Publications by authors named "Simona Iacobelli"

67 Publications

Outcomes and toxicity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia patients previously treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a prospective non-interventional study from the Chronic Malignancy Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

CHU de Lille, Univ Lille, INSERM U1286, Infinite, 59000, Lille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains a treatment option for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who fail to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). While imatinib seems to have no adverse impact on outcomes after transplant, little is known on the effects of prior use of second-generation TKI (2GTKI). We present the results of a prospective non-interventional study performed by the EBMT on 383 consecutive CML patients previously treated with dasatinib or nilotinib undergoing allo-HCT from 2009 to 2013. The median age was 45 years (18-68). Disease status at transplant was CP1 in 139 patients (38%), AP or >CP1 in 163 (45%), and BC in 59 (16%). The choice of 2GTKI was: 40% dasatinib, 17% nilotinib, and 43% a sequential treatment of dasatinib and nilotinib with or without bosutinib/ponatinib. With a median follow-up of 37 months (1-77), 8% of patients developed either primary or secondary graft failure, 34% acute and 60% chronic GvHD. There were no differences in post-transplant complications between the three different 2GTKI subgroups. Non-relapse mortality was 18% and 24% at 12 months and at 5 years, respectively. Relapse incidence was 36%, overall survival 56% and relapse-free survival 40% at 5 years. No differences in post-transplant outcomes were found between the three different 2GTKI subgroups. This prospective study demonstrates the feasibility of allo-HCT in patients previously treated with 2GTKI with a post-transplant complications rate comparable to that of TKI-naive or imatinib-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01472-xDOI Listing
October 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome using treosulfan based compared to other reduced-intensity or myeloablative conditioning regimens. A report of the chronic malignancies working party of the EBMT.

Br J Haematol 2021 Nov 12;195(3):417-428. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

CHU de Lille, INSERM U1286, Univ Lille, Lille, France.

Allogeneic haematopoietic-cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is usually associated with lower non-relapse mortality (NRM), higher relapse rate and similar overall-survival (OS) as myeloablative-conditioning (MAC). Fludarabine/treosulfan (FT) is a reduced-toxicity regimen with intense anti-leukaemia activity and a favourable toxicity profile. We investigated post-transplant outcomes in 1722 MDS patients following allo-HCT with FT (n = 367), RIC (n = 687) or MAC (n = 668). FT and RIC recipients were older than MAC recipients, median age 59, 59 and 51 years, respectively (P < 0·001) but other disease characteristics were similar. The median follow-up was 64 months (1-171). Five-year relapse rates were 25% (21-30), 38% (34-42) and 25% (22-29), after FT, RIC and MAC, respectively, (P < 0·001). NRM was 30% (25-35), 27% (23-30) and 34% (31-38, P = 0·008), respectively. Five-year OS was 50% (44-55), 43% (38-47), and 43% (39-47), respectively (P = 0·03). In multivariate analysis, FT was associated with a lower risk of relapse (HR 0·55, P < 0·001) and better OS (HR 0·72, P = 0·01). MAC was associated with higher NRM (HR 1·44, P = 0·001). In conclusion, FT is associated with similar low relapse rates as MAC and similar low NRM as RIC, resulting in improved OS. FT may be the preferred regimen for allo-HCT in MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17817DOI Listing
November 2021

IgD Subtype But Not IgM or Non-Secretory Is a Prognostic Marker for Poor Survival Following Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma. Results From the EBMT CALM (Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant Outcomes in Lymphomas and Myeloma) Study.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 10 24;21(10):686-693. Epub 2021 May 24.

Hospital Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Background: The Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant Outcomes in Lymphoma and Myeloma (CALM) study has provided an opportunity to evaluate the real-world outcomes of patients with myeloma. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome according to the different subtypes of myeloma using CALM data.

Patients: This study compared overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and complete remission (CR) and the impact of novel versus non-novel drug containing induction regimens prior to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) of 2802 patients with "usual" and "rare" myelomas.

Results: Our data suggest that IgM and non-secretory myeloma have superior PFS and OS compared with IgD myeloma and outcomes comparable to those for usual myeloma. Patients who received novel agent induction had higher rates of CR prior to transplant. Non-novel induction regimens were associated with inferior PFS but no difference in OS. Although not the primary focus of this study, we show that poor mobilization status is associated with reduced PFS and OS, but these differences disappear in multivariate analysis suggesting that poor mobilization status is a surrogate for other indicators of poor prognosis.

Conclusion: We confirm that IgD myeloma is associated with the worst prognosis and inferior outcomes compared with the other isotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.05.012DOI Listing
October 2021

Prognostic impact of early-versus-late responses to different induction regimens in patients with myeloma undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation: Results from the CALM study by the CMWP of the EBMT.

Eur J Haematol 2021 May 27;106(5):708-715. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

University Hospital of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, INSERM, Infinite, Lille, France.

Background: In autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT)-eligible myeloma patients, prolonged induction does not necessarily improve the depth of response.

