Publications by authors named "Steven E Whitesall"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Myeloid interleukin-4 receptor α is essential in postmyocardial infarction healing by regulating inflammation and fibrotic remodeling.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 01 8;320(1):H323-H337. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Interleukin-4 receptor α (IL4Rα) signaling plays an important role in cardiac remodeling during myocardial infarction (MI). However, the target cell type(s) of IL4Rα signaling during this remodeling remains unclear. Here, we investigated the contribution of endogenous myeloid-specific IL4Rα signaling in cardiac remodeling post-MI. We established a murine myeloid-specific IL4Rα knockout (MyIL4RαKO) model with LysM promoter-driven Cre recombination. Macrophages from MyIL4RαKO mice showed significant downregulation of alternatively activated macrophage markers but an upregulation of classical activated macrophage markers both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the successful inactivation of IL4Rα signaling in macrophages. To examine the role of myeloid IL4Rα during MI, we subjected MyIL4RαKO and littermate floxed control (FC) mice to MI. We found that cardiac function was significantly impaired as a result of myeloid-specific IL4Rα deficiency. This deficiency resulted in a dysregulated inflammatory response consisting of decreased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Myeloid IL4Rα deficiency also led to reduced collagen 1 deposition and an imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), with upregulated MMPs and downregulated TIMPs, which resulted in insufficient fibrotic remodeling. In conclusion, this study identifies that myeloid-specific IL4Rα signaling regulates inflammation and fibrotic remodeling during MI. Therefore, myeloid-specific activation of IL4Rα signaling could offer protective benefits after MI. This study showed, for the first time, the role of endogenous IL4Rα signaling in myeloid cells during cardiac remodeling and the underlying mechanisms. We identified myeloid cells are the critical target cell types of IL4Rα signaling during cardiac remodeling post-MI. Deficiency of myeloid IL4Rα signaling causes deteriorated cardiac function post-MI, due to dysregulated inflammation and insufficient fibrotic remodeling. This study sheds light on the potential of activating myeloid-specific IL4Rα signaling to modify remodeling post-MI. This brings hope to patients with MI and diminishes side effects by cell type-specific instead of whole body treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00251.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847075PMC
January 2021

Impaired Myocardial Energetics Causes Mechanical Dysfunction in Decompensated Failing Hearts.

Function (Oxf) 2020 22;1(2):zqaa018. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Cardiac mechanical function is supported by ATP hydrolysis, which provides the chemical-free energy to drive the molecular processes underlying cardiac pumping. Physiological rates of myocardial ATP consumption require the heart to resynthesize its entire ATP pool several times per minute. In the failing heart, cardiomyocyte metabolic dysfunction leads to a reduction in the capacity for ATP synthesis and associated free energy to drive cellular processes. Yet it remains unclear if and how metabolic/energetic dysfunction that occurs during heart failure affects mechanical function of the heart. We hypothesize that changes in phosphate metabolite concentrations (ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate) that are associated with decompensation and failure have direct roles in impeding contractile function of the myocardium in heart failure, contributing to the whole-body phenotype. To test this hypothesis, a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) rat model of pressure overload, hypertrophy, and decompensation was used to assess relationships between metrics of whole-organ pump function and myocardial energetic state. A multiscale computational model of cardiac mechanoenergetic coupling was used to identify and quantify the contribution of metabolic dysfunction to observed mechanical dysfunction. Results show an overall reduction in capacity for oxidative ATP synthesis fueled by either fatty acid or carbohydrate substrates as well as a reduction in total levels of adenine nucleotides and creatine in myocardium from TAC animals compared to sham-operated controls. Changes in phosphate metabolite levels in the TAC rats are correlated with impaired mechanical function, consistent with the overall hypothesis. Furthermore, computational analysis of myocardial metabolism and contractile dynamics predicts that increased levels of inorganic phosphate in TAC compared to control animals kinetically impair the myosin ATPase crossbridge cycle in decompensated hypertrophy/heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/function/zqaa018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552914PMC
September 2020

