Publications by authors named "Shivani Gohel"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Open Fractures in Pediatric Orthopaedics-Can Pathways Improve Care? A 1-Year Pre and Postimplementation Analysis.

J Pediatr Orthop 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Division of Orthopaedics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: In the care of open fractures, time to antibiotic administration has been shown to be a critical factor in preventing infection. To help improve outcomes at our institution we designed and implemented an open fracture pathway with the goal of reducing the time from emergency department (ED) arrival to antibiotic administration. Here we evaluate the success of this pathway, propose improvements in the protocol, and provide a framework for initiation at other institutions.

Methods: We compared a retrospective prepathway cohort with a prospective postpathway cohort for 1-year pre and postpathway implementation. First, we analyzed the number of patients from outside facilities who had received antibiotics before transfer. For patients who had not received antibiotics before arriving at our institution, we reviewed pathway metrics including time from ED arrival to the ordering and administration of antibiotics, whether the correct antibiotic type was selected, and time to surgical debridement.

Results: There were 50 patients in the prepathway cohort and 29 in the postpathway cohort. Prepathway 60.5% of transfers (23 of 38) received antibiotics before transfer, whereas post-pathway 90.0% of transfers (18 of 20) received antibiotics (P=0.032). For patients who had not received antibiotics before arriving at our institution and were included in pathway metric analysis, there were no differences in demographics or fracture characteristics. Time from ED arrival to antibiotic order decreased from 115.3 to 63.5 minutes (P=0.016). Time from antibiotic order to administration was similar between groups (48.0 vs. 35.7 min, P=0.191), but the overall time from ED arrival to antibiotic administration decreased from 163.3 to 99.2 minutes (P=0.004). There were no significant differences in whether the correct antibiotic type was chosen (P=0.354) or time from ED arrival to surgery (P=0.783).

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that for pediatric patients presenting with open fractures, a care pathway can successfully decrease the time from ED arrival to antibiotic administration.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic level III-retrospective comparative study.
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August 2022

Open Reduction and Internal Screw Fixation of Transitional Ankle Fractures in Adolescents.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2021 Oct-Dec;11(4). Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

A triplane fracture is an example of a transitional fracture of adolescence that occurs because the distal tibial physis closes in a predictably asymmetric way from central to medial and then lateral. The triplane fracture is so named because the fracture lines propagate in 3 planes (axial, sagittal, and coronal) and thus appear on radiographs as a Salter-Harris III pattern on anteroposterior images and Salter-Harris II or IV on lateral images. The fracture occurs via a twisting mechanism (usually supination and external rotation) through the relatively weak open portion of the physis (axial) and propagates out the metaphysis (coronal) and/or epiphysis (sagittal) at the transition to the relatively stronger closed portion of the physis. Because the distal tibial physis closes over approximately an 18-month period in female patients from 12 to 14 years old and male patients from 13 to 15 years old, this is the age range in which triplane fractures occur. Triplane fractures account for approximately 5% to 10% of pediatric ankle fractures. The purpose of the present video article is to review the indications for operative treatment of transitional ankle fractures in adolescents and to detail the surgical technique specifically for open reduction and screw fixation of triplane fractures. The procedure is performed in order to provide anatomic reduction of the fracture and rigid fixation.

Description: Surgical treatment of a triplane fracture is indicated if there is >2 mm articular displacement of the distal aspect of the tibia or if the fracture pattern is deemed unstable following closed reduction and casting. Preoperative planning (Step 1) involves the use of radiographs and computed tomography scans to determine accurate fracture classification, the intended reduction maneuver, possible blocks to reduction, and screw trajectory and length. Room setup and patient positioning (Step 2) include placing the patient in the supine position with a bump under the hip, as well as the placement of a ramp or stack of blankets under the affected limb and adequate general anesthesia with muscle relaxation to facilitate reduction. Incision and surgical exposure (Step 3) is performed with use of an anterior ankle incision at the anatomic plane between the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus, protecting the neurovascular bundle (i.e., the anterior tibial artery and deep peroneal nerve). Open reduction and assessment of reduction (Step 4) begins by removing any soft tissue, such as the periosteum, that may be interposed in the fracture site precluding a reduction. The ankle is then put through internal rotation and dorsiflexion in order to reduce the fracture, utilizing direct visualization through the incision and fluoroscopy to verify reduction with <2 mm articular step-off. Screw placement (Step 5) typically involves a 2-screw construct, with 1 screw starting at the anterolateral distal tibial epiphysis aiming medially (and staying within the epiphysis) and a metaphyseal screw aiming from the anterior metaphysis to the posterior Thurston-Holland fragment. Closure and immobilization (Step 6) usually involve a layered skin closure, as no deep closure is necessary in most cases. A below-the-knee cast is applied with the ankle in neutral dorsiflexion.

Alternatives: Nonoperative treatment typically involves closed reduction and long-leg cast immobilization.

Rationale: Surgical treatment with reduction and screw fixation of triplane fractures is indicated for patients with >2 mm articular displacement or >3 mm physeal displacement of the distal aspect of the tibia. Achieving and maintaining reduction with screw fixation within these tolerances helps decrease the chance of arthritis development by 5 to 13 years postoperatively.