Method: We analyzed 1222 ASCT patients who were classified based on (a) the interval between induction and stem cell collection, (b) the type of induction regimen: BID (Bortezomib, IMiDs, and Dexamethasone), Bortezomib-based, or CTD (Cyclophosphamide, Thalidomide, and Dexamethasone), and (c) the time to best response (Early ie, best response within 4 or 5 months, depending on the regimen vs Late; Good ie, VGPR or better vs Poor).

Results: The length of induction treatment required to achieve a Good response did not affect PFS (P = .65) or OS (P = .61) post-ASCT. The three types of regimen resulted in similar outcomes: median PFS 31, 27.7 and 30.8 months (P = .31), and median OS 81.7, 92.7, and 77.4 months, respectively (P = .83). On multivariate analysis, neither the type nor the duration of the induction regimen affected OS and PFS, except for Early Good Responders who had a better PFS compared to Early Poor Responders (HR = 1.21, P-value = .02). However, achieving a Good response at induction was associated with a better response (≥VGPR) post-transplant.

Conclusion: The kinetics of response did not affect outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13602DOI Listing
May 2021

Intercontinental study on pre-engraftment and post-engraftment Gram-negative rods bacteremia in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients: Risk factors and association with mortality.

J Infect 2020 12 10;81(6):882-894. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

ICO-Hospital Universitari Germans Trias I Pujol, Badalona, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: We present here data on Gram-negative rods bacteremia (GNRB) rates, risk factors and associated mortality.

Methods: Data on GNRB episodes were prospectively collected in 65 allo-/67 auto-HSCT centers in 24 countries (Europe, Asia, Australia). In patients with and without GNRB, we compared: demography, underlying disease, HSCT-related data, center` fluoroquinolone prophylaxis (FQP) policy and accreditation status, and involvement of infection control team (ICT).

Results: The GNRB cumulative incidence among 2818 allo-HSCT was: pre-engraftment (pre-eng-allo-HSCT), 8.4 (95% CI 7-9%), post-engraftment (post-eng-allo-HSCT), 5.8% (95%CI: 5-7%); among 3152 auto-HSCT, pre-eng-auto-HSCT, 6.6% (95%CI: 6-7%), post-eng-auto-HSCT, 0.7% (95%CI: 0.4-1.1%). GNRB, especially MDR, was associated with increased mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed the following GNRB risk factors: (a) pre-eng-allo-HSCT: south-eastern Europe center location, underlying diseases not at complete remission, and cord blood source; (b) post-eng-allo-HSCT: center location not in northwestern Europe; underlying non-malignant disease, not providing FQP and never accredited. (c) pre-eng-auto-HSCT: older age, autoimmune and malignant (vs. plasma cell) disease, and ICT absence.

Conclusions: Benefit of FQP should be explored in prospective studies. Increased GNRB risk in auto-HSCT patients transplanted for autoimmune diseases is worrying. Infection control and being accredited are possibly protective against bacteremia. GNRB are associated with increased mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.11.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Complement C3 vs C5 inhibition in severe COVID-19: Early clinical findings reveal differential biological efficacy.

Clin Immunol 2020 11 19;220:108598. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Growing clinical evidence has implicated complement as a pivotal driver of COVID-19 immunopathology. Deregulated complement activation may fuel cytokine-driven hyper-inflammation, thrombotic microangiopathy and NET-driven immunothrombosis, thereby leading to multi-organ failure. Complement therapeutics have gained traction as candidate drugs for countering the detrimental consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Whether blockade of terminal complement effectors (C5, C5a, or C5aR1) may elicit similar outcomes to upstream intervention at the level of C3 remains debated. Here we compare the efficacy of the C5-targeting monoclonal antibody eculizumab with that of the compstatin-based C3-targeted drug candidate AMY-101 in small independent cohorts of severe COVID-19 patients. Our exploratory study indicates that therapeutic complement inhibition abrogates COVID-19 hyper-inflammation. Both C3 and C5 inhibitors elicit a robust anti-inflammatory response, reflected by a steep decline in C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, marked lung function improvement, and resolution of SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). C3 inhibition afforded broader therapeutic control in COVID-19 patients by attenuating both C3a and sC5b-9 generation and preventing FB consumption. This broader inhibitory profile was associated with a more robust decline of neutrophil counts, attenuated neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, faster serum LDH decline, and more prominent lymphocyte recovery. These early clinical results offer important insights into the differential mechanistic basis and underlying biology of C3 and C5 inhibition in COVID-19 and point to a broader pathogenic involvement of C3-mediated pathways in thromboinflammation. They also support the evaluation of these complement-targeting agents as COVID-19 therapeutics in large prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2020.108598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7501834PMC
November 2020

Upfront stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma with del(17p) and t(4;14): a study from the CMWP-EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 01 24;56(1):210-217. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

