Publications by authors named "Siqi Liu"

350 Publications

Minimal impact of consolidation on learned switch-readiness.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2021 Oct 25. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience.

Adaptive behavior is characterized by our ability to create, maintain, and update (or switch) rules by which we categorize and respond to stimuli across changing contexts (). Recent research suggests that people can link the control process of task-switching to contextual cues through associative learning, whereby the behavioral cost of switching is reduced for contexts that require frequent switching. One example is the listwide proportion switch (LWPS) effect, denoting smaller switch costs in blocks of trials where switching is more frequent. However, the conditions that govern such are poorly understood. One major unanswered question is whether this type of learning benefits from memory consolidation effects. To address this question, we manipulated whether task-sets and/or specific task stimuli were more frequently linked with task-switching (vs. repeating), and ran participants over two experimental sessions, separated by a 24-hr delay. We expected that consolidation would facilitate learned cognitive flexibility, resulting in a greater reduction of switch costs with increasing task-switch likelihood on Session 2 compared with Session 1. Across two experiments, we observed robust LWPS effects in both sessions. However, we found little evidence for effects of consolidation on learned cognitive flexibility: The magnitude of the LWPS effect did not change from Session 1 to 2. Altogether our results suggest that people reliably and quickly acquire task-set and stimulus-based switch associations, but this form of control learning-unlike many instances of reward-based learning-does not benefit from long-term memory consolidation. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0001074DOI Listing
October 2021

Progress Identifying and Analyzing the Human Proteome: 2021 Metrics from the HUPO Human Proteome Project.

J Proteome Res 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98109, United States.

The 2021 Metrics of the HUPO Human Proteome Project (HPP) show that protein expression has now been credibly detected (neXtProt PE1 level) for 18 357 (92.8%) of the 19 778 predicted proteins coded in the human genome, a gain of 483 since 2020 from reports throughout the world reanalyzed by the HPP. Conversely, the number of neXtProt PE2, PE3, and PE4 missing proteins has been reduced by 478 to 1421. This represents remarkable progress on the proteome parts list. The utilization of proteomics in a broad array of biological and clinical studies likewise continues to expand with many important findings and effective integration with other omics platforms. We present highlights from the Immunopeptidomics, Glycoproteomics, Infectious Disease, Cardiovascular, Musculo-Skeletal, Liver, and Cancers B/D-HPP teams and from the Knowledgebase, Mass Spectrometry, Antibody Profiling, and Pathology resource pillars, as well as ethical considerations important to the clinical utilization of proteomics and protein biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.1c00590DOI Listing
October 2021

Integrative ATAC-seq and RNA-seq Analysis of the Longissimus Muscle of Luchuan and Duroc Pigs.

Front Nutr 2021 29;8:742672. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Luchuan pig is a typical obese pig breed in China, and the diameter and area of its longissimus dorsi muscle fibers are significantly smaller than those of Duroc (lean) pig. Skeletal muscle fiber characteristics are related to meat quality of livestock. There is a significant correlation between the quality of different breeds of pork and the characteristics of muscle fiber, which is an important factor affecting the quality of pork. The diameter and area of muscle fibers are related to muscle growth and development. Therefore, we used the assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to investigate the potential mechanism underlying the difference in skeletal muscle growth and development between the two types of pigs. First, transposase-accessible chromatin was analyzed to map the landscape of open chromatin regions and transcription factor binding sites. We identified several transcription factors that potentially affected muscle growth and development, including TFAP4, MAX, NHLH1, FRX5, and TGIF1. We also found that transcription factors with basic helix-loop-helix structures had a preference for binding to genes involved in muscle development. Then, by integrating ATAC-seq and RNA-seq, we found that the Wnt signaling pathway, the mTOR signaling pathway, and other classical pathways regulate skeletal muscle development. In addition, some pathways that might regulate skeletal muscle growth, such as parathyroid hormone synthesis, secretion, and action, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and the thyroid hormone signaling pathway, which were significantly enriched. After further study, we identified a number of candidate genes (, and ) that might be associated with muscle development. We also found that the differential regulation of chromatin openness at the level of some genes was contrary to the differential regulation at the level of transcription, suggesting that transcription factors and transcriptional repressors may be involved in the regulation of gene expression. Our study provided an in-depth understanding of the mechanism behind the differences in muscle fibers from two species of pig and provided an important foundation for further research on improving the quality of pork.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.742672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511529PMC
September 2021

A global screening identifies chromatin-enriched RNA-binding proteins and the transcriptional regulatory activity of QKI5 during monocytic differentiation.

Genome Biol 2021 10 14;22(1):290. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China.

Background: Cellular RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have multiple roles in post-transcriptional control, and some are shown to bind DNA. However, the global localization and the general chromatin-binding ability of RBPs are not well-characterized and remain undefined in hematopoietic cells.