Enhanced dimethylarginine degradation improves coronary flow reserve and exercise tolerance in Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier mice.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2020 09 7;319(3):H582-H603. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disease caused by null mutations in dystrophin and characterized by muscle degeneration. Cardiomyopathy is common and often prevalent at similar frequency in female DMD carriers irrespective of whether they manifest skeletal muscle disease. Impaired muscle nitric oxide (NO) production in DMD disrupts muscle blood flow regulation and exaggerates postexercise fatigue. We show that circulating levels of endogenous methylated arginines including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which act as NO synthase inhibitors, are elevated by acute necrotic muscle damage and in chronically necrotic dystrophin-deficient mice. We therefore hypothesized that excessive ADMA impairs muscle NO production and diminishes exercise tolerance in DMD. We used transgenic expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH), which degrades methylated arginines, to investigate their contribution to exercise-induced fatigue in DMD. Although infusion of exogenous ADMA was sufficient to impair exercise performance in wild-type mice, transgenic DDAH expression did not rescue exercise-induced fatigue in dystrophin-deficient male mice. Surprisingly, DDAH transgene expression did attenuate exercise-induced fatigue in dystrophin-heterozygous female carrier mice. Improved exercise tolerance was associated with reduced heart weight and improved cardiac β-adrenergic responsiveness in DDAH-transgenic carriers. We conclude that DDAH overexpression increases exercise tolerance in female DMD carriers, possibly by limiting cardiac pathology and preserving the heart's responses to changes in physiological demand. Methylated arginine metabolism may be a new target to improve exercise tolerance and cardiac function in DMD carriers or act as an adjuvant to promote NO signaling alongside therapies that partially restore dystrophin expression in patients with DMD. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) carriers are at risk for cardiomyopathy. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is released from damaged muscle in DMD and impairs exercise performance. Transgenic expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase to degrade ADMA prevents cardiac hypertrophy, improves cardiac function, and improves exercise tolerance in DMD carrier mice. These findings highlight the relevance of ADMA to muscular dystrophy and have important implications for therapies targeting nitric oxide in patients with DMD and DMD carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00333.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509273PMC
September 2020

Continuous glucose monitoring reveals glycemic variability and hypoglycemia after vertical sleeve gastrectomy in rats.

Mol Metab 2020 02 24;32:148-159. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA; Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Post-bariatric surgery hypoglycemia (PBH) is defined as the presence of neuroglycopenic symptoms accompanied by postprandial hypoglycemia in bariatric surgery patients. Recent clinical studies using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology revealed that PBH is more frequently observed in vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) patients than previously recognized. PBH cannot be alleviated by current medication. Therefore, a model system to investigate the mechanism and treatment is required.

Methods: We used CGM in a rat model of VSG and monitored the occurrence of glycemic variability and hypoglycemia in various meal conditions for 4 weeks after surgery. Another cohort of VSG rats with CGM was used to investigate whether the blockade of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling alleviates these symptoms. A mouse VSG model was used to investigate whether the impaired glucose counterregulatory system causes postprandial hypoglycemia.

Results: Like in humans, rats have increased glycemic variability and hypoglycemia after VSG. Postprandial hypoglycemia was specifically detected after liquid versus solid meals. Further, the blockade of GLP-1R signaling raises the glucose nadir but does not affect glycemic variability.

Conclusions: Rat bariatric surgery duplicates many features of human post-bariatric surgery hypoglycemia including postprandial hypoglycemia and glycemic variability, while blockade of GLP-1R signaling prevents hypoglycemia but not the variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005148PMC
February 2020

Differential impact of type-1 and type-2 diabetes on control of heart rate in mice.

Auton Neurosci 2016 Jan 17;194:17-25. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Aims: Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a serious complication of diabetes. One consequence is disruption of the normal beat-to-beat regulation of heart rate (HR), i.e. HR variability (HRV). However, our understanding of the disease process has been limited by inconsistent HR/HRV data from previous animal studies. We hypothesized that differences in the method of measurement, time of day, and level of stress account for the differing results across studies. Thus, our aim was to systematically assess HR and HRV in two common diabetic mouse models.

Methods: ECG radiotelemetry devices were implanted into db/db (type-2 diabetic), STZ-treated db/+ (type-1 diabetic), and control db/+ mice (n=4 per group). HR and HRV were analyzed over 24 h and during treadmill testing.

