus to participate in PA during their school lunch hour. Furthermore, voluntary participation in a culturally tailored PA program can improve youths' attention/concentration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.090625-QUAN-202DOI Listing
July 2012

How divergent conceptions among health and education stakeholders influence the dissemination of healthy schools in Quebec.

Health Promot Int 2010 Dec 5;25(4):435-43. Epub 2010 Jun 5.

Développement Desindividus et des Communautés, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Quebec, Canada.

This paper focuses on dissemination of the healthy schools (HS) approach in the province of Quebec, Canada. Dissemination aims at raising awareness about HS and promoting its adhesion among actors concerned with youth health in school. As HS is a joint initiative based on agreement and collaboration between health and educational sectors, the positions of stakeholders that foster cooperation between these sectors were considered to be critical to optimize its dissemination. The study's objectives were to: (i) examine and contrast the stakeholders' conceptions of HS and (ii) understand how converging and diverging stakeholders' positions on HS favourably or negatively influence its dissemination in Quebec. Gray's analytical approach to collaboration and its focus on stakeholders' mindframe about a domain served as a conceptual lens to examine stakeholders' positions regarding HS. Collection methods included documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews of 34 key internal and external informants at the provincial, regional and local levels. The results showed consensual adhesion to fundamental principles of the HS approach. However, differences in conceptualization between provincial authorities of the two sectors concerning the way to disseminate HS have been observed. These differences represented a significant barrier to HS optimal dissemination. A dialogue between the two authorities appears to be essential to arrive at a negotiated and shared conceptualization of this issue in the Quebec context, thus allowing agreements for adequate support. The results may serve as the basis for a more fruitful dialogue between actors from the two sectors, at different administrative levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daq040DOI Listing
December 2010

Perspectives of clinician and biomedical scientists on interdisciplinary health research.

CMAJ 2009 Nov 9;181(11):797-803. Epub 2009 Nov 9.

Department of Kinesiology (Laberge), Université de Montréal, CP 6128, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal QC H3C 3J7.

Background: Interdisciplinary health research is a priority of many funding agencies. We surveyed clinician and biomedical scientists about their views on the value and funding of interdisciplinary health research.

Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with 31 biomedical and 30 clinician scientists. The scientists were selected from the 2000-2006 membership lists of peer-review committees of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. We investigated respondents' perspectives on the assumption that collaboration across disciplines adds value to health research. We also investigated their perspectives on funding agencies' growing support of interdisciplinary research.

Results: The 61 respondents expressed a wide variety of perspectives on the value of interdisciplinary health research, ranging from full agreement (22) to complete disagreement (11) that it adds value; many presented qualified viewpoints (28). More than one-quarter viewed funding agencies' growing support of interdisciplinary research as appropriate. Most (44) felt that the level of support was unwarranted. Arguments included the belief that current support leads to the creation of artificial teams and that a top-down process of imposing interdisciplinary structures on teams constrains scientists' freedom. On both issues we found contrasting trends between the clinician and the biomedical scientists.

Interpretation: Despite having some positive views about the value of interdisciplinary research, scientists, especially biomedical scientists, expressed reservations about the growing support of interdisciplinary research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.090661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2780485PMC
November 2009

Physical activity promotion among underserved adolescents: "make it fun, easy, and popular".

Health Promot Pract 2010 May 24;11(3 Suppl):79S-87S. Epub 2009 Jan 24.

department of Kinesiology and Physical Education at McGill University in Montréal, Québec, Canada.

There is a paucity of studies regarding noncurricular physical activity promotion interventions among adolescents, and even less such research pertaining to underserved youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a noncurricular, school-based physical activity promotion program designed for a multiethnic, underserved population of adolescents. The program's impact on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and on physical activity enjoyment (PAE) is also presented. The 16-week program, named FunAction, utilizes social marketing principles. Control (n = 90) and intervention (n = 131) students are assessed pre- and postintervention for levels of LTPA and PAE. Results indicate that although the program did not contribute to an increase in LTPA or PAE among intervention group students, participation in the program was elevated. This study offers preliminary evidence that noncurricular physical activity promotion programs that apply social marketing principles can be effective in engaging multiethnic, underserved adolescents in physical activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524839908329117DOI Listing
May 2010

Biomedical scientists' perception of the social sciences in health research.

Soc Sci Med 2008 Jun 11;66(12):2520-31. Epub 2008 Mar 11.