We analyzed newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with del(17p) and/or t(4;14) undergoing either upfront single autologous (auto), tandem autologous (auto-auto) or tandem autologous/reduced-intensity allogeneic (auto-allo) stem cell transplantation. 623 patients underwent either auto (n = 446), auto-auto (n = 105), or auto-allo (n = 72) between 2000 and 2015. 46% of patients had t(4;14), 45% had del(17p) while 9% were reported having both abnormalities. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45-58%) for single auto, 60% (95% CI, 49-72%) for auto-auto, and 67% (95% CI, 53-80%) for auto-allo (p = 0.187). Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 17% (95% CI, 12-22%), 33% (95% CI, 22-43%), and 34% (95% CI, 21-38%; p = 0.048). Five-year relapse rate was 82, 63, and 56%, while non-relapse mortality was 1, 4, and 10%. In multivariable analysis, in t(4;14) with single auto as reference, auto-auto (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; p = 0.007) and auto-allo (HR, 0.45; p = 0.018) were associated with better PFS. In terms of t(4;14) and OS, auto-auto appeared to improve outcome compared with single auto (HR, 0.49; p = 0.096). In del(17p), outcome in PFS was similar between single auto and auto-auto, while auto-allo appeared to improve PFS (HR, 0.65; p = 0.097). No significant difference in OS was identified between the groups in patients with del(17p).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01007-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Allogeneic Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma-Does It Still Have a Place?

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 10;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Novel drugs have improved survival for patients with multiple myeloma in recent years. However, the disease is still fatal. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo) has proven to cure some patients with the disease, but its role is controversial due to relatively high transplant-related toxicity and mortality (nonrelapse mortality, NRM). Using nonmyeloablative reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), both toxicity and NRM can be reduced, and RICAllo is, therefore, an option for subgroups of patients. Upfront tandem autologous/RICAllo (Auto/RICAllo) was shown to be superior to single Auto or tandem Auto/Auto in both progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in two prospective studies with long-term follow-up, while three similarly designed studies did not detect a difference. A recent update of pooled patient data from four of these studies showed significantly superior PFS and OS with Auto/RICAllo. Importantly, none of these studies showed inferior results with Auto/RICAllo in patients less than 70 years of age. Auto/RICAllo appears to overcome some poor risk cytogenetic markers. Encouraging results have also been seen in treatment of relapsed patients. Combining Allo with new proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs may further improve results. Other encouraging new cell therapies such as with CAR T-cells, NK- and CAR NK-cells may well have a place in combination with RICAllo. Such studies are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408931PMC
July 2020

Determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Leukemia 2021 01 14;35(1):215-224. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

CHU de Lille, LIRIC, INSERM U995, Université de Lille, 59000, Lille, France.

We aimed to evaluate the determinants of survival in myelofibrosis patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) and to describe factors predicting the main post-HCT complications. This retrospective study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation included 2916 myelofibrosis patients who underwent first allo-HCT from an HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor between 2000 and 2016. After a median follow-up of 4.7 years from transplant, projected median survival of the series was 5.3 years. Factors independently associated with increased mortality were age ≥ 60 years and Karnofsky Performance Status <90% at transplant, and occurrence of graft failure, grades III-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (aGVHD), and disease progression/relapse during follow-up. The opposing effects of chronic graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) on non-relapse mortality and relapse incidence resulted in a neutral influence on survival. Graft failure increased in unrelated donor recipients and decreased with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and negative donor/recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus. Risk of grades III-IV aGVHD was higher with unrelated donors and decreased with MAC. Relapse incidence tended to be higher in patients with intermediate-2/high-risk DIPSS categories and to decrease in CALR-mutated patients. Acute and chronic GVHD reduced the subsequent risk of relapse. This information has potential implications for patient counseling and clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0815-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Long-term survival of 1338 MM patients treated with tandem autologous vs. autologous-allogeneic transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 09 14;55(9):1810-1816. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

Contrary to tandem autologous transplant (auto-auto), autologous followed by reduced intensity conditioning allogenic transplantation (auto-allo) offers graft-versus-myeloma (GVM) effect but with higher toxicity. Trials comparing these two strategies relied on availability of HLA-matched sibling donors for arm allocation (biological randomization) and yielded conflicting results. A pooled analysis of multiple trials with extended follow up provides an opportunity to compare these strategies. We obtained individual patient data from participants of four trials comparing auto-auto vs. auto-allo after induction therapy. There were 899 patients in auto-auto and 439 in auto-allo. Median follow up of survivors was 118.5 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 78.0 months in auto-auto and 98.3 months in auto-allo (HR = 0.84, P = 0.02). OS was 36.4% vs. 44.1% at 10 years (P = 0.01) for auto-auto and auto-allo, respectively. Progression-free survival was also improved in auto-allo (HR = 0.84, P = 0.004). Risk of non-relapse mortality was higher in auto-allo (10 year 8.3% vs. 19.7%, P < 0.001), while risk of disease progression was higher in auto-auto (10 year 77.2% vs. 61.6%, P < 0.001). Median post relapse survival was 41.5 months in auto-auto and 62.3 months in auto-allo (HR = 0.71, P < 0.001). This supports the existence of durable GVM effect enhancing myeloma control with subsequent therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0887-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483973PMC
September 2020

Outcome of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable: a retrospective study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.

Br J Haematol 2020 08 28;190(3):437-441. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Université de Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille. INSERM, Infinite, U1286, Lille, France.

Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN), unclassifiable (MPN-U) is a heterogeneous disease with regards to both clinical phenotype and disease course. Patients may initially be asymptomatic or present with leucocytosis or thrombocytosis, anaemia, progressive splenomegaly, constitutional symptom, thromboses or accelerated/blastic phase disease. Treatment strategies are variable and there are no widely accepted consensus management guidelines for MNU-U. Allogeneic Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation (allo-HCT) remains the only curative strategy yet outcomes, to date, are not well defined. We hereby report on the largest retrospective study of patients with MPN-U undergoing allo-HCT, highlighting the potentially curative role and providing clinicians with robust engraftment, GvHD and outcome data to facilitate patient discussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16537DOI Listing
August 2020

Conditioning-based outcomes after allogeneic transplantation for myeloma following a prior autologous transplant (1991-2012) on behalf of EBMT CMWP.

Eur J Haematol 2020 Mar 25;104(3):181-189. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the intensity of conditioning approaches used in allogeneic transplantation in myeloma-reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), non-myeloablative (NMA), myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or Auto-AlloHCT-on outcomes in patients who had had a prior autologous transplant.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the EBMT database (1991-2012) was performed.

Results: A total of 344 patients aged between 40 and 60 years at the time of alloHCT were identified: 169 RIC, 69 NMA, 65 MAC and 41 Auto-Allo transplants. At a median follow-up of 54 months, the probabilities of overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 39% (95% CI 31%-47%), 45% (95% CI 32%-57%), 19% (95% CI 6%-32%) and 34% (95% CI 17%-51%), respectively. Status at allogeneic HCT other than CR or PR conferred a 70% higher risk of death and a 40% higher risk of relapse. OS was markedly lower in the MAC group (P = .004). MAC alloHCT was associated with a higher risk of death than RIC alloHCT until 2002 (HR = 4.1, P < .001) but not after 2002 (HR = 1.2, P = .276).

Conclusion: From 1991 to 2002, MAC was associated with poorer OS. Between 2003 and 2012, there were no significant differences in outcomes based on these different approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13352DOI Listing
March 2020

Role of Age and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index in Myelodysplastic Patients Undergoing an Allotransplant: A Retrospective Study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 03 21;26(3):451-457. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Hopital St. Louis, Paris, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only potentially curative option for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) but is severely limited by nonrelapse mortality (NRM), especially in this mostly older population. Comorbidity assessment is crucial to predict NRM and often assessed with the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI). Moreover, the impact of age on NRM still remains a matter of debate. In recent years, the age at which transplants are made has been progressively increasing, and patients with comorbidities have become more common. Extricating the respective roles of age and comorbidities in toxic mortality is all the more important. This study by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry included 1245 adult patients who underwent a first allogeneic stem cell transplantation for MDSs between 2003 and 2014. Overall, 4-year NRM and overall survival were 32% and 47%, respectively. When considered as continuous predictors, HCT-CI score and age were associated with an increased hazard ratio (HR) for NRM. In multivariate analysis, age band (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.25; P= .016), HCT-CI ≥3 (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.73; P = .022), and Karnofsky Performance Status ≤80 (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.73; P< .0001) were significantly predictive of a worse NRM. In our large cohort, both comorbidities, evaluated by the original HCT-CI score, and chronological age significantly affected NRM. Thus, age should be part of the transplant decision-making process and should be integrated in future scoring systems predicting outcomes of HSCT in MDSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.10.015DOI Listing
March 2020

Autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant for acquired aplastic anaemia: a joint study of the Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Parties (ADWP/SAAWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 25;55(2):441-451. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Hematology Unit, G. Gaslini Children's Hospital, Genova, Italy.

This retrospective study explored the incidence of autoimmune cytopenia (AIC) in 530 paediatric and adult patients with acquired aplastic anaemia (aAA) who underwent first allogeneic HSCT between 2002 and 2012. AIC was a rare complication with a cumulative incidence of AIC at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years post HSCT of 2.5% (1.2-3.9 95% CI), 4.4% (2.6-6.2 95% CI), 4.6% (2.8-6.5 95% CI) and 5.1% (3.1-7.2 95% CI). Overall survival at 5 years after diagnosis of AIC was 85.9% (71-100 95% CI). Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with AIC at a median of 10.6 (2.6-91.5) months post HSCT. Eight (32%) patients were diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), seven (28%) with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA), seven (24%) with Evans syndrome and four (16%) with autoimmune neutropenia (AIN). Treatment strategies were heterogeneous. Complete responses were seen in 12 of 25 patients, with death in three patients. In multivariable Cox analysis of a subgroup of 475 patients, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplant was associated with higher risk of AIC compared with bone marrow (BM) when conditioning regimens contained fludarabine and/or alemtuzumab (2.81 [1.06-7.49 95% CI]; p = 0.038), or anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (2.86 [1.11-7.37 95% CI]; p = 0.029). Myeloablative conditioning was associated with a lower risk of AIC compared with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in fludarabine and/or alemtuzumab (0.34 [0.12-0.98 95% CI]; p = 0.046) and ATG containing regimens (0.34 [0.12-0.95 95% CI]; p = 0.04). These findings provide clinically useful information regarding the incidence of a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic HSCT for aAA, and further support for BM as the preferred stem cell source for transplant of patients with aAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0680-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995778PMC
February 2020

Results from a multicenter, noninterventional registry study for multiple myeloma patients who received stem cell mobilization regimens with and without plerixafor.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 18;55(2):356-366. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.