Results: 24 h analysis revealed that db/db mice had an altered pattern of circadian HR changes, and STZ-treated mice had reduced HR throughout. HRV measures linked to sympathetic control were reduced in db/db mice in the early morning and early afternoon, and partially reduced in STZ-treated mice. HR response to treadmill testing was blunted in both models.

Conclusions: It is important to consider both time of day and level of stress when assessing HR and HRV in diabetic mice. db/db mice may have altered circadian rhythm of sympathetic control of HR, whereas STZ-treated mice have a relative reduction. This study provides baseline data and a framework for HR analysis that may guide future investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autneu.2015.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4724221PMC
January 2016

Ambient Light Promotes Selective Subcellular Proteotoxicity after Endogenous and Exogenous Porphyrinogenic Stress.

J Biol Chem 2015 Sep 23;290(39):23711-24. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

From the Departments of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and the Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105.

Hepatic accumulation of protoporphyrin-IX (PP-IX) in erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) or X-linked-dominant protoporphyria (XLP) cause liver damage. Hepatocyte nuclear lamin aggregation is a sensitive marker for PP-IX-mediated liver injury. We tested the hypothesis that extracellular or intracellular protoporphyria cause damage to different subcellular compartments, in a light-triggered manner. Three hepatoma cell lines (HepG2, Hepa-1, and Huh-7) were treated with exogenous PP-IX (mimicking XLP extrahepatic protoporphyria) or with the iron chelator deferoxamine and the porphyrin precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (mimicking intracellular protoporphyrin accumulation in EPP). Exogenous PP-IX accumulated predominantly in the nuclear fraction and caused nuclear shape deformation and cytoplasmic vacuoles containing electron-dense particles, whereas ALA+deferoxamine treatment resulted in higher PP-IX in the cytoplasmic fraction. Protein aggregation in the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions paralleled PP-IX levels and, in cell culture, the effects were exclusively ambient light-mediated. PP-IX and ALA caused proteasomal inhibition, whereas endoplasmic reticulum protein aggregation was more prominent in ALA-treated cells. The enhanced ALA-related toxicity is likely due to generation of additional porphyrin intermediates including uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin, based on HPLC analysis of cell lysates and the culture medium, as well as cell-free experiments with uroporphyrin/coproporphyrin. Mouse livers from drug-induced porphyria phenocopied the in vitro findings, and mass spectrometry of liver proteins isolated in light/dark conditions showed diminished (as compared with light-harvested) but detectable aggregation under dark-harvested conditions. Therefore, PP-IX leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and proteasome inhibition in a manner that depends on the source of porphyrin buildup and light exposure. Porphyrin-mediated selective protein aggregation provides a potential mechanism for porphyria-associated tissue injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.636001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4583010PMC
September 2015

Packed red blood cells are an abundant and proximate potential source of nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

PLoS One 2015 20;10(3):e0119991. Epub 2015 Mar 20.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.

Objective: We determined, for packed red blood cells (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma, the maximum content, and ability to release the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and monomethylarginine (LNMMA).

Background: ADMA and LNMMA are near equipotent NOS inhibitors forming blood's total NOS inhibitory content. The balance between removal from, and addition to plasma determines their free concentrations. Removal from plasma is by well-characterized specific hydrolases while formation is restricted to posttranslational protein methylation. When released into plasma they can readily enter endothelial cells and inhibit NOS. Fresh rat and human whole blood contain substantial protein incorporated ADMA however; the maximum content of ADMA and LNMMA in PRBC and fresh frozen plasma has not been determined.

Methods: We measured total (free and protein incorporated) ADMA and LNMMA content in PRBCs and fresh frozen plasma, as well as their incubation induced release, using HPLC with fluorescence detection. We tested the hypothesis that PRBC and fresh frozen plasma contain substantial inhibitory methylarginines that can be released chemically by complete in vitro acid hydrolysis or physiologically at 37°C by enzymatic blood proteolysis.

Results: In vitro strong-acid-hydrolysis revealed a large PRBC reservoir of ADMA (54.5 ± 9.7 µM) and LNMMA (58.9 ± 28.9 μM) that persisted over 42-d at 6° or -80°C. In vitro 5h incubation at 37°C nearly doubled free ADMA and LNMMNA concentration from PRBCs while no change was detected in fresh frozen plasma.

Conclusion: The compelling physiological ramifications are that regardless of storage age, 1) PRBCs can rapidly release pathologically relevant quantities of ADMA and LNMMA when incubated and 2) PRBCs have a protein-incorporated inhibitory methylarginines reservoir 100 times that of normal free inhibitory methylarginines in blood and thus could represent a clinically relevant and proximate risk for iatrogenic NOS inhibition upon transfusion.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0119991PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4368738PMC
February 2016

Increased 18F-FDG uptake is predictive of rupture in a novel rat abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture model.

Ann Surg 2015 Feb;261(2):395-404

*Section of Vascular Surgery, Conrad Jobst Vascular Research Laboratories †Nuclear Medicine Division ‡Pathology Department, and §Physiology Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; and ¶Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Division, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Objective: To determine whether F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) micro-positron emission tomography (micro-PET) can predict abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture.

Background: An infrarenal AAA model is needed to study inflammatory mechanisms that drive rupture. F-FDG PET can detect vascular inflammation in animal models and patients.

Methods: After exposing Sprague-Dawley rats to intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) (12 U/mL), AAA rupture was induced by daily, subcutaneous, β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN, 300 mg/kg, N = 24) administration. Negative control AAA animals (N = 15) underwent daily saline subcutaneous injection after PPE exposure. BAPN-exposed animals that did not rupture served as positive controls [nonruptured AAA (NRAAA) 14d, N = 9]. Rupture was witnessed using radiotelemetry. Maximum standard uptakes for F-FDG micro-PET studies were determined. Aortic wall PAI-1, uPA, and tPA concentrations were determined by western blot analyses. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and MIP-2 were determined by Bio-Plex bead array. Neutrophil and macrophage populations per high-power field were quantified. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities were determined by zymography.

Results: When comparing ruptured AAA (RAAA) to NRAAA 14d animals, increased focal F-FDG uptakes were detected at subsequent sites of rupture (P = 0.03). PAI-1 expression was significantly less in RAAA tissue (P = 0.01), with comparable uPA and decreased tPA levels (P = 0.02). IL-1β (P = 0.04), IL-6 (P = 0.001), IL-10 (P = 0.04), and MIP-2 (P = 0.02) expression, neutrophil (P = 0.02) and macrophage presence (P = 0.002), and MMP9 (P < 0.0001) activity were increased in RAAA tissue.

Conclusions: With this AAA rupture model, increased prerupture F-FDG uptake on micro-PET imaging was associated with increased inflammation in the ruptured AAA wall. F-FDG PET imaging may be used to monitor inflammatory changes before AAA rupture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000000602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4662083PMC
February 2015

Vascular smooth muscle cell-selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma deletion leads to hypotension.

Circulation 2009 Apr 13;119(16):2161-9. Epub 2009 Apr 13.

Cardiovascular Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA.

Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonists are commonly used to treat diabetes, although their PPARgamma-dependent effects transcend their role as insulin sensitizers. Thiazolidinediones lower blood pressure (BP) in diabetic patients, whereas results from conventional/tissue-specific PPARgamma experimental models suggest an important pleiotropic role for PPARgamma in BP control. Little evidence is available on the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of vascular smooth muscle cell-specific PPARgamma in basal vascular tone.

Methods And Results: We show that vascular smooth muscle cell-selective deletion of PPARgamma impairs vasoactivity with an overall reduction in BP. Aortic contraction in response to norepinephrine is reduced and vasorelaxation is enhanced in response to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AdR) agonists in vitro. Similarly, vascular smooth muscle cell-selective PPARgamma knockout mice display a biphasic response to norepinephrine in BP, reversible on administration of beta-AdR blocker, and enhanced BP reduction on treatment with beta-AdR agonists. Consistent with enhanced beta2-AdR responsiveness, we found that the absence of PPARgamma in vascular smooth muscle cells increased beta2-AdR expression, possibly leading to the hypotensive phenotype during the rest phase.