University of Toronto, Wilson Centre, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The growing interest in interdisciplinary research within the Canadian health sciences sector has been manifested by initiatives aimed at increasing the involvement of the social sciences in this sector. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of field and Knorr-Cetina's concept of epistemic culture, this study explores the extent to which it is possible for the social sciences to integrate into, and thrive in, a field in which the experimental paradigm occupies a hegemonic position. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore biomedical scientists' receptiveness toward the social sciences in general and to qualitative research in particular. We found that these respondents exhibited a predominantly negative posture toward the social sciences; however, we also found considerable variation in their judgments and explanations. Eight biomedical scientists tended to be receptive to the social sciences, 7 ambivalent, and 16 unreceptive. The main rationale expressed by receptive respondents is that the legitimacy of a method depends on its capacity to adequately respond to a research question and not on its conformity to the experimental canon. Unreceptive respondents maintained that the social sciences cannot generate valid and reliable results because they are not conducive to the experimental design as a methodological approach. Ambivalent respondents were characterized by their cautiously accepting posture toward the social sciences and, especially, by their reservations about qualitative methods. Based on the biomedical scientists' limited receptiveness, we can anticipate that the growth of the social sciences will continue to meet obstacles within the health research field in the near future in Canada.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.01.052DOI Listing
June 2008

Association between neighborhood active living potential and walking.

Am J Epidemiol 2008 Apr 27;167(8):944-53. Epub 2008 Jan 27.

Groupe de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Santé, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

This paper examines the association between neighborhood active living potential and walking among middle-aged and older adults. A sample of 2,614 (61.1% women) persons aged 45 years or older and living in one of 112 census tracts in Montreal, Canada, were recruited between February and May of 2005 to participate in a 20-minute telephone survey. Data were linked to observational data on neighborhood active living potential in the 112 census tracts and analyzed through multilevel modeling. Greater density of destinations in the census tract was associated with greater likelihoods of walking for any reason at least 5 days per week for at least 30 minutes (odds ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 1.21, 1.94). Associations were attenuated but remained statistically significant after controlling for socioeconomic, health, lifestyle, and other physical activity characteristics. Sensitivity analyses showed that associations were robust across smaller and larger volumes of walking. No associations were found between dimensions of neighborhood active living potential and walking for recreational reasons. The authors conclude that a larger number and variety of neighborhood destinations in one's residential environment are associated with more walking and possibly more utilitarian walking among middle-aged or older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm391DOI Listing
April 2008

Elderly women show neither a shortage of strategies nor an overreliance on drugs in handling aging and in dealing with minor health problems.

J Women Aging 2005 ;17(1-2):83-98

Faculty of Nursing, Laval University, Geriatric Research Group, Saint-Sacrement Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

Women 65 years old and over make up the fastest growing population segment in North America. They are, particularly among the underprivileged, known to be heavy consumers of prescribed and over-the-counter drugs. The objective of this study was to identify the role of medication in underprivileged elderly women's strategies for aging well and dealing with minor health problems. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 women aged 65 to 75. Results show that elderly women seldom mention resorting to medication to "age well" although they report using this strategy to deal with minor health problems. Overall, the elderly women mentioned a wide range of strategies to cope with aging and minor health problems, which suggests that they are well equipped to face the challenges of aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J074v17n01_07DOI Listing
August 2005

From walkability to active living potential: an "ecometric" validation study.

Am J Prev Med 2005 Feb;28(2 Suppl 2):126-33

Groupe de recherche interdisciplinaire en santé (Interdisciplinary Research Group on Health), University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: The purpose of this paper is to establish the reliability and validity of a neighborhood-level measure of active living potential by applying principles of ecometrics.

Methods: Following a 3-day training session, observers (n =8) were provided with a map of a predetermined walking route constructed through the joining of ten randomly selected street blocks. Then, using an 18-item observation grid, pairs of observers performed ratings of 112 neighborhoods. Resulting observations produced a hierarchically structured data set including 4032 observations nested within observers, which in turn were nested within neighborhoods. Data from the 2001 Canadian census were linked to the neighborhood data.

Results: Application of ecometric multilevel modeling analyses showed that once interitem and interobserver variability were statistically controlled, about one third of the variability in observations were at the between-neighborhood level. Reliability estimates were 0.78 for items measuring activity-friendliness, 0.76 for safety, and 0.83 for density of destinations. Assessment of the convergent validity of the instrument identified that safety of the environment was positively associated with neighborhood affluence. Density of destinations was negatively associated with affluence and positively associated with higher proportions of persons in the neighborhood walking to work.

Conclusions: The three dimensions of the neighborhood active-living potential measure have good reliability and convergent validity and are able to capture between neighborhood differences. Measurement characteristics would have been difficult to ascertain without the ecometrics methodology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.029DOI Listing
February 2005
-->