Publications by authors named "Silke Geiger-Rudolph"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for pigment pattern formation in zebrafish.

Biol Open 2016 Jun 15;5(6):736-44. Epub 2016 Jun 15.

Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, Abteilung 3, Spemannstrasse 35, Tübingen 72076, Germany

Polyamines are small poly-cations essential for all cellular life. The main polyamines present in metazoans are putrescine, spermidine and spermine. Their exact functions are still largely unclear; however, they are involved in a wide variety of processes affecting cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and aging. Here we identify idefix, a mutation in the zebrafish gene encoding the enzyme spermidine synthase, leading to a severe reduction in spermidine levels as shown by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. We show that spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for early development, organogenesis and colour pattern formation. Whereas in other vertebrates spermidine deficiency leads to very early embryonic lethality, maternally provided spermidine synthase in zebrafish is sufficient to rescue the early developmental defects. This allows us to uncouple them from events occurring later during colour patterning. Factors involved in the cellular interactions essential for colour patterning, likely targets for spermidine, are the gap junction components Cx41.8, Cx39.4, and Kir7.1, an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, all known to be regulated by polyamines. Thus, zebrafish provide a vertebrate model to study the in vivo effects of polyamines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.018721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4920196PMC
June 2016

Gap junctions composed of connexins 41.8 and 39.4 are essential for colour pattern formation in zebrafish.

Elife 2014 Dec 23;3:e05125. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany.

Interactions between all three pigment cell types are required to form the stripe pattern of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio), but their molecular nature is poorly understood. Mutations in leopard (leo), encoding Connexin 41.8 (Cx41.8), a gap junction subunit, cause a phenotypic series of spotted patterns. A new dominant allele, leo(tK3), leads to a complete loss of the pattern, suggesting a dominant negative impact on another component of gap junctions. In a genetic screen, we identified this component as Cx39.4 (luchs). Loss-of-function alleles demonstrate that luchs is required for stripe formation in zebrafish; however, the fins are almost not affected. Double mutants and chimeras, which show that leo and luchs are only required in xanthophores and melanophores, but not in iridophores, suggest that both connexins form heteromeric gap junctions. The phenotypes indicate that these promote homotypic interactions between melanophores and xanthophores, respectively, and those cells instruct the patterning of the iridophores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4296512PMC
December 2014

A dominant mutation in tyrp1A leads to melanophore death in zebrafish.

Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2014 Sep 3;27(5):827-30. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany.

Melanin biosynthesis in vertebrates depends on the function of three enzymes of the tyrosinase family, tyrosinase (Tyr), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), and dopachrome tautomerase (Dct or Tyrp2). Tyrp1 might play an additional role in the survival and proliferation of melanocytes. Here, we describe a mutation in tyrp1A, one of the two tyrp1 paralogs in zebrafish, which causes melanophore death leading to a semi-dominant phenotype. The mutation, an Arg->Cys change in the amino-terminal part of the protein, is similar to mutations in humans and mice where they lead to blond hair (in melanesians) or dark hair with white bases, respectively. We demonstrate that the phenotype in zebrafish depends on the presence of the mutant protein and on melanin synthesis. Ultrastructural analysis shows that the melanosome morphology and pigment content are altered in the mutants. These structural changes might be the underlying cause for the observed cell death, which, surprisingly, does not result in patterning defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12272DOI Listing
September 2014

Large-scale mapping of mutations affecting zebrafish development.

BMC Genomics 2007 Jan 9;8:11. Epub 2007 Jan 9.

Department 3--Genetics, Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, Spemannstr, 35/III, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers.

Results: We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM.

Conclusion: By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-8-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1781435PMC
January 2007

Retinal function and morphology in two zebrafish models of oculo-renal syndromes.

Eur J Neurosci 2003 Sep;18(6):1377-86

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Department of Biology, and the Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

We characterized visual system defects in two recessive zebrafish mutants oval and elipsa. These mutants share the syndromic phenotype of outer retinal dystrophy in conjunction with cystic renal disorder. We tested the function of the larval visual system in a behavioural assay, eliciting optokinetic eye movements by high-contrast motion stimulation while recording eye movements in parallel. Visual stimulation did not elicit eye movements in mutant larvae, while spontaneous eye movements could be observed. The retina proved to be unresponsive to light using electroretinography, indicative of a defect in the outer retina. Histological analysis of mutant retinas revealed progressive degeneration of photoreceptors, initiated in central retinal locations and spreading to more peripheral regions with increasing age. The inner retina remains unaffected by the mutation. Photoreceptors display cell type-specific immunoreactivity prior to apoptotic cell death, arguing for a dystrophic defect. Genomic mapping employing simple sequence-length polymorphisms located both mutations on different regions of zebrafish linkage group 9. These mutants may serve as accessible animal models of human outer retinal dystrophies, including oculo-renal diseases, and show the general usefulness of a behavioural genetic approach to study visual system development in the model vertebrate zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02863.xDOI Listing
September 2003
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