Publications by authors named "Sophie Leow-Dyke"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Stability of eosinophilic inflammation in COPD bronchial biopsies.

Eur Respir J 2020 11 5;56(5). Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester and Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00622-2020DOI Listing
November 2020

Development of decellularized conjunctiva as a substrate for the ex vivo expansion of conjunctival epithelium.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2018 02 12;12(2):e973-e982. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

National Health Service Blood and Transplant Tissue Services, Speke, Liverpool, UK.

This study was performed to develop a method to decellularize human conjunctiva and to characterize the tissue in terms of its deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) content, tensile strength, collagen denaturation, basement membrane, extracellular matrix components and its potential to support conjunctival epithelial growth. Human conjunctival tissues were subjected to a decellularization process involving hypotonic detergent and nuclease buffers. Variations in sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration (0.05-0.5%, w/v) were tested to determine the appropriate concentration of detergent buffer. DNA quantification, collagen denaturation, cytotoxicity and tensile strength were investigated. Human conjunctival cell growth by explant culture on the decellularized tissue substrate was assessed after 28 days in culture. Samples were fixed and paraffin embedded for immunohistochemistry including conjunctival epithelial cell markers and extracellular matrix proteins. Conjunctival tissue from 20 eyes of 10 donors (age range 65-92 years) was used. Decellularization of human conjunctiva was achieved to 99% or greater DNA removal (p < 0.001) with absence of nuclear staining. This was reproducible at the lowest concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.05% w/v). No collagen denaturation (p = 0.74) and no difference in tensile strength parameters was demonstrated following decellularization. No significant difference was noted in the immunolocalization of collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin, or in the appearance of periodic acid-Schiff-stained basement membranes following decellularization. The decellularized tissue did not exhibit any cytotoxicity and explant culture resulted in the growth of stratified conjunctival epithelium. Allogeneic decellularized human conjunctiva can be successfully decellularized using the described protocol. It represents a novel substrate to support the expansion of conjunctival epithelium for ocular surface cellular replacement therapies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.2419DOI Listing
February 2018

Evaluation of Copper and Hydrogen Peroxide Treatments on the Biology, Biomechanics, and Cytotoxicity of Decellularized Dermal Allografts.

Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2016 Mar 29;22(3):290-300. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

NHS Blood and Transplant, Tissue Services R&D , Liverpool, United Kingdom .

Decellularized tissue allografts are paving the way as an alternative to cellular tissue transplantation. Effective sterilization or decontamination of tissue allografts is paramount for the safety of the allograft; however, some of the current sterilization procedures have a detrimental effect on the tissue scaffold. The bactericidal and virucidal activity of copper (II) ions and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been widely reported, however, their effect on the biology, biochemistry, and biocompatibility of decellularized tissue have yet to be elucidated. In this study, decellularized human dermis (dCELL human dermis) was treated with copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) and H2O2; both singly and in combination, and parameters, including concentration, pH, and synergy between CuCl2 and H2O2, were evaluated to identify conditions where any detrimental effects on the tissue scaffold were observed. Skin from 13 human donors was retrieved with appropriate consent and processed into dCELL human dermis. The dCELL human dermis was then treated for 3 h with 0.1 mg/L-1 g/L (w/v) CuCl2 and 0.01-7.5% (v/v) H2O2 and combinations of both of these in the same concentration range. dCELL human dermis treated with solutions of 0.1 mg/L-1 g/L CuCl2 or 0.01-7.5% H2O2 caused no detrimental effects on gross histology, collagen denaturation, collagen orientation, and biomechanical properties of the tissue or cytotoxicity. The highest combined concentration of CuCl2 and H2O2 demonstrated an increase in ultimate tensile strength, loss of collagen type IV immunostaining at the dermal-epidermal junction, and in vitro cytotoxicity. Combinations within the range of up to 10 mg/L CuCl2 with up to 0.5% H2O2 had no effect. The data identify the concentrations of CuCl2 and H2O2 solutions that have no effect on the biological, biomechanical, and biochemical properties of dCELL human dermis, while retaining biocompatibility. These treatments may be suitable for use as sterilization/decontamination agents on human decellularized tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEC.2015.0271DOI Listing
March 2016

Neuronal Toll-like receptor 4 signaling induces brain endothelial activation and neutrophil transmigration in vitro.

J Neuroinflammation 2012 Oct 3;9:230. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Background: The innate immune response in the brain is initiated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS) produced in response to central nervous system (CNS) infection or injury. These molecules activate members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, of which TLR4 is the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Although neurons have been reported to express TLR4, the function of TLR4 activation in neurons remains unknown.

Methods: TLR4 mRNA expression in primary mouse glial and neuronal cultures was assessed by RT-PCR. Mouse mixed glial, neuronal or endothelial cell cultures were treated with LPS in the absence or the presence of a TLR4 specific antagonist (VIPER) or a specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Expression of inflammatory mediators was assayed by cytometric bead array (CBA) and ELISA. Activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun was assessed by Western blot. The effect of conditioned media of untreated- versus LPS-treated glial or neuronal cultures on endothelial activation was assessed by neutrophil transmigration assay, and immunocytochemistry and ELISA were used to measure expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1).

Results: LPS induces strong release of the chemokines RANTES and CXCL1 (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and IL-6 in primary mouse neuronal cultures. In contrast, LPS induced release of IL-1α, IL-1β and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mixed glial, but not in neuronal cultures. LPS-induced neuronal KC expression and release were completely blocked by VIPER. In glial cultures, LPS induced activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. In contrast, in neuronal cultures, LPS activated JNK but not ERK1/2 or p38, and the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly blocked LPS-induced KC expression and release. Finally, conditioned medium of LPS-treated neuronal cultures induced strong expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on endothelial cells, and induced infiltration of neutrophils across the endothelial monolayer, which was inhibited by VIPER.

Conclusion: These data demonstrate for the first time that neurons can play a role as key sensors of infection to initiate CNS inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-2094-9-230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3481358PMC
October 2012

Experimental stroke-induced changes in the bone marrow reveal complex regulation of leukocyte responses.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2011 Apr 3;31(4):1036-50. Epub 2010 Nov 3.

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Stroke induces a systemic response that involves rapid activation of inflammatory cascades, followed later by immunodepression. Experimental stroke-induced responses in the bone marrow, which is the primary source of circulating monocytes and granulocytes, have not been investigated previously. We show that cerebral ischaemia induced early (4  hours) release of CXCR2-positive granulocytes from the bone marrow, which was associated with rapid systemic upregulation of CXCL1 (a ligand for CXCR2) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, a key cytokine involved in the mobilisation of bone marrow leukocytes. This process involves rapid activation of nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in bone marrow myeloid cells. T-cell numbers in the bone marrow increased after stroke, and bone marrow cells did not show suppressed cytokine response to bacterial endotoxin stimulation in vitro. Stroke-induced laterality observed in the brain stem and in the bone marrow indicates direct involvement of the autonomic nervous system in stroke-induced cell mobilisation. We also show that systemic inflammatory changes and leukocyte responses in the bone marrow are profoundly affected by both anaesthetic and surgical stress. We conclude that stroke influences leukocyte responses in the bone marrow through multiple mechanisms and suggest that preclinical studies should take into consideration the effect of surgical manipulation in experimental models of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2010.198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070970PMC
April 2011