Plerixafor plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for collection and subsequent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This international, multicenter, noninterventional registry study (NCT01362972), evaluated long-term outcomes for MM patients who received plerixafor versus other mobilization regimens. The comparisons were: G-CSF + plerixafor (G-CSF + P) versus G-CSF-; G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + chemotherapy (G-CSF + C); and G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C. Propensity score matching was used to balance groups. Primary outcome measures were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) after transplantation. After propensity matching, 77 versus 41 patients in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF cohorts, 129 versus 129 in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + C cohorts, and 117 versus 117 in the G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C cohorts were matched, respectively. Propensity score matching resulted in a smaller sample size and imbalances were not completely overcome. For both PFS and OS, the upper limits of the hazard ratio 95% confidence intervals exceeded prespecified boundaries; noninferiority was not demonstrated. CIR rates were higher in the plerixafor cohorts. G-CSF + P remains an option for the mobilization of HSCs in poor mobilizers with MM with no substantial differences in PFS, OS, and CIR in comparison with other regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0676-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995780PMC
February 2020

Death after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: changes over calendar year time, infections and associated factors.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 27;55(1):126-136. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Hematology, Medical Faculty, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Information on incidence, and factors associated with mortality is a prerequisite to improve outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, 55'668 deaths in 114'491 patients with HSCT (83.7% allogeneic) for leukemia were investigated in a landmark analysis for causes of death at day 30 (very early), day 100 (early), at 1 year (intermediate) and at 5 years (late). Mortality from all causes decreased from cohort 1 (1980-2001) to cohort 2 (2002-2015) in all post-transplant phases after autologous HSCT. After allogeneic HSCT, mortality from infections, GVHD, and toxicity decreased up to 1 year, increased at 5 years; deaths from relapse increased in all post-transplant phases. Infections of unknown origin were the main cause of infectious deaths. Lethal bacterial and fungal infections decreased from cohort 1 to cohort 2, not unknown or mixed infections. Infectious deaths were associated with patient-, disease-, donor type, stem cell source, center, and country- related factors. Their impact varied over the post-transplant phases. Transplant centres have successfully managed to reduce death after HSCT in the early and intermediate post-transplant phases, and have identified risk factors. Late post-transplant care could be improved by focus on groups at risk and better identification of infections of "unknown origin".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0624-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957465PMC
January 2020

Impact of T-cell depletion strategies on outcomes following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for idiopathic aplastic anemia: A study on behalf of the European blood and marrow transplant severe aplastic anemia working party.

Am J Hematol 2019 01 25;94(1):80-86. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Federico II University of Napoli, Naples, Italy.

We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 1837 adults and children with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who underwent matched sibling donor (MSD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 2000 and 2013. Patients were grouped by transplant conditioning containing either anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (n = 1283), alemtuzumab (n = 261), or no serotherapy (NS) (n = 293). The risks of chronic GvHD were significantly reduced when ATG or alemtuzumab were compared with NS (P = .021 and .003, respectively). Acute GVHD was significantly reduced in favor of alemtuzumab compared with ATG (P = .012) and NS (P < .001). By multivariate analysis, when compared with ATG, alemtuzumab was associated with a lower risk of developing acute (OR 0.262; 95% CI 0.14-0.47; P < .001) and chronic GVHD (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35-0.94; P = .027). OS was significantly better in ATG and alemtuzumab patients compared with NS (P = .010 and .025). Our data shows inclusion of serotherapy in MSD and MUD HSCT for patients with SAA reduces chronic GVHD and provides a survival advantage over patients not receiving serotherapy. Notably, alemtuzumab reduced the risk of acute and chronic GvHD compared with ATG and indicates that alemtuzumab might be the serotherapy of choice for MSD and MUD transplants for SAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25314DOI Listing
January 2019

Outcome of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in dyskeratosis congenita.

Br J Haematol 2018 10 9;183(1):110-118. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Haemato-Immunology Department, Robert Debre Hospital, and Paris-Diderot University, Paris, France.

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a genetic multisystem disorder with frequent involvement of the bone marrow. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only definitive cure to restore haematopoiesis, even though it cannot correct other organ dysfunctions. We collected data on the outcome of HSCT in the largest cohort of DC (n = 94) patients ever studied. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years after HSCT were 66% and 62%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed better outcomes in patients aged less than 20 years and in patients transplanted from a matched, rather than a mismatched, donor. OS and EFS curves tended to decline over time. Early lethal events were infections, whereas organ damage and secondary malignancies appeared afterwards, even a decade after HSCT. A non-myeloablative conditioning regimen appeared to be most advisable. Organ impairment present before HSCT seemed to favour the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease and T-B immune deficiency appeared to enhance pulmonary fibrosis. According to the present data, HSCT in DC is indicated in cases of progressive marrow failure, whereas in patients with pre-existing organ damage, this should be carefully evaluated. Further efforts to investigate treatment alternatives to HSCT should be encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15495DOI Listing
October 2018

Protective environment for hematopoietic cell transplant (HSCT) recipients: The Infectious Diseases Working Party EBMT analysis of global recommendations on health-care facilities.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 09 13;53(9):1131-1138. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Verona, Italy.