Results: We first provide a full view of RBPs' distribution pattern in the nucleus and screen for chromatin-enriched RBPs (Che-RBPs) in different human cells. Subsequently, by generating ChIP-seq, CLIP-seq, and RNA-seq datasets and conducting combined analysis, the transcriptional regulatory potentials of certain hematopoietic Che-RBPs are predicted. From this analysis, quaking (QKI5) emerges as a potential transcriptional activator during monocytic differentiation. QKI5 is over-represented in gene promoter regions, independent of RNA or transcription factors. Furthermore, DNA-bound QKI5 activates the transcription of several critical monocytic differentiation-associated genes, including CXCL2, IL16, and PTPN6. Finally, we show that the differentiation-promoting activity of QKI5 is largely dependent on CXCL2, irrespective of its RNA-binding capacity.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that Che-RBPs are versatile factors that orchestrate gene expression in different cellular contexts, and identifies QKI5, a classic RBP regulating RNA processing, as a novel transcriptional activator during monocytic differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02508-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518180PMC
October 2021

Structural Basis of a Human Neutralizing Antibody Specific to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Receptor-Binding Domain.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Oct 13:e0135221. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Molecular Imaging Center, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen Universitygrid.12981.33, Zhuhai, China.

The emerging new lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have marked a new phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the recognition mechanisms of potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) against the spike protein is pivotal for developing new vaccines and antibody drugs. Here, we isolated several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) from the B cell receptor repertoires of a SARS-CoV-2 convalescent. Among these MAbs, the antibody nCoV617 demonstrates the most potent neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies against the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mouse model . The crystal structure of S-RBD in complex with nCoV617 reveals that nCoV617 mainly binds to the back of the "ridge" of RBD and shares limited binding residues with ACE2. Under the background of the S-trimer model, it potentially binds to both "up" and "down" conformations of S-RBD. mutagenesis assays show that mutant residues found in the emerging new lineage B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 do not affect nCoV617 binding to the S-RBD. These results provide a new human-sourced neutralizing antibody against the S-RBD and assist vaccine development. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious threat to global health and the economy, so it is necessary to find safe and effective antibody drugs and treatments. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains a variety of dominant neutralizing epitopes and is an important antigen for the development of new coronavirus antibodies. The significance of our research lies in the determination of new epitopes, the discovery of antibodies against RBD, and the evaluation of the antibodies' neutralizing effect. The identified antibodies here may be drug candidates for the development of clinical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/Spectrum.01352-21DOI Listing
October 2021

Impaired Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Biosynthesis in the Kidney of Chronic Kidney Disease.

Front Physiol 2021 17;12:723690. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Nephrology, Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Shenzhen, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels were found to be associated with aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. However, the alteration of renal NAD levels and biosynthesis pathways in CKD is less known. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate renal NAD levels and tested the expression of key enzymes in three NAD biosynthesis pathways in two different types of CKD rat model. CKD rat models were established by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) and feeding with adenine-containing feed, respectively. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Renal pathology was evaluated by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Masson's trichrome staining. The expression of key enzymes in three NAD biosynthesis pathways was determined and quantified by Western blot analysis. The results showed CKD rat models were successfully established as evidenced by increased Scr and BUN levels, upregulation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), glomerular hypertrophy, and renal fibrosis. Renal NAD and NADH content were both declined in two CKD rat models, and NAD levels were negatively correlated with Scr and BUN levels in CKD rats. Three key enzymes involved in NAD biosynthesis were significantly downregulated in the kidney of both of the two CKD models. They were quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) in the pathway, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1), and NMNAT3 in the salvage pathway. Moreover, the expression of NAD-consuming enzymes sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) and CD38 decreased significantly in CKD rats. In conclusion, NAD biosynthesis was significantly impaired in CKD, which may attribute to downregulation of QPRT and NMNAT 1/3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.723690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484911PMC
September 2021

In antifungal activity of farnesol combined with antifungal drugs on oral mucosal candidiasis in mice.

Biofouling 2021 Sep 27:1-12. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Surgical Tooth and Pulp, Department of Stomatological Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The antifungal resistence of oral candidiasis is a serious clinical issue. The efficacy of farnesol combined with antifungals for oral candidiasis remain unknow. The possible therapeuticeffects of a combination of farnesol and antifungal drugs and the regulation of inflammatorycytokines in murine oral candidiasis were investigated in this study. An experimental oral candidiasis model was constructed using ICR mice. Farnesol at 25 and 50 lM did not change IL-17,IFN-γ and TNF-α production during oral candidiasis compared with that of the control infected mice. The co-applications of farnesol (50 lM) and nystatin, farnesol (4 lM, 8 lM) and itraconazole, farnesol (25, 50 lM), and fluconazole enhanced the therapeutic activity of the antifungalagents alone against oral candidiasis. The effective combinations reduced the number of colonyforming units (CFU) of isolated from the oral cavity and oral lesions onthe tongue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2021.1967938DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence and related factors of depression and anxiety in a cohort of Chinese elderly caregivers in the nursing home.

J Affect Disord 2021 Dec 16;295:1456-1461. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Departement of Nursing, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The heavy care burden, the long-term dependence of the disabled elderly, and the changing social roles can put elderly caregivers at high risk for mental disorders. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and related factors of depression and anxiety among elderly caregivers and examine the role of resilience in depression and anxiety.

Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional survey was designed. A total of 953 elderly caregivers in nursing homes were recruited in three provinces in China using convenience sampling. Depression and anxiety were measured by self-rating depression scale (SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale (SAS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the key factors associated with depression and anxiety.