Conclusions: These data uncovered the beta2-AdR as a novel target of PPARgamma transcriptional repression in vascular smooth muscle cells and indicate that PPARgamma regulation of beta2-adrenergic signaling is important in the modulation of BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.815803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829656PMC
April 2009

Blood content of asymmetric dimethylarginine: new insights into its dysregulation in renal disease.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009 Feb 15;24(2):489-96. Epub 2008 Sep 15.

University of Michigan Medical School, Simpson Memorial Institute, Rm 310, 102 Observatory Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5725, USA.

Background: Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is significantly elevated in patients with kidney disease and is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Here, we tested whether human whole blood (WB), as in rodent blood, can accumulate free ADMA and whether this accumulation is a function of disease burden.

Methods: In 16 healthy control subjects (CO), 18 patients with ESRD and 18 matched hypertensive patients with normal renal function (HTN), we compared using high-pressure liquid chromatography baseline plasma and WB supernatant (WBSUP) ADMA and symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations and accumulation during a 5-h incubation. We measured protein turnover in incubated WBSUP to determine if proteolytic processes drive ADMA accumulation.

Results: Elevated plasma ADMA was confirmed in ESRD and HTN populations while basal WBSUP ADMA was significantly higher in ESRD subjects than controls (P = 0.05 versus CO; P = 0.02 versus HTN). Plasma SDMA followed a similar pattern. Incubation of WBSUP resulted in ADMA release from protein-incorporated stores while SDMA was unaffected. ADMA accumulation in ESRD samples was significantly greater than that in HTN (P = 0.03). CO and HTN men showed significantly greater ADMA accumulation than women (P = 0.01 and P = 0.003, respectively) but no gender difference was observed in the ESRD group (P = 0.26). ADMA accumulation correlated with ex vivo protein turnover (R = 0.76, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Human blood is capable of releasing physiologically significant quantities of ADMA via proteolytic pathways. Dysregulated ADMA release from WB reservoirs may contribute to the distinctly high plasma ADMA levels in ESRD populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfn500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2734175PMC
February 2009

Vascular dysfunction in the alpha-galactosidase A-knockout mouse is an endothelial cell-, plasma membrane-based defect.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2008 Oct 18;35(10):1156-63. Epub 2008 Jun 18.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Fabry disease results from an X-linked mutation in the lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (Gla) gene. Defective Gla results in multi-organ accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids (GSLs), especially in the vascular endothelium, with the major GSL accumulated being globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Excessive endothelial Gb3 accumulation is associated with increased thrombosis, atherogenesis and endothelial dysfunction. However, the mechanism(s) by which endothelial dysfunction occurs is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize the vasculopathy associated with a murine model of Fabry disease. Vascular reactivity was performed in vessels from wild-type (Gla(+/0)) and Gla-knockout (Gla(-/0)) mice. Conscious blood pressure and heart rate were measured in Gla(+/0) and Gla(-/0) mice by telemetry. The present study demonstrates that vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractions to phenylephrine and serotonin, but not to U46619, were blunted in Gla(-/0) mice. Endothelium-dependent contraction and receptor-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine were significantly attenuated in vessels from Gla(-/0) mice. However, receptor-independent endothelium-dependent relaxation to the calcium ionophore ionomycin remained intact in vessels from Gla(-/0) mice. Furthermore, VSM reactivity was normal in aortas from Gla(-/0) mice in the absence of endothelium. These changes in vascular function were observed without changes in whole-animal blood pressure or heart rate. These results suggest that the vasculopathy associated with Fabry disease is localized to the endothelium, despite the accumulation of GSLs throughout the vasculature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2008.04984.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2744149PMC
October 2008

Direct monitoring pressure overload predicts cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

Physiol Meas 2007 Nov 5;28(11):1329-39. Epub 2007 Oct 5.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 7744 Med. Sci. II, 1150 W. Med. Ctr. Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0622, USA.