International guidelines on protective environment for HSCT recipients proposed a set of 10 global recommendations in 2009 on protective environment (GRPE) concerning hospital room design and ventilation. The EBMT Infectious Diseases Working Party undertook a survey on the status on protective environment for HSCT recipients with the aim of surveying current practices and their agreement with GRPE recommendations. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions divided into 5 sections about filtration, air changes, maintenance, and the protective environment in rooms and the surrounding unit. Overall, 177 centres (response rate 33%) from 36 countries responded, indicating that 99.4% of patient rooms were equipped with HEPA filters, but only 48.6% of the centre's staff were aware of, and could confirm, regular replacement of filters based on manufacturers' recommendations. Well-sealed rooms were used in terms of windows (70.6%), ceilings (35%), and plumbing pipes (51.4%). The sensor monitors in the patient room used to determine when the HEPA filters require changing were installed only in 18.1% of centres. Only 1 centre fulfilled all 10 GRPE recommendations, while 62 centres fulfilled the 3 level "A" recommendations. In conclusion, HEPA-filtered rooms are available in almost all centres, while fewer centres fulfilled other requirements. Knowledge on the details and maintenance of protective environments in the HSCT setting was inadequate, reflecting a lack of communication between the health personnel involved, hospital infection control and the hospital maintenance services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0141-5DOI Listing
September 2018

Impact of extramedullary disease in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation: a study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.

Haematologica 2018 05 1;103(5):890-897. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Medical Center Hamburg- Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

We investigated extramedullary disease in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients and its impact on outcome following first-line autologous stem cell transplantation. We identified 3744 adult myeloma patients who received up-front single (n=3391) or tandem transplantation (n=353) between 2005 and 2014 with available data on extramedullary involvement at diagnosis. The overall incidence of extramedullary disease was 18.2% (n=682) and increased per year from 6.5% (2005) to 23.7% (2014). Paraskeletal involvement was found in 543 (14.5%) and extramedullary organ involvement in 139 (3.7%). More patients with extramedullary organ involvement had multiple involved sites (≥2; <0.001). In a comparison of patients with single sites with patients without the disease, up-front transplantation resulted in at least similar 3-year progression-free survival (paraskeletal: =0.86, and extramedullary organ: =0.88). In single paraskeletal involvement, this translated less clearly into worse 3-year overall survival (=0.07) while single organ involvement was significantly worse (=0.001). Multiple organ sites were associated with worse outcome (<0.001 and =0.01). First-line treatment with tandem compared with single transplantation resulted in similar survival in patients with extramedullary disease at diagnosis (=0.13 for both).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.178434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927971PMC
May 2018

Outcome of a Salvage Third Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 07 3;24(7):1372-1378. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Department of Hematology, Eppendorf University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.

To evaluate the outcomes of salvage third autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. We analyzed 570 patients who had undergone a third ASCT between 1997 and 2010 (European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation data), of whom 482 patients underwent tandem ASCT and a third ASCT at first relapse (AARA group) and 88 patients underwent an upfront ASCT with second and third transplantations after subsequent relapses (ARARA group). With a median follow-up after salvage third ASCT of 61 months in the AARA group and 48 months in the ARARA group, the day +100 nonrelapse mortality in the 2 groups was 4% and 7%, the incidence of second primary malignancy was 6% and 7%, the median progression-free survival was 13 and 8 months, and median overall survival (OS) was 33 and 15 months. In the AARA group, according to the relapse-free interval (RFI) from the second ASCT, the median OS after the third ASCT was 17 months if the RFI was <18 months, 37 months if the RFI was between 18 and 36 months, and 64 months if the RFI was ≥36 months (P < .001). In the ARARA group, the median OS after the third ASCT was 7 months if the RFI was <6 months, 13 months if the RFI was between 6 and 18 months, and 27 months if the RFI was ≥18 months (P < .001). In a multivariate analysis of the AARA group, the favorable prognostic factor was an RFI after second ASCT of ≥18 months. Progressive disease and a Karnofsky Performance Status score of <70 at third ASCT were unfavorable factors. A salvage third ASCT is of value for patients with relapsed myeloma, particularly for those with a long duration of response and chemosensitive disease at the time of transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.01.035DOI Listing
July 2018

Incidence of Second Primary Malignancies after Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma in the Era of Novel Agents.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 12;24(5):930-936. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The advent of novel agents for multiple myeloma (MM) is cause for a re-examination of the incidence of second primary malignancies (SPMs). We examined the SPM rate in MM patients who were enrolled in the prospective observational CALM (Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant outcome in Lymphoma and Myeloma) study. Between 2008 and 2012, 3204 patients with MM underwent a first autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Plerixafor was used as a mobilizing agent for patients with poor (or potentially poor) stem cell mobilization as defined by the respective centers. A total of 135 patients developed SPMs, with a cumulative incidence of 5.3% (95% confidence interval, 4.4 to 6.3) at 72 months. Ninety-four patients developed solid tumors, 30 developed hematologic malignancies, and 11 developed an SPM of an unknown type. The cumulative incidence of known hematologic and solid malignancies were 1.4% and 3.6%, respectively, at 72 months. In a univariate analysis, use of radiotherapy, type of induction regimen, hematopoietic stem cell dose, poor mobilizer status, plerixafor use, and sex did not influence the cumulative incidence of SPMs. Only age over 65 years was statistically associated with an increased incidence. Overall, the incidence of SPMs was comparable to earlier estimations of SPMs in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.01.006DOI Listing
May 2018

Melphalan 140 mg/m or 200 mg/m for autologous transplantation in myeloma: results from the Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant Outcomes in Lymphoma and Myeloma (CALM) study. A report by the EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party.

Haematologica 2018 03 7;103(3):514-521. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Melphalan at a dose of 200 mg/m is standard conditioning prior to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma, but a dose of 140 mg/m is often used in clinical practice in patients perceived to be at risk of excess toxicity. To determine whether melphalan 200 mg/m and melphalan 140 mg/m are equally effective and tolerable in clinically relevant patient subgroups we analyzed 1964 first single autologous transplantation episodes using a series of Cox proportional-hazards models. Overall survival, progression-free survival, cumulative incidence of relapse, non-relapse mortality, hematopoietic recovery and second primary malignancy rates were not significantly different between the melphalan 140 mg/m (n=245) and melphalan 200 mg/m (n=1719) groups. Multivariable subgroup analysis showed that disease status at transplantation interacted with overall survival, progression-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse, with a significant advantage associated with melphalan 200 mg/m in patients transplanted in less than partial response (adjusted hazard ratios for melphalan 200 mg/m melphalan 140 mg/m: 0.5, 0.54, and 0.56). In contrast, transplantation in very good partial or complete response significantly favored melphalan 140 mg/m for overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.02). Age, renal function, prior proteasome inhibitor treatment, gender, or Karnofsky score did not interact with overall/progression-free survival or relapse rate in the melphalan dose groups. There were no significant survival or relapse rate differences between melphalan 200 mg/m and melphalan 140 mg/m patients with high-risk or standard-risk chromosomal abnormalities. In conclusion, remission status at the time of transplantation may favor the use of melphalan 200 mg/m or melphalan 140 mg/m for key transplant outcomes (NCT01362972).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.181339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830386PMC
March 2018

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients with a 5q Deletion.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 03 28;24(3):507-513. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Haematology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The deletion (5q) karyotype (del [5q]) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is the most common karyotypic abnormality in de novo MDS. An increased number of blasts and additional karyotypic abnormalities (del [5q]+) are associated with a poor outcome. We analyzed the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) in patients suffering from MDS with only del (5q) or del (5q)+ . A total of 162 patients, of median age 54 years (range, 9 to 73), having MDS and del (5q) abnormalities received HCT from identical siblings (n = 87) or unrelated donors (n = 75). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality and relapse incidence at 4 years was 29% (95% CI, 22 to 36) and 46% (95% CI, 38 to 54), whereas the estimated 4 year survival, relapse-free and overall, was 25% (95% CI, 18 to 33) and 30% (95% CI, 23 to 38), respectively. In a multivariate analysis patients with del (5q) and a blast excess displayed poorer survival (hazard ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.44 to 3.93; P < .001), whereas female recipient sex resulted in improved survival (hazard ratio, .61; 95% CI, .41 to .90; P = .01). We conclude that allogeneic HCT can cure a subset of patients with MDS and a del (5q) abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.11.017DOI Listing
March 2018

Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Negative Rods Causing Bacteremia in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: Intercontinental Prospective Study of the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Bone Marrow Transplantation Group.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Nov;65(11):1819-1828

University of Münster, Germany.

Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study gram-negative rod (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during 6 months post-HSCT (February 2014-May 2015) were prospectively collected, and analyzed for rates and risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolones, noncarbapenem anti-Pseudomonas β-lactams (noncarbapenems), carbapenems, and multidrug resistance.

Results: Sixty-five HSCT centers from 25 countries in Europe, Australia, and Asia reported data on 655 GNR episodes and 704 pathogens in 591 patients (Enterobacteriaceae, 73%; nonfermentative rods, 24%; and 3% others). Half of GNRs were fluoroquinolone and noncarbapenem resistant; 18.5% carbapenem resistant; 35.2% multidrug resistant. The total resistance rates were higher in allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) vs autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) patients (P < .001) but similar in community-acquired infections. Noncarbapenem resistance and multidrug resistance were higher in auto-HSCT patients in centers providing vs not providing fluoroquinolone prophylaxis (P < .01). Resistance rates were higher in southeast vs northwest Europe and similar in children and adults, excluding higher fluoroquinolone- and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor resistance rates in allo-HSCT adults. Non-Klebsiella Enterobacteriaceae were rarely carbapenem resistant. Multivariable analysis revealed resistance risk factors in allo-HSCT patients: fluoroquinolone resistance: adult, prolonged neutropenia, breakthrough on fluoroquinolones; noncarbapenem resistance: hospital-acquired infection, breakthrough on noncarbapenems or other antibiotics (excluding fluoroquinolones, noncarbapenems, carbapenems), donor type; carbapenem resistance: breakthrough on carbapenem, longer hospitalization, intensive care unit, previous other antibiotic therapy; multidrug resistance: longer hospitalization, breakthrough on β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors, and carbapenems. Inappropriate empiric therapy and mortality were significantly more common in infections caused by resistant bacteria.