Results: The median SDS score was 40 (interquartile interval 34-48), and the median SAS score was 48 (interquartile interval 38-56). In this cohort, 19.4% reported depression and 44.0% anxiety. Working hours, sensitive personality and health status were related factors for depression symptom. In terms of anxiety symptoms, its related factors included working hours, health status and higher monthly income. Furthermore, resilience was associated with depression and anxiety among caregivers.

Limitations: A selection bias may be caused by convenience sampling and voluntary participation.

Conclusion: Depression and anxiety symptoms were common in the cohort of Chinese elderly caregivers in the nursing home. The factors explored in this study may contribute to the development of individualized interventions for depression and anxiety symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.09.026DOI Listing
December 2021

Interleukin-35 suppresses the activity of natural killer-like B cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 20;100:108161. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Digestive Diseases Center, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine, The Second Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Natural killer-like B (NKB) cells are newly identified lymphocyte subset, which present immunomodulatory property in infectious diseases through secretion of interleukin-18 (IL-18). However, the role of NKB cells function and its regulation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not elucidated. Seventy-two HCC patients and twenty-five controls were enrolled. Peripheral and liver-infiltrating CD3CD19CD56NKp46 cells were investigated by flow cytometry. Serum IL-35 and NKB cell-secreting cytokine level was measured by ELISA. The regulatory activity of IL-35 to peripheral and liver-infiltrating NKB cells was assessed in direct co-culture system between CD8 T cells and HepG2 cells. Peripheral NKB cells and IL-18 secretion were reduced in HCC patients, while liver-infiltrating NKB cells and IL-18 secretion were also decreased in HCC tumor sites. Increased IL-35 level was negatively correlated with NKB cell percentage and IL-18 production in HCC. NKB cells induced the elevation of CD8 T cell cytotoxicty, and this enhancement could be inhibited by IL-18 binding protein. IL-35 stimulation dampened NKB cell percentage and IL-18 production, leading to the suppression of NKB cell-mediated CD8 T cell cytotoxicity in HCC patients. Our current data revealed that IL-35 might suppress NKB cell activity in HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108161DOI Listing
September 2021

Dietary calcium supplementation promotes the accumulation of intramuscular fat.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Sep 10;12(1):94. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, 530004, People's Republic of China.

Background: In the livestock industry, intramuscular fat content is a key factor affecting meat quality. Many studies have shown that dietary calcium supplementation is closely related to lipid metabolism. However, few studies have examined the relationship between dietary calcium supplementation and intramuscular fat accumulation.

Methods: Here, we used C2C12 cells, C57BL/6 mice (n = 8) and three-way cross-breeding pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large white) (n = 10) to study the effect of calcium addition on intramuscular fat accumulation. In vitro, we used calcium chloride to adjust the calcium levels in the medium (2 mmol/L or 3 mmol/L). Then we measured various indicators. In vivo, calcium carbonate was used to regulate calcium levels in feeds (Mice: 0.5% calcium or 1.2% calcium) (Pigs: 0.9% calcium or 1.5% calcium). Then we tested the mice gastrocnemius muscle triglyceride content, pig longissimus dorsi muscle meat quality and lipidomics.

Results: In vitro, calcium addition (3 mmol/L) had no significant effect on cell proliferation, but promoted the differentiation of C2C12 cells into slow-twitch fibers. Calcium supplementation increased triglyceride accumulation in C2C12 cells. Calcium addition increased the number of mitochondria and also increased the calcium level in the mitochondria and reduced the of key enzymes activity involved in β-oxidation such as acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase. Decreasing mitochondrial calcium level can alleviate lipid accumulation induced by calcium addition. In addition, calcium addition also reduced the glycolytic capacity and glycolytic conversion rate of C2C12 cells. In vivo, dietary calcium supplementation (1.2%) promoted the accumulation of triglycerides in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice. Dietary calcium supplementation (1.5%) had no effect on pig weight, but significantly improved the flesh color of the longissimus dorsi muscle, reduced the backfat thickness and increased intramuscular fat content in pigs. Besides, calcium addition had no effect on longissimus dorsi pH, electrical conductivity and shear force.

Conclusions: These results suggest that calcium addition promotes intramuscular fat accumulation by inhibiting the oxidation of fatty acids. These findings provide a new tool for increasing intramuscular fat content and an economical strategy for improving meat quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00619-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431880PMC
September 2021

An increase of phosphatidylcholines in follicular fluid implies attenuation of embryo quality on day 3 post-fertilization.

BMC Biol 2021 09 9;19(1):200. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Background: Although oocyte quality is the dominant factor determining embryo quality, few studies have been conducted to evaluate embryo quality based on the metabolites related to the oocyte. With quantification of the follicular fluid (FF) metabolites, in assisted reproductive technology (ART), this study sought to evaluate the embryo or oocyte quality through an informative approach.

Results: An evaluation model consisting of 17 features was generated to distinguish the embryo quality on day 3 post-fertilization, and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) were the key contributors to the evaluation. The model was extended to the patients under different ages and hyperstimulations, and the features were further enriched to facilitate the evaluation of the embryo quality. The metabolites were clustered through pathway analysis, leading to a hypothesis that accumulation of arachidonic acid induced by PCs might weaken embryo quality on day 3 post-fertilization.

