Publications by authors named "Suja Aarattuthodiyil"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic variability of Edwardsiella piscicida isolates from Mississippi catfish aquaculture with an assessment of virulence in channel and channel × blue hybrid catfish.

J Fish Dis 2021 Nov 12;44(11):1725-1751. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquaculture, College of Forest Resources, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA.

The bacterium Edwardsiella piscicida causes significant losses in global aquaculture, particularly channel (Ictalurus punctatus) × blue (I. furcatus) hybrid catfish cultured in the south-eastern United States. Emergence of E. piscicida in hybrid catfish is worrisome given current industry trends towards increased hybrid production. The project objectives were to assess intraspecific genetic variability of E. piscicida isolates recovered from diseased channel and hybrid catfish in Mississippi; and determine virulence associations among genetic variants. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) using ERIC I and II primers was used to screen 158 E. piscicida diagnostic case isolates. A subsample of 39 E. piscicida isolates, representing predominant rep-PCR profiles, was further characterized using BOX and (GTG) rep-PCR primers, virulence gene assessment and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) targeting housekeeping genes gyrb, pgi and phoU. The MLSA provided greater resolution than rep-PCR, revealing 5 discrete phylogroups that correlated similarly with virulence gene profiles. Virulence assessments using E. piscicida representatives from each MLSA group resulted in 14-day cumulative mortality ranging from 22% to 54% and 63 to 72% in channel and hybrid fingerlings, respectively. Across all phylogroups, mortality was higher in hybrid catfish (p < .05), supporting previous work indicating E. piscicida is an emerging threat to hybrid catfish aquaculture in the south-eastern United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13491DOI Listing
November 2021

N-Naphthoyl-substituted indole thio-barbituric acid analogs inhibit the helicase activity of the hepatitis C virus NS3.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2019 02 13;29(3):430-434. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. Electronic address:

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a substantial threat to human health worldwide. The virus expresses a dual-function protein, NS3 having both protease and RNA helicase activities that are essential for productive viral replication and sustained infections. While viral protease and polymerase inhibitors have shown great successes in treating chronic HCV infections, drugs that specifically target the helicase activity have not advanced. A robust and quantitative 96-well plate-based fluorescent DNA unwinding assay was used to screen a class of indole thio-barbituric acid (ITBA) analogs using the full-length, recombinant HCV NS3, and identified three naphthoyl-containing analogs that efficiently inhibited NS3 helicase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with observed IC values of 21-24 µM. Standard gel electrophoresis helicase assays using radiolabeled duplex DNA and RNA NS3 substrates confirmed the inhibition of NS3 unwinding activity. Subsequent anisotropy measurements demonstrated that the candidate compounds did not disrupt NS3 binding to nucleic acids. Additionally, the rate of ATP hydrolysis and the protease activity were also not affected by the inhibitors. Thus, these results indicate that the three ITBA analogs containing N-naphthoyl moieties are the foundation of a potential series of small molecules capable of inhibiting NS3 activity via a novel interaction with the helicase domain that prevents the productive unwinding of nucleic acid substrates, and may represent the basis for a new class of therapeutic agents with the potential to aid in the treatment and eradication of hepatitis C virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.12.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377802PMC
February 2019

Simultaneous binding to the tracking strand, displaced strand and the duplex of a DNA fork enhances unwinding by Dda helicase.

Nucleic Acids Res 2014 Oct 23;42(18):11707-20. Epub 2014 Sep 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA

Interactions between helicases and the tracking strand of a DNA substrate are well-characterized; however, the role of the displaced strand is a less understood characteristic of DNA unwinding. Dda helicase exhibited greater processivity when unwinding a DNA fork compared to a ss/ds DNA junction substrate. The lag phase in the unwinding progress curve was reduced for the forked DNA compared to the ss/ds junction. Fewer kinetic steps were required to unwind the fork compared to the ss/ds junction, suggesting that binding to the fork leads to disruption of the duplex. DNA footprinting confirmed that interaction of Dda with a fork leads to two base pairs being disrupted whereas no disruption of base pairing was observed with the ss/ds junction. Neutralization of the phosphodiester backbone resulted in a DNA-footprinting pattern similar to that observed with the ss/ds junction, consistent with disruption of the interaction between Dda and the displaced strand. Several basic residues in the 1A domain which were previously proposed to bind to the incoming duplex DNA were replaced with alanines, resulting in apparent loss of interaction with the duplex. Taken together, these results suggest that Dda interaction with the tracking strand, displaced strand and duplex coordinates DNA unwinding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4191417PMC
October 2014

Yeast Pif1 helicase exhibits a one-base-pair stepping mechanism for unwinding duplex DNA.