Conclusions: Our data question the recommendation for fluoroquinolone prophylaxis and call for reassessment of local empiric antibiotic protocols. Knowledge of pathogen-specific resistance enables early appropriate empiric therapy. Monitoring of resistance is crucial.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02257931.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix646DOI Listing
November 2017

Centre characteristics and procedure-related factors have an impact on outcomes of allogeneic transplantation for patients with CLL: a retrospective analysis from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).

Br J Haematol 2017 08 7;178(4):521-533. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Bone Marrow Transplantation Centre, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The best approach for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantations (alloHCT) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is unknown. We therefore analysed the impact of procedure- and centre-related factors on 5-year event-free survival (EFS) in a large retrospective study. Data of 684 CLL patients who received a first alloHCT between 2000 and 2011 were analysed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with a frailty component to investigate unexplained centre heterogeneity. Five-year EFS of the whole cohort was 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34-42%). Larger numbers of CLL alloHCTs (hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, P = 0·002), certification of quality management (HR 0·7, P = 0·045) and a higher gross national income per capita (HR 0·4, P = 0·04) improved EFS. In vivo T-cell depletion (TCD) with alemtuzumab compared to no TCD (HR 1·5, P = 0·03), and a female donor compared to a male donor for a male patient (HR 1·4, P = 0·02) had a negative impact on EFS, but not non-myeloablative versus more intensive conditioning. After correcting for patient-, procedure- and centre-characteristics, significant variation in centre outcomes persisted. In conclusion, further research on the impact of centre and procedural characteristics is warranted. Non-myeloablative conditioning appears to be the preferable approach for patients with CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14791DOI Listing
August 2017

Dose-Reduced Versus Standard Conditioning Followed by Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplantation for Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome: A Prospective Randomized Phase III Study of the EBMT (RICMAC Trial).

J Clin Oncol 2017 Jul 2;35(19):2157-2164. Epub 2017 May 2.

Nicolaus Kröger, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Georg-Nikolaus Franke, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig; Uwe Platzbecker, University Hospital Dresden, Dresden; Kai Hübel and Christof Scheid, University of Cologne, Cologne; Thomas Weber, University Hospital Halle (Saale), Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle; Matthias Stelljes, University of Münster, Münster; Peter Dreger, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg; Andreas Günther, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein Campus Kiel, Kiel; Wolfgang Bethge, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen; Guido Kobbe, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany; Simona Iacobelli, Università Tor Vergata, Rome; Giorgio Lambertenghi Deliliers and Francesco Onida, Fondazione IRCC Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milano, Milan; Massimo Pini, Azienda Ospedaliera SS. Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Alessandria; Stefano Guidi, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy; Ruzena Uddin, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Marie Robin, Hôpital Saint Louis, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux Paris, France; Boris Afanasyev, SPB Pavlov Medical University, St Petersburg, Russia; Dominik Heim, University Hospital Basel, Basel Switzerland; Liisa Volin, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsiniki, Finland; Xavier Poiré, Cliniques Universitaires St-Luc, Brussels, Belgium; Marleen van Os, European Group of Blood and Marrow Transplantation Clinical Trials Office; Ronald Brand, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; and Theo de Witte, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Purpose To compare a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen (RIC) with a myeloablative conditioning regimen (MAC) before allogeneic transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) within a randomized trial. Patients and Methods Within the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized phase III trial that compared a busulfan-based RIC with MAC in patients with MDS or secondary acute myeloid leukemia. A total of 129 patients were enrolled from 18 centers. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio and were stratified according to donor, age, and blast count. Results Engraftment was comparable between both groups. The CI of acute graft-versus-host disease II to IV was 32.3% after RIC and 37.5% after MAC ( P = .35). The CI of chronic graft-versus-host disease was 61.6% after RIC and 64.7% after MAC ( P = .76). The CI of nonrelapse mortality after 1 year was 17% (95% CI, 8% to 26%) after RIC and 25% (95% CI, 15% to 36%) after MAC ( P = .29). The CI of relapse at 2 years was 17% (95% CI, 8% to 26%) after RIC and 15% (95% CI, 6% to 24%) after MAC ( P = .6), which resulted in a 2-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 62% (95% CI, 50% to 74%) and 76% (95% CI, 66% to 87%), respectively, after RIC, and 58% (95% CI, 46% to 71%) and 63% (95% CI, 51% to 75%), respectively, after MAC ( P = .58 and P = .08, respectively). Conclusion This prospective, randomized trial of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation provides evidence that RIC resulted in at least a 2-year relapse-free survival and overall survival similar to MAC in patients with MDS or secondary acute myeloid leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.70.7349DOI Listing
July 2017
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