Conclusions: A discriminating model with metabolic features elicited from follicular fluid was established, which enabled the evaluation of the embryo or oocyte quality even under certain clinical conditions, and the increase of PCs in follicular fluid implies the attenuation of embryo quality on day 3 post-fertilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-01118-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428131PMC
September 2021

Neural Dynamics of Conflict Control in Working Memory.

J Cogn Neurosci 2021 Sep;33(10):2079-2092

Duke University, Durham, NC.

Attention and working memory (WM) have classically been considered as two separate cognitive functions, but more recent theories have conceptualized them as operating on shared representations and being distinguished primarily by whether attention is directed internally (WM) or externally (attention, traditionally defined). Supporting this idea, a recent behavioral study documented a "WM Stroop effect," showing that maintaining a color word in WM impacts perceptual color-naming performance to the same degree as presenting the color word externally in the classic Stroop task. Here, we employed ERPs to examine the neural processes underlying this WM Stroop task compared to those in the classic Stroop and in a WM-control task. Based on the assumption that holding a color word in WM would (pre-)activate the same color representation as by externally presenting that color word, we hypothesized that the neural cascade of conflict-control processes would occur more rapidly in the WM Stroop than in the classic Stroop task. Our behavioral results replicated equivalent interference behavioral effects for the WM and classic Stroop tasks. Importantly, however, the ERP signatures of conflict detection and resolution displayed substantially shorter latencies in the WM Stroop task. Moreover, delay-period conflict in the WM Stroop task, but not in the WM control task, impacted the ERP and performance measures for the WM probe stimuli. Together, these findings provide new insights into how the brain processes conflict between internal representations and external stimuli, and they support the view of shared representations between internally held WM content and attentional processing of external stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428964PMC
September 2021

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Brief-Mindful Self-Care Scale: A Translation and Validation Study.

Front Psychol 2021 13;12:715507. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Nursing, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

This study aimed to translate the Brief-Mindful Self-Care Scale (B-MSCS) into Chinese and validate its reliability and validity among hospice nurses. A total of 510 hospice nurses were recruited from three provinces in China. The reliability of the translated scale was measured by internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability. The validity of the translated scale was evaluated by expert consultation, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. The Cronbach's α value of the Chinese version of B-MSCS was 0.920, and the Cronbach's α value of the dimensions ranged from 0.850 to 0.933. The split-half reliability and test-retest reliability were 0.770 and 0.723, respectively. Furthermore, the content validity index of the scale (S-CVI) was 0.946. The 6-factor structure, supported by the eigenvalues, total variance explained, and scree plot were obtained by using exploratory factor analysis. Moreover, as a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, the model fitting indexes were all in the acceptable range. The Chinese version of B-MSCS had suitable reliability and validity among hospice nurses. The developed scale will evaluate the level of mindful self-care of Chinese hospice nurses, providing an opportunity for development of targeted educational plans. Each item is a direct guide for hospice nurses to develop their mindful self-care practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.715507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414633PMC
August 2021

Knowledge, attitude and practice of advance care planning among nursing interns: A mixed-methods approach.

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Aug 23;56:103183. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Departement of Nursing, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China. Electronic address:

Aim: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of advance care planning and confirm their influencing factors among nursing interns in China.

Background: Due to a lack of standardized courses on advance care planning (ACP) in China, nursing interns do not possess the knowledge of ACP and cannot apply it to clinical practice.

Design: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design.

Methods: 382 nursing interns aged > 18 years were recruited using convenience sampling. Quantitative data were collected using the General Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire and the Advance Care Planning Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire. Thirteen nursing interns were drawn from the quantitative phase and their interviews were thematically analyzed.

Results: The ACP attitudes and practice scores of nursing students were 48.85 ± 6.39 and 32.23 ± 4.58, respectively, with a high level, while their ACP knowledge score was 6.89 ± 2.70, with a medium level. The significant promotive factors included positive attitude toward death and the nursing major and experience in clinical rescues and palliative care training; The key hindrance factors included the lack of ACP education and the limitations of the working environment.

Conclusions: The study highlighted the importance of delivering systematic palliative care training and integrating the practice of ACP into routine nursing practice. Doing this can help expand advance care planning knowledge, establish positive attitudes and meet the practical needs of nursing interns for their ACP clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2021.103183DOI Listing
August 2021

Translatome analysis reveals the regulatory role of betaine in high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Oct 25;575:20-27. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, PR China. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease with a multitude of complications. Increasing evidence shows that the dietary supplement with betaine, a natural chemical molecule, can effectively reduce the fat accumulation in the liver. Translational regulation is considered to play a vital role in gene expression, but whether betaine functions through the regulation of gene translational level is still unclear. To this end, RNC-seq (mRNAs bound to ribosome-nascent chain complex sequencing) and RNA-seq co-analyses were performed to identify betaine target genes by using the liver samples from high-fat diet adding betaine treated and high-fat diet treated mice. The results showed that betaine does play a lipid-lowering role by regulating the expression of gene translation levels; some NAFLD- and lipid metabolism-associated genes were differentially expressed at translational level, for example. And the translation ratio (TR) of gene significantly increased after betaine treatment. Finally, we identified a novel function gene, Gpc1, which may mediate the lipid-lowering effect of betaine in the liver. To sum up, this study depicted the molecular portrait of mice liver with or without betaine treatment from the angel of translatome and transcriptome, giving insights into the molecular mechanism of betaine-mediated lipid-lowering effect and also providing new clues for understanding and prevention of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.08.058DOI Listing
October 2021

Comprehensive RNA editome reveals that edited Azin1 partners with DDX1 to enable hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

Blood 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College., Tianjin, China.