Pressure overload (POL) is a classical model for studying cardiac hypertrophy, but there has been no direct measure of hemodynamics in a conscious ambulatory mouse model of POL. We used abdominal aortic constriction to produce POL and radiotelemetry to measure the blood pressure and heart rate for three weeks. The cardiac size correlated with the systolic pressure in the last week is better than other hemodynamic parameters. Cardiac fibrosis was more correlated to the cardiac size than to the systolic pressure. The expression of the cardiac genes that are typically associated with cardiac hypertrophy was correlated with both cardiac size and systolic pressure. In conclusion, the systolic pressure is the major determinant of cardiac hypertrophy in the murine POL model. In contrast, cardiac fibrosis shows the influence of other factors besides systolic pressure. The combination of the POL model with continuous direct measurements of hemodynamics represents a significant technological advance and will lead to an extended usefulness of POL methodologically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/28/11/001DOI Listing
November 2007

Hypotension, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance in generalized PPARgamma-deficient mice rescued from embryonic lethality.

J Clin Invest 2007 Mar 15;117(3):812-22. Epub 2007 Feb 15.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

We rescued the embryonic lethality of global PPARgamma knockout by breeding Mox2-Cre (MORE) mice with floxed PPARgamma mice to inactivate PPARgamma in the embryo but not in trophoblasts and created a generalized PPARgamma knockout mouse model, MORE-PPARgamma knockout (MORE-PGKO) mice. PPARgamma inactivation caused severe lipodystrophy and insulin resistance; surprisingly, it also caused hypotension. Paradoxically, PPARgamma agonists had the same effect. We showed that another mouse model of lipodystrophy was hypertensive, ruling out the lipodystrophy as a cause. Further, high salt loading did not correct the hypotension in MORE-PGKO mice. In vitro studies showed that the vasculature from MORE-PGKO mice was more sensitive to endothelial-dependent relaxation caused by muscarinic stimulation, but was not associated with changes in eNOS expression or phosphorylation. In addition, vascular smooth muscle had impaired contraction in response to alpha-adrenergic agents. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was mildly activated, consistent with increased vascular capacitance or decreased volume. These effects are likely mechanisms contributing to the hypotension. Our results demonstrated that PPARgamma is required to maintain normal adiposity and insulin sensitivity in adult mice. Surprisingly, genetic loss of PPARgamma function, like activation by agonists, lowered blood pressure, likely through a mechanism involving increased vascular relaxation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI28859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1794117PMC
March 2007

Acute and conditioned hypoxic tolerance augmented by endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibition in mice.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2007 Feb 26;102(2):610-5. Epub 2006 Oct 26.

College of Literature, Science and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

To identify a possible role for nitric oxide (NO) in acute hypoxic tolerance (HT) we measured hypoxic survival time (HST), effect of hypoxic conditioning (HC), and survival following hypoxic conditioning while blocking or mimicking the action of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). To inhibit NOS, CD-1 mice were given supplemental endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) or a synthetic NOS inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), both of which nonselectively inhibit three of the isoforms of NOS [inducible (iNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS)]. ADMA (10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline vehicle was given 5 min before HST testing. L-NNA was given orally at 1 g/l in drinking water with tap water as the control for 48 h before testing. Both ADMA and L-NNA significantly increased HST and augmented the HC effect on HST. Neither the nNOS selective inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) nor the iNOS selective inhibitor N-{[3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]methyl}-enthanimidamide (1400W) had a statistically significant effect on HST or HT. The NO donor, 3-morpholinosydnoeimine, when given alone did not significantly decrease HT, but it did mitigate the increased HT effect of L-NNA. These data confirm that acute hypoxic conditioning increases HT and that NOS inhibition by endogenous (ADMA) and a synthetic NOS inhibitor (L-NNA) further increases HT, whereas iNOS and nNOS inhibition does not, suggesting that it is the inhibition of eNOS that mediates enhancement of HT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00894.2006DOI Listing
February 2007

Contribution of whole blood to the control of plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2006 Oct 21;291(4):H1788-96. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