J Biol Chem 2013 May 17;288(22):16185-95. Epub 2013 Apr 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.

Kinetic analysis of the DNA unwinding and translocation activities of helicases is necessary for characterization of the biochemical mechanism(s) for this class of enzymes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1 helicase was characterized using presteady state kinetics to determine rates of DNA unwinding, displacement of streptavidin from biotinylated DNA, translocation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and ATP hydrolysis activities. Unwinding of substrates containing varying duplex lengths was fit globally to a model for stepwise unwinding and resulted in an unwinding rate of ∼75 bp/s and a kinetic step size of 1 base pair. Pif1 is capable of displacing streptavidin from biotinylated oligonucleotides with a linear increase in the rates as the length of the oligonucleotides increased. The rate of translocation on ssDNA was determined by measuring dissociation from varying lengths of ssDNA and is essentially the same as the rate of unwinding of dsDNA, making Pif1 an active helicase. The ATPase activity of Pif1 on ssDNA was determined using fluorescently labeled phosphate-binding protein to measure the rate of phosphate release. The quantity of phosphate released corresponds to a chemical efficiency of 0.84 ATP/nucleotides translocated. Hence, when all of the kinetic data are considered, Pif1 appears to move along DNA in single nucleotide or base pair steps, powered by hydrolysis of 1 molecule of ATP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.470013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3668774PMC
May 2013

Structure and Mechanisms of SF1 DNA Helicases.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2013 ;973:E1

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5037-5_14DOI Listing
April 2016

Structure and Mechanisms of SF1 DNA Helicases.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2013 ;767:17-46

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA,

Superfamily I is a large and diverse group of monomeric and dimeric helicases defined by a set of conserved sequence motifs. Members of this class are involved in essential processes in both DNA and RNA metabolism in all organisms. In addition to conserved amino acid sequences, they also share a common structure containing two RecA-like motifs involved in ATP binding and hydrolysis and nucleic acid binding and unwinding. Unwinding is facilitated by a "pin" structure which serves to split the incoming duplex. This activity has been measured using both ensemble and single-molecule conditions. SF1 helicase activity is modulated through interactions with other proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5037-5_2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3806203PMC
April 2016

Dda helicase tightly couples translocation on single-stranded DNA to unwinding of duplex DNA: Dda is an optimally active helicase.

J Mol Biol 2012 Jul 11;420(3):141-54. Epub 2012 Apr 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Slot 516, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

Helicases utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to unwind double-stranded DNA while translocating on the DNA. Mechanisms for melting the duplex have been characterized as active or passive, depending on whether the enzyme actively separates the base pairs or simply sequesters single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that forms due to thermal fraying. Here, we show that Dda translocates unidirectionally on ssDNA at the same rate at which it unwinds double-stranded DNA in both ensemble and single-molecule experiments. Further, the unwinding rate is largely insensitive to the duplex stability and to the applied force. Thus, Dda transduces all of its translocase activity into DNA unwinding activity so that the rate of unwinding is limited by the rate of translocation and that the enzyme actively separates the duplex. Active and passive helicases have been characterized by dividing the velocity of DNA unwinding in base pairs per second (V(un)) by the velocity of translocation on ssDNA in nucleotides per second (V(trans)). If the resulting fraction is 0.25, then a helicase is considered to be at the lower end of the "active" range. In the case of Dda, the average DNA unwinding velocity was 257±42 bp/s, and the average translocation velocity was 267±15 nt/s. The V(un)/V(trans) value of 0.96 places Dda in a unique category of being an essentially "perfectly" active helicase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2012.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372602PMC
July 2012
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