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing and the catalyzing enzyme adenosine deaminase are both essential for hematopoietic development and differentiation. However, the RNA editome during hematopoiesis and the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we sorted 12 murine adult hematopoietic cell populations at different stages and identified 30,796 editing sites through RNA sequencing. While the dynamic landscape of the RNA editome comprised of stage/group-specific and stable editing patterns, but also undergoing significant changes during lineage commitment. Notably, we found that antizyme inhibitor 1 (Azin1) was highly edited in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Azin1 editing results in: (i) an amino acid change to induce Azin1 protein (AZI) translocation to the nucleus, (ii) enhanced AZI binding affinity for DEAD box polypeptide 1 (DDX1) to alter the chromatin distribution of the latter, and (iii) altered expression of multiple hematopoietic regulators which ultimately promotes HSPC differentiation. Our findings have delineated an essential role for Azin1 RNA editing in hematopoietic cells, and our dataset constitutes a valuable resource for further study of RNA editing on a more general basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021011314DOI Listing
August 2021

Hedgehog interacting protein-expressing lung fibroblasts suppress lymphocytic inflammation in mice.

JCI Insight 2021 Sep 8;6(17). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Channing Division of Network Medicine, and.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is mainly caused by cigarette smoking and characterized by chronic inflammation in vulnerable individuals. However, it is unknown how genetic factors may shape chronic inflammation in COPD. To understand how hedgehog interacting protein, encoded by HHIP gene identified in the genome-wide association study in COPD, plays a role in inflammation, we utilized Hhip+/- mice that present persistent inflammation and emphysema upon aging similar to that observed in human COPD. By performing single-cell RNA sequencing of the whole lung from mice at different ages, we found that Hhip+/- mice developed a cytotoxic immune response with a specific increase in killer cell lectin-like receptor G1-positive CD8+ T cells with upregulated Ifnγ expression recapitulating human COPD. Hhip expression was restricted to a lung fibroblast subpopulation that had increased interaction with CD8+ T lymphocytes in Hhip+/- compared with Hhip+/+ during aging. Hhip-expressing lung fibroblasts had upregulated IL-18 pathway genes in Hhip+/- lung fibroblasts, which was sufficient to drive increased levels of IFN-γ in CD8+ T cells ex vivo. Our finding provides insight into how a common genetic variation contributes to the amplified lymphocytic inflammation in COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.144575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492352PMC
September 2021

Precise Introduction of the -CHX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) Moiety to Target Molecules by a Radical Strategy: A Theoretical and Experimental Study.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Aug 10;143(33):13195-13204. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Shenzhen Bay Laboratory, Shenzhen, 518132, China.

Addition of halomethyl radicals to form bioactive molecules has recently become an efficient strategy. The reaction has a bottleneck, however, which is the effective and selective generation of the proper halomethyl CHX radical by combining CHX with a carbon radical. Understanding the reactivity and selectivity of carbon radicals in the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and halogen atom transfer (XAT) reactions of CHX is key to the development of such an attractive method. With the help of the emerging data-driven strategy, DFT calculations were used to explore various correlations. For selectivity, the relative energy barriers between HAT and XAT reactions (Δ - Δ) correlate reasonably well with the three parameters Δ, Δ, and IP, and the correlation studies reveal that the calculated IP and the experimental ΔBDE can be used to conveniently predict the selectivity. Predicted selectivities are consistent with experimental determinations. This work not only provides a possibility for selecting carbon radicals with the known or easily obtained physicochemical data but also demonstrates that the informatic workflow such as generating data and identifying correlations has potential applications in mining reaction rules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c05208DOI Listing
August 2021

Benefits and barriers: a qualitative study on online social participation among widowed older adults in Southwest China.

BMC Geriatr 2021 08 3;21(1):450. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Nursing, Army Medical University / Third Military Medical University, No. 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, People's Republic of China.

Background: With the development of digital media, online activities are increasingly becoming part of the daily life of older adults. Widowed older adults generally would face changes in social interactions and activities due to widowhood; thus, the importance of online participation may be more prominent in this population. However, a detailed evidence on the experiences of online social participation among widowed older adults is relatively sparse. This study aimed to explore widowed older adults' perceptions regarding online social participation in southwestern China.

Methods: This study adopted a qualitative approach. Semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews were conducted with 19 widowed older adults between September-December 2020. Thematic analysis was applied to analyse the data.

Results: Two major themes, "benefits" and "barriers" were identified from the original data analysis. Subcategories concerning the theme "benefits" were "benefit perception (convenience, flexible time, supplementation)", "health promotion", "emotional comfort", and "social connection". Subcategories of "barriers" were "worries: personal economic loss", "concerns: security of digital device", "troubles: the diversity of online social participation", and "difficulties: using digital media".