Expected Outcomes: Following treatment of a triplane fracture with reduction and screw fixation, full ankle range of motion and normal growth are anticipated. Postoperative follow-up continues until skeletal maturity or until 1 year postoperatively with evidence of continued growth by Park-Harris lines on sequential radiographs. Short-term recovery is expected to be excellent, and long-term results are expected to be good as long as <2 mm articular reduction is achieved and maintained.

Important Tips: General anesthesia with muscle relaxation helps with closed or open reduction.Computed tomography is valuable for determining the maximum articular displacement and for 3D surgical planning for screw trajectories.Be aware of the periosteum and perichondrial ring as possible soft-tissue blocks to reduction, and do not hesitate to visualize the periosteum with an open technique to achieve anatomic reduction.

Acronyms And Abbreviations: AITFL = anterior inferior tibiofibular ligamentAP = anteroposteriorCT = computed tomography.
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December 2021

MRI Predictors of Residual Dysplasia in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Following Open and Closed Reduction.

J Pediatr Orthop 2022 Apr;42(4):179-185

Departments of Orthopaedics.

Background: Following open or closed reduction for children with developmental dysplasia of the hip, there remains a significant risk of residual acetabular dysplasia which can compromise the long-term health of the hip joint. The purpose of this study was to use postoperative in-spica magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to determine factors predictive of residual acetabular dysplasia at short-term follow-up.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 63 hips in 48 patients which underwent closed or open reduction and spica casting for developmental dysplasia of the hip. MRI performed in-spica at ∼3-week follow-up were used to assess 11 validated metrics and 2 subjective factors. Acetabular index (AI) was measured on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs at 2-year postoperative follow-up. Binary logistic regression was then used to identify variables predictive of residual dysplasia, defined as an AI greater than the 90th percentile for age based on historic normative data.

Results: Average age at surgical reduction was 9.3±3.2 months. 58.7% (37/63) of reductions were open. A total of 43 (68.3%) hips demonstrated residual acetabular dysplasia at 2 years postoperatively based on normative values. In those with persistent dysplasia, patients were on average older at the time of reduction (10.0 mo±3.2 vs. 8.0 mo±2.8, P=0.010) and more likely female (88.4% vs. 60.0%, P=0.010). Patients with residual dysplasia were more likely to have mild subluxation on postoperative MRI (40.0% vs. 10.5%, P=0.022). Hips with a cartilaginous acetabular index (CAI) of >23 degrees were 7.6 times more likely to develop residual dysplasia. Type of reduction (ie, closed vs. open) did not appear to influence the rate of residual dysplasia (P=0.682).

Conclusion: In this series, the rate of residual dysplasia after surgical reduction was higher than most previous reports, with no appreciable difference between closed and open reductions. Older age, female sex, and a higher CAI were associated with a greater risk of persistent radiographic dysplasia. In particular, hips with a CAI >23 degrees were 7.6 times more likely to be dysplastic at 2-year follow-up.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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April 2022

"Will I Need a Brace?": likelihood of curve progression to bracing range in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Spine Deform 2022 05 14;10(3):537-542. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Division of Orthopaedics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: Bracing treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is typically initiated in skeletally immature patients with primary curves greater than 25°. The goal of this study was to develop a model predicting a patient's likelihood of progressing to bracing treatment.

Methods: All patients with AIS presenting to a large pediatric spine center with a primary curve below 25° and skeletally immature (Sanders stage 1-6) were included. A patient was considered to have progressed into the bracing range if their primary curve reached a 25° threshold prior to skeletal maturity. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to predict the likelihood of curve progression into bracing range.

Results: A total of 180 patients (71% female) were included in this study with an average presenting age of 13.2 ± 1.4 years. At presentation, 31 (17%) were pre-peak height velocity, 62 (34%) were at their peak height velocity, and 87 (48%) were in the late adolescent growth stage. The high-risk patient group was defined as Sanders 1-2 and curve size > 10 and < 25° or Sanders 3-6 and curve size > 20 but < 25°. Those in the high-risk group demonstrated an over 5 times higher risk of progression to bracing range when accounting for age, sex, and curve location (OR: 5.168, 95% CI: 2.212-12.071, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Patient's curve magnitude and skeletal maturity can be used to predict their likelihood of curve progression to greater than 25° and thus require bracing treatment. Orthopaedic providers can consider earlier treatment interventions or stricter follow-up adherence for patients at high risk for progression.

Level Of Evidence: 3-retrospective cohort study.
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May 2022

Entire-spine Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and Costs in Children With Presumed Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Nov-Dec 01;41(10):585-590

Division of Orthopaedics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are commonly monitored for curve progression with spinal radiographs; however, the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the findings of screening MRI for patients with a nonsurgical curve size ordered during routine clinical care and compare them with MRI ordered for patients with large curves as part of preoperative screening.

Methods: All consecutive patients with presumed AIS who underwent entire-spine MRