Publications by authors named "Stephan Bramow"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effectiveness of natalizumab vs fingolimod-A comparison of international registry studies.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 8;53:103012. Epub 2021 May 8.

KTU Medical Faculty Farabi Hospital, Trabzon, Turkey.

Background: Natalizumab and fingolimod were the first preparations recommended for disease breakthrough in priorly treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Of three published head-to-head studies two showed that natalizumab is the more effective to prevent relapses and EDSS worsening.

Methods: By re-analyzing original published results from MSBase, France, and Denmark using uniform methodologies, we aimed at identifying the effects of differences in methodology, in the MS-populations, and at re-evaluating the differences in effectiveness between the two drugs. We gained access to copies of the individual amended databases and pooled all data. We used uniform inclusion/exclusion criteria and statistical methods with Inverse Probability Treatment Weighting.

Results: The pooled analyses comprised 968 natalizumab- and 1479 fingolimod treated patients. The on-treatment natalizumab/fingolimod relapse rate ratio was 0.77 (p=0.004). The hazard ratio (HR) for a first relapse was 0.82 (p=0.030), and the HR for sustained EDSS improvement was 1.4 (p=0.009). There were modest differences between each of the original published studies and the replication study, but the conclusions of the three original studies remained unchanged: in two of them natalizumab was more effective, but in the third there was no difference between natalizumab and fingolimod.

Conclusion: The results were largely invariant to the epidemiological and statistical methods but differed between the MS populations. Generally, the advantage of natalizumab was confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.103012DOI Listing
May 2021

Real-world outcomes for a complete nationwide cohort of more than 3200 teriflunomide-treated multiple sclerosis patients in The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(5):e0250820. Epub 2021 May 18.

The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, University Hospital Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: Teriflunomide is a once-daily, oral disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). We studied clinical outcomes in a real-world setting involving a population-based large cohort of unselected patients enrolled in The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) who started teriflunomide treatment between 2013-2019.

Methods: This was a complete nationwide population-based cohort study with prospectively enrolled unselected cases. Demographic and disease-specific patient parameters related to treatment history, efficacy outcomes, and discontinuation and switching rates among other clinical variables were assessed at baseline and during follow-up visits.

Results: A total of 3239 patients (65.4% female) started treatment with teriflunomide during the study period, 56% of whom were treatment-naïve. Compared to previously treated patients, treatment-naïve patients were older on average at disease onset, had a shorter disease duration, a lower Expanded Disability Status Scale score at teriflunomide treatment start and more frequently experienced a relapse in the 12 months prior to teriflunomide initiation. In the 3001 patients initiating teriflunomide treatment at least 12 months before the cut-off date, 72.7% were still on treatment one year after treatment start. Discontinuations in the first year were due mainly to adverse events (15.6%). Over the full follow-up period, 47.5% of patients discontinued teriflunomide treatment. Sixty-three percent of the patients treated with teriflunomide for 5 years were relapse-free, while significantly more treatment-naïve versus previously treated patients experienced a relapse during the follow-up (p<0.0001). Furthermore, 85% of the patients with available data were free of disability worsening at the end of follow-up.

Conclusions: Solid efficacy and treatment persistence data consistent with other real-world studies were obtained over the treatment period. Treatment outcomes in this real-world scenario of the population-based cohort support previous findings that teriflunomide is an effective and generally well-tolerated DMT for relapsing MS patients with mild to moderate disease activity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250820PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130956PMC
May 2021

Clinical and pathological insights into the dynamic nature of the white matter multiple sclerosis plaque.

Ann Neurol 2015 Nov 24;78(5):710-21. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: An extensive analysis of white matter plaques in a large sample of multiple sclerosis (MS) autopsies provides insights into the dynamic nature of MS pathology.

Methods: One hundred twenty MS cases (1,220 tissue blocks) were included. Plaque types were classified according to demyelinating activity based on stringent criteria. Early active, late active, smoldering, inactive, and shadow plaques were distinguished. A total of 2,476 MS white matter plaques were identified. Plaque type distribution was analyzed in relation to clinical data.