Conclusions: Social participation of widowed older adults in southwestern China has begun to be integrated into the digital world; however, it remains at an early stage with the simple purpose of engagement. The older adults may face many challenges for online social participation. Although there are barriers and challenges in online social participation, widowed older adults can reap its benefits, which can be used as an important measure to facilitate a fulfilling life and successful ageing. There is no doubt that online social participation will become a trend within the foreseeable future. Family, friends and health care professionals should pay more attention to the needs of online social participation in widowed older adults and provide adequate support for them to achieve a meaningful life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02381-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329635PMC
August 2021

The trans-omics landscape of COVID-19.

Nat Commun 2021 07 27;12(1):4543. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health emergency. Various omics results have been reported for COVID-19, but the molecular hallmarks of COVID-19, especially in those patients without comorbidities, have not been fully investigated. Here we collect blood samples from 231 COVID-19 patients, prefiltered to exclude those with selected comorbidities, yet with symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to critically ill. Using integrative analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and lipidomic profiles, we report a trans-omics landscape for COVID-19. Our analyses find neutrophils heterogeneity between asymptomatic and critically ill patients. Meanwhile, neutrophils over-activation, arginine depletion and tryptophan metabolites accumulation correlate with T cell dysfunction in critical patients. Our multi-omics data and characterization of peripheral blood from COVID-19 patients may thus help provide clues regarding pathophysiology of and potential therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24482-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316550PMC
July 2021

The interaction between Tu-Izumo1 and Tu-JUNO is involved in turtles hybridization.

Reproduction 2021 Sep 6;162(4):249-257. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Provincial Key Lab of the Conservation and Exploitation Research of Biological Resources in Anhui, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, China.

The specificity of sperm-egg recognition is crucial to species independence, and two proteins (Izumo1 and JUNO) are essential for gamete adhesion/fusion in mammals. However, hybridization, which is very common in turtles, also requires specific recognition of sperm-egg binding proteins. In this study, we discovered that natural selection plays an important role in the codon usage bias of Tu-Izumo1 and Tu-JUNO. Positively selected sites and co-evolutionary analyses between Tu-Izumo1 and Tu-JUNO have been previously reported, and we confirm these results in a larger analysis containing 25 turtle species. We also showed that Tu-JUNO is expressed on the oocyte surface and that Tu-Izumo1 and Tu-JUNO interact with each other directly in different species hybridization combinations. Co-immunization assays revealed that this interaction is evolutionarily conserved in turtles. The results of avidity-based extracellular interaction screening between Tu-Izumo1 and Tu-JUNO for sperm-oocyte binding pairs (both within and across species) likely suggest that the interaction force between Izumo1 and JUNO has a certain correlation in whether the turtles can hybridize. Our results lay a theoretical foundation for the subsequent development of techniques to detect whether different turtle species can interbreed, which would provide the molecular basis for breeding management and species protection of turtles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-21-0124DOI Listing
September 2021

Emission characteristics of PM and components of condensable particulate matter from coal-fired industrial plants.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 1;796:148782. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Institute for Thermal Power Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. Electronic address:

Particulate matter (PM), including condensable particulate matter (CPM) and filterable particulate matter (FPM), emitted from coal combustion is one of the major contributors to air pollution. In this study, CPM and FPM were sampled from two coal-fired industrial boilers with air pollution control devices (APCDs). The emission concentration of total PM (CPM and FPM) and inorganic components of CPM were studied. The organic fractions in CPM and raw coal were analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The concentrations of total PM in the flue gas decreased from 1475.61 to 7.68 mg/Nm in unit 1, and from 2451.62 to 29.38 mg/Nm in unit 2 after the flue gas passed through the APCDs. CPM accounted for 51.42-91.93% of total PM emitted from stacks, of which organic components (73.87-96.30%) were one of the main constituents. Although aromatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of raw coal, they were almost nonexistent in the CPM emitted from coal combustion. Saturated hydrocarbons accounted for the largest proportion of organic components in CPM, 49.19% in unit 1 and 61.16% in unit 2. The proportion of esters in the oxygen-containing derivatives of CPM emitted from two units was relatively high. SO was the inorganic component with the largest concentration in CPM emitted from the boiler units. This study will improve the understanding of the emissions levels of PM and the properties of CPM that originate from the coal-fired industrial processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148782DOI Listing
November 2021

Two heterozygous mutations associated with type I protein C deficiency in two Chinese independent families.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

To explore the pathogenesis of protein C (PC) deficiency in two independent families by mutations detection and bioinformatics analysis. The PC activity (PC:A) and PC antigen (PC:Ag) were detected by chromogenic substrate and ELISA, respectively. The PROC sequencing was performed to identify the mutational sites. The molecular pathogenesis of the mutations were studied by the conservation, bioinformatics and model analysis. The PC:A and PC:Ag of the proband 1 were observably reduced at 35 and 44%, respectively. Gene sequencing analysis revealed the p.Leu278Pro derived from a heterozygous c.833T>C point mutations in exon 9 of PROC gene. For proband 2, the PC:A and PC:Ag were decreased to 40 and 51%, respectively, caused p.Ala178Pro missense mutation by a heterozygous point mismatch of c.532G>C in exon 5 of PROC gene. Bioinformatics and model analysis indicated that it was the Leu278Pro and Ala178Pro that caused clinical PC deficiency (PCD). The heterozygous mutations Leu278Pro and Ala178Pro were observed in two independent families. The Leu278Pro mutation in the PROC gene has not been described elsewhere. The two mutations can both lead to the type I hereditary PCD, and probably be the major causes of PCD in the families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MBC.0000000000001065DOI Listing
July 2021

Development and Validation of Peer Relationship Scale for Chinese Community-Dwelling Elderly.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2021 28;14:889-903. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Nursing Management, School of Nursing, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: This study aimed to develop and psychometrically test the peer relationship scales (PRSs) for the Chinese community-dwelling elderly.