7744 Medical Sciences Bldg. II, Dept. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0622, USA.

The endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is elevated in many patients and may contribute to the initiation and progression of their disease. While some mechanistic pathways have been identified, tissue-specific contributions to ADMA control remain unclear. We sought to determine if whole blood (WB) could participate in ADMA control ex vivo. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent exsanguinations, and WB preparations were incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 h. ADMA and symmetrical dimethylarginine were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Incubation of lysed red blood cell (RBC) supernatant yielded a significant decrease in ADMA that was blocked by 4124W, a synthetic inhibitor of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase, the only reported enzyme to hydrolyze ADMA. Hydrolysis of ADMA was diminished by addition of physiologically relevant concentrations of zinc (i.e., 20 microM). Conversely, when rat WB or WB supernatant was incubated at 37 degrees C, it liberated quantities of free ADMA (1-2 microM) that in vivo would likely have pathological consequences. Addition of arginine methyltransferase inhibitors to these incubations did not reduce ADMA release, indicating no dominant role for active protein methylation during these incubations. This ADMA liberation was significantly reduced by addition of protease inhibitors, indicating a dependence on peptide bond hydrolysis. Total ADMA (protein incorporated plus free) was determined by acid hydrolysis and found to be 43.18 +/- 4.79 microM in WB with approximately 95% of this in RBCs. These ex vivo data demonstrate the potential of blood to control the NO-NOS system by modulating free ADMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00066.2006DOI Listing
October 2006

Altered vascular reactivity in mice made hypertensive by nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2005 Oct;46(4):438-44

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

This study tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition in mice would result in hypertension characterized by increased agonist-induced vasoconstrictor responsiveness and attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Administration of N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an NO synthase inhibitor (1 g/L, 4 weeks), via drinking water to mice resulted in significant elevations in blood pressure. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was significantly increased in aortic rings from L-NNA-treated mice compared with rings from control mice. Aortic rings from control mice showed a concentration-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine whereas those obtained from L-NNA-treated mice showed a biphasic response, contracting at lower concentrations while relaxing at higher concentrations. Aortic rings from L-NNA-treated mice had decreased relaxation to acetylcholine and increased sensitivity to sodium nitroprusside compared with control rings. The relaxation induced by an NO-independent soluble guanylyl cyclase activator was not different between groups. In aortic rings from control and L-NNA-treated mice pre-contracted with phenylephrine, the administration of L-NNA to the organ bath caused additional and sustained contraction. When compared with the contraction induced by phenylephrine, L-NNA-induced contraction in aorta from control mice was significantly higher than that in aorta from L-NNA-treated mice. We conclude that mice treated with L-NNA develop hypertension and that a reduction in NO availability is responsible for the changes observed in vascular reactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.fjc.0000175879.14994.63DOI Listing
October 2005

Asymmetrical dimethylarginine plasma clearance persists after acute total nephrectomy in rats.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2006 Jan 19;290(1):H209-16. Epub 2005 Aug 19.

Dept. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0622, USA.

Elevated plasma concentrations of symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) are repeatedly associated with kidney failure. Both ADMA and SDMA can be excreted in urine. We tested whether renal excretion is necessary for acute, short-term maintenance of plasma ADMA and SDMA. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham operation, bilateral nephrectomy (NPX), ureteral ligation, or ureteral section under isoflurane anesthesia. Tail-snip blood samples (250 microl) were taken before and at 6- or 12-h intervals for 72 h after operation. Plasma clearance was assessed in intact and NPX rats. High-performance liquid chromatography determined SDMA and ADMA concentrations. Sodium, potassium, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and body weight were also measured. Forty-eight hours after NPX, SDMA increased 25 times (0.23 +/- 0.03 to 5.68 +/- 0.30 microM), whereas ADMA decreased (1.17 +/- 0.08 to 0.73 +/- 0.08 microM) by 38%. Creatinine and BUN increased, paralleling SDMA. Sham-operated animals showed no significant changes. Increased SDMA confirms continuous systemic production of SDMA and its obligatory renal excretion, much like creatinine. In contrast, decreased plasma ADMA suggests that acute total NPX either reduced systemic ADMA formation and/or systemic hydrolysis of ADMA increased 48-h post-NPX. However, plasma clearance of ADMA appeared unchanged 48 h after NPX. We conclude that renal excretory function is needed for SDMA elimination but not needed for acute, short-term ADMA elimination in that systemic hydrolysis is fully capable of clearing plasma ADMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00208.2005DOI Listing
January 2006

Comparison of simultaneous measurement of mouse systolic arterial blood pressure by radiotelemetry and tail-cuff methods.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004 Jun 12;286(6):H2408-15. Epub 2004 Feb 12.