Results: Active plaques were most often found in early disease, whereas at later stages, smoldering, inactive, and shadow plaques predominated. The presence of early active plaques rapidly declined with disease duration. Plaque type distribution differed significantly by clinical course. The majority of plaques in acute monophasic and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) were active. Among secondary progressive MS (SPMS) cases with attacks, all plaque types could be distinguished including active plaques, in contrast to SPMS without attacks, in which inactive plaques predominated. Smoldering plaques were frequently and almost exclusively found in progressive MS. At 47 years of age, an equilibrium was observed between active and inactive plaques, whereas smoldering plaques began to peak. Men displayed a higher proportion of smoldering plaques.

Interpretation: Disease duration, clinical course, age, and gender contribute to the dynamic nature of white matter MS pathology. Active MS plaques predominate in acute and early RRMS and are the likely substrate of clinical attacks. Progressive MS transitions to an accumulation of smoldering plaques characterized by microglial activation and slow expansion of pre-existing plaques. Whether current MS therapeutics impact this pathological driver of disease progression remains uncertain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.24497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623970PMC
November 2015

Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis.

Brain 2010 Oct 20;133(10):2983-98. Epub 2010 Sep 20.

Laboratory of Neuropathology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive multiple sclerosis by planimetry. Thirteen patients with primary progressive disease were compared with 34 with secondary progressive disease. In patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, we found larger brain plaques, more demyelination in total and higher brain loads of active demyelination compared with patients with primary progressive disease. In addition, the brain density of plaques with high-grade inflammation and active demyelination was highest in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and remained ~18% higher than in primary progressive multiple sclerosis after adjustments for other plaque types and plaque number (P<0.05). Conversely, the proportion of remyelinated shadow plaques (P<0.05) and the overall remyelination capacity (P<0.01) per brain were higher in primary, compared with secondary, progressive multiple sclerosis. By contrast, there were no group differences in the brain load or frequency of low-grade inflammatory plaques with slowly expanding demyelination. Spinal cord lesion loads and remyelination capacity were also comparable in the two patient groups. Remyelinated areas were more vulnerable than the normal-appearing white matter to new demyelination, including active demyelination in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. 'Recurrent' slowly expanding demyelination, affecting remyelinated areas, and the load of slowly expanding demyelination correlated with incomplete remyelination in both groups. In turn, incomplete remyelination in the spinal cord correlated with higher disease-related disability (determined retrospectively; r = -0.53; P<0.05 for remyelination capacity versus disease severity). By contrast, such a correlation was not observed in the brain. We propose that regulatory and reparative properties could protect the white matter of the brain in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. These patients may, thereby, be spared symptoms until the spinal cord is affected. By contrast, recurrent active demyelination of repaired myelin could explain why similar symptoms often develop in consecutive relapses in relapsing-remitting/secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Our data also indicate that slowly expanding demyelination may irreparably destroy normal and repaired myelin, supporting the concept of slowly expanding demyelination as an important pathological correlate of clinical progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awq250DOI Listing
October 2010

The relation between inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis brains.

Brain 2009 May 31;132(Pt 5):1175-89. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Department of Neuroimmunology, Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 4, A-1090 Wien, Austria.

Some recent studies suggest that in progressive multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration may occur independently from inflammation. The aim of our study was to analyse the interdependence of inflammation, neurodegeneration and disease progression in various multiple sclerosis stages in relation to lesional activity and clinical course, with a particular focus on progressive multiple sclerosis. The study is based on detailed quantification of different inflammatory cells in relation to axonal injury in 67 multiple sclerosis autopsies from different disease stages and 28 controls without neurological disease or brain lesions. We found that pronounced inflammation in the brain is not only present in acute and relapsing multiple sclerosis but also in the secondary and primary progressive disease. T- and B-cell infiltrates correlated with the activity of demyelinating lesions, while plasma cell infiltrates were most pronounced in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and even persisted, when T- and B-cell infiltrates declined to levels seen in age matched controls. A highly significant association between inflammation and axonal injury was seen in the global multiple sclerosis population as well as in progressive multiple sclerosis alone. In older patients (median 76 years) with long-disease duration (median 372 months), inflammatory infiltrates declined to levels similar to those found in age-matched controls and the extent of axonal injury, too, was comparable with that in age-matched controls. Ongoing neurodegeneration in these patients, which exceeded the extent found in normal controls, could be attributed to confounding pathologies such as Alzheimer's or vascular disease. Our study suggests a close association between inflammation and neurodegeneration in all lesions and disease stages of multiple sclerosis. It further indicates that the disease processes of multiple sclerosis may die out in aged patients with long-standing disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awp070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2677799PMC
May 2009
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