Methods: Based on the Adams-Blieszner-Ueno integrative conceptual framework, we first drafted item-pool from the literature review, in-depth interviews, and group discussion. After a cross-sectional study in Chongqing, PR, China, we recruited a random sample of 404 community-dwelling individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Subsequently, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to examine the factor structure of the scales. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and split-half reliability were used to assess internal consistency. Moreover, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and construct validity were all calculated.

Results: The results supported a two-factor (ie, quantity of intimate peer relationship, the quantity of non-intimate peer relationship) model for PRS-Quantity and a 12-item three-factor (ie, cognitive process, affective process, behavioral process) model for PRS-Quality. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.870 for PRS-Quantity and 0.851 for PRS-Quality. Both scales showed good test-retest reliability (r = 0.890 for PRS-Quantity, r = 0.889 for PRS-Quality), concurrent validity (r = 0.832 for PRS-Quantity, -0.800 for PRS-Quality), and acceptable construct validity.

Discussion: Overall, our findings suggested that the PRSs are reliable and valid measurements to evaluate the quantity and quality of peer relationships among Chinese community-dwelling elderly. The scales may serve as attempted tools for researchers and practitioners to access the social health of the elderly and evaluate the effectiveness of related services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S311352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253932PMC
June 2021

The Mechanism of Interleukin-35 in Chronic Hepatitis B.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Nov 7;41(4):516-524. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Diseases Center, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine, The Second Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a newly identified inhibitory cytokine. It has recently been found to play an extremely important role in chronic hepatitis B disease, which makes it likely to be a target for new therapies for hepatitis B malady. IL-35 modulates a variety of immune mechanisms to cause persistent viral infections, such as affecting the ratio of helper T cells, reducing the activity of cytotoxic T cells, hindering the antigen presentation capacity for dendritic cells, and increasing the transcription level of hepatitis B virus. On the other hand, IL-35 can control the inflammation caused by hepatitis B liver injury. Therefore, to seek a breakthrough in curing hepatitis B disease, the contradictory part of IL-35 in the occurrence and development of this sickness is worthy of further discussion and research. This article will systematically review the biological effects of IL-35 and the specific mechanisms affecting the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1731708DOI Listing
November 2021

Oxidative status in dairy goats: periparturient variation and changes in subclinical hyperketonemia and hypocalcemia.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jul 6;17(1):238. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, 712100, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Background: A better comprehension of the redox status during the periparturient period may facilitate the development of management and nutritional solutions to prevent subclinical hyperketonemia (SCHK) and subclinical hypocalcemia (SCHC) in dairy goats. We aimed to evaluate the variation in the redox status of dairy goats with SCHK and SCHC during their periparturient periods. Guanzhong dairy goats (n = 30) were assigned to SCHK (n = 10), SCHC (n = 10), and healthy (HEAL, n = 10) groups based on their blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and calcium (Ca) concentrations. Blood were withdrawn from goats every week from 3 weeks before the expected parturition date to 3 weeks post-kidding. On the same day, the body condition scores (BCS) were evaluated, and the milk yield was recorded for each goat. The metabolic profile parameters and the indicators of oxidative status were determined by using the standard biochemical techniques.

Results: In comparison with the HEAL goats, SCHK and SCHC goats presented with a more dramatic decline of BCS post-kidding and a significant decrease in the milk yield at 2- and 3-weeks postpartum, ignoring the obvious increase at 1-week postpartum. The levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) peaked at parturition, exhibiting significantly higher levels from 1-week prepartum to the parturition day in the SCHK and SCHC groups. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was increased in the SCHK goats from 1-week antepartum until 3-weeks postpartum, with its concentration being significantly higher in the SCHC goats at parturition. The hydrogen peroxide (HO) concentration was significantly lower in the SCHK and SCHC goats from 2-weeks antepartum to 1-week post-kidding. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level were decreased at 1-week antepartum in the SCHK and SCHC goats, respectively. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) level was increased in the SCHK and SCHC goats during the early lactation period.

Conclusions: The SCHK and SCHC goats exerted more efforts to maintain their redox homeostasis and to ensure the production performance than the HEAL goats during their periparturient period, probably owing to more intense fat mobilization and lipid peroxidation in the former.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02947-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258950PMC
July 2021

Surrogate Indexes of Insulin Resistance in Dairy Goats: Transitional Variation in Subclinical Hyperketonemia.

Vet Sci 2021 Jun 6;8(6). Epub 2021 Jun 6.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Background: Dairy goats are highly susceptible to subclinical hyperketonemia (SCHK) during the transition period. This study aimed to compare the variation in metabolic parameters and surrogate indexes of insulin resistance (sIR) between goats with SCHK and clinically healthy (HEAL) goats during the transition period.