Dept. of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 7708 Medical Sciences Bldg. II, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0622, USA.

Radiotelemetry of mouse blood pressure accurately monitors systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, heart rate, and locomotor activity but requires surgical implantation. Noninvasive measurements of indirect systolic blood pressure have long been available for larger rodents and now are being reported more frequently for mice. This study compared mouse systolic arterial blood pressure measurements using implanted radiotelemetry pressure transducer with simultaneous tail-cuff measurements in the same unanesthetized mice. The pressure range for comparison was extended by inducing experimental hypertension or by observations of circadian elevations between 3 AM and 6 AM. Both trained and untrained tail-cuff operators used both instruments. Every effort was made to follow recommended manufacturer's instructions. With the initial flow-based tail-cuff instrument, we made 671 comparisons (89 sessions) and found the slope of the linear regression to be 0.118, suggesting poor agreement. In an independent assessment, 277 comparisons (35 sessions) of radiotelemetry measurements with the pulse based tail-cuff instrument were made. The slope of the linear regression of the simultaneous measurements of systolic pressures was 0.98, suggesting agreement. Bland-Altman analysis also supported our interpretation of the linear regression. Thus although reliable systolic pressure measurements are possible with either tail-cuff or radiotelemetry techniques, in our hands some tail-cuff instruments fail to accurately detect elevated blood pressures. These data, however, do not distinguish whether this instrument-specific tail-cuff failure was due to operator or instrument inadequacies. We strongly advise investigators to obtain an independent and simultaneous validation of tail-cuff determinations of mouse blood pressure before making critical genotyping determinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.01089.2003DOI Listing
June 2004

Impaired vasoreactivity despite an increase in plasma nitrite in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms.

J Vasc Surg 2002 Feb;35(2):363-7

Jobst Vascular Research Laboratories, Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor 48109-0329, USA.

Objective: This investigation was designed to determine whether differences in vasoreactivity occur in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) as compared with patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) or individuals (controls) without known vascular disease.

Methods: Brachial artery vasoreactivity was assessed in a blinded fashion, after endothelium-dependent (ED) and endothelium-independent (EI) flow-mediated vasodilation, in age-matched, male patients with AAAs (n = 11) or PAOD (n = 9) or in controls (n = 10). There were no significant differences in prestudy systolic or diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, or antilipidemic medications among the groups studied. Exclusion criteria included diabetes and tobacco use within 3 months. Quantitative ultrasound scan measurements of brachial artery diameters were performed at rest and after either forearm ischemia (ED) or administration of 0.4 mg sublingual nitroglycerin (EI). Plasma nitric oxide (NO(X) = NO(2) + NO(3)) was measured with the Saville assay. Asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous inhibitor of NO(X) synthase, was measured with liquid chromatography.

Results: Initial brachial artery diameters were not significantly different among the groups studied (4.85 +/- 0.18 mm for AAA group, 4.82 +/- 0.17 mm for PAOD group, 4.68 +/- 0.20 mm for controls). ED and EI vasodilation was significantly less (P =.02 and.03, respectively) in the AAA group (-1.71 +/- 1.52 and 8.33 +/- 1.13, respectively) when compared with the controls (2.96 +/- 1.04 and 13.88 +/- 2.16, respectively). However, plasma NO(X) was significantly increased (P =.01) in the AAA group (7.86 +/- 0.85 micromol/L) as compared with both controls (5.13 +/- 0.63 micromol/L) and PAOD (4.85 +/- 0.46 micromol/L). Asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were decreased in the AAA group (0.34 +/- 0.05 micromol/L) as compared with the PAOD group (0.46 +/- 0.09 micromol/L). No correlation existed between aneurysm size and ED or EI vasodilation or plasma NO(X).

Conclusion: This study is the first to document a divergence between ED and EI vasoreactivity and systemic NO metabolites in patients with AAAs. It is speculated that a dysfunctional vessel wall response, rather than a lack of NO, may be important in the pathogenesis of AAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mva.2002.121069DOI Listing
February 2002
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