Methods: Twenty Guanzhong dairy goats were assorted to HEAL ( = 10) and SCHK ( = 10) groups according to the blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations. The blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of each goat at -3, -2, -1, 0 (partum), +1, +2, and +3 weeks relative to kidding to analyses GLU and INS. The sIR was calculated from blood metabolic parameters.

Results: Compared with the HEAL goats, the insulin concentrations were significantly higher in SCHK goats during the first three weeks postpartum. The QUICKI, revised QUICKI (RQUICKI), and RQUICKI were significantly lower in goats with SCHK at 1 week postpartum, while the homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) was significantly higher.

Conclusion: Goats with SCHK made more efforts through elevated insulin levels at early lactation than HEAL goats, thereby maintaining the normal glucose concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8060102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227330PMC
June 2021

Salient Region Guided Blind Image Sharpness Assessment.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;21(12). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Key Laboratory of Convergent Media and Intelligent Technology (Communication University of China), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100024, China.

Salient regions provide important cues for scene understanding to the human vision system. However, whether the detected salient regions are helpful in image blur estimation is unknown. In this study, a salient region guided blind image sharpness assessment (BISA) framework is proposed, and the effect of the detected salient regions on the BISA performance is investigated. Specifically, three salient region detection (SRD) methods and ten BISA models are jointly explored, during which the output saliency maps from SRD methods are re-organized as the input of BISA models. Consequently, the change in BISA metric values can be quantified and then directly related to the difference in BISA model inputs. Finally, experiments are conducted on three Gaussian blurring image databases, and the BISA prediction performance is evaluated. The comparison results indicate that salient region input can help achieve a close and sometimes superior performance to a BISA model over the whole image input. When using the center region input as the baseline, the detected salient regions from the saliency optimization from robust background detection (SORBD) method lead to consistently better score prediction, regardless of the BISA model. Based on the proposed hybrid framework, this study reveals that saliency detection benefits image blur estimation, while how to properly incorporate SRD methods and BISA models to improve the score prediction will be explored in our future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21123963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229120PMC
June 2021

Interleukin-35 Suppresses Interleukin-9-Secreting CD4 T Cell Activity in Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Immunol 2021 10;12:645835. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Digestive Diseases Center, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine, The Second Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces dysfunction of immune response and chronic liver damage. However, the mechanisms that account for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are poorly understood. The aim of present study was to investigate the modulatory role of interleukin (IL)-35, an immunosuppressive cytokine, to IL-9-secreting T cells in hepatitis B-related HCC. Twenty-two HBV-related HCC patients, twenty-seven chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, and eleven controls were enrolled. Serum IL-35 and IL-9 concentration was measured by ELISA. Peripheral and liver-infiltrating non-specific and HBV-specific Th9 and Tc9 cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The regulatory activity of IL-35 to peripheral and liver-infiltrating Th9 cells was assessed in co-culture system between CD8 T cells and HepG2.2.15 cells. Serum IL-35 was up-regulated, while IL-9 was down-regulated in HBV-related HCC patients compared with in CHB patients and controls. Peripheral non-specific and HBV-specific Th9 cells, but not Tc9 cells, were decreased in HBV-related HCC patients. Liver-infiltrating non-specific and HBV-specific Th9 cells were also reduced in HCC tumor sites. CD8 T cells from CHB and HBV-related HCC patients revealed decreased cytotoxicity compared with those from controls. Autologous Th9 cells mediated the elevation of CD8 T cell cytotoxicity, and this process was depending on IL-9 secretion. Recombinant IL-35 stimulation inhibited IL-9 secretion and PU.1 mRNA expression in non-specific and HBV-specific Th9 cells, leading to the suppression of Th9-mediated CD8 T cell cytotoxicity in CHB and HBV-related HCC patients. Our current data indicated that IL-35 might dampen non-specific and HBV-specific Th9 cells activity in HBV-related HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.645835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222719PMC
September 2021

Human spatial navigation: Neural representations of spatial scales and reference frames obtained from an ALE meta-analysis.

Neuroimage 2021 09 12;238:118264. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Brain, Cognition and Education Sciences (South China Normal University), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510631, China. Electronic address:

Humans use different spatial reference frames (allocentric or egocentric) to navigate successfully toward their destination in different spatial scale spaces (environmental or vista). However, it remains unclear how the brain represents different spatial scales and different spatial reference frames. Thus, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of 47 fMRI articles involving human spatial navigation. We found that both the environmental and vista spaces activated the parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex (RSC), and occipital place area in the right hemisphere. The environmental space showed stronger activation than the vista space in the occipital and frontal regions. No brain region exhibited stronger activation for the vista than the environmental space. The allocentric and egocentric reference frames activated the bilateral PPA and right RSC. The allocentric frame showed more stronger activations than the egocentric frame in the right culmen, left middle frontal gyrus, and precuneus. No brain region displayed stronger activation for the egocentric than the allocentric navigation. Our findings suggest that navigation in different spatial scale spaces can evoke specific and common brain regions, and that the brain regions representing spatial reference frames are not absolutely separated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118264DOI Listing
September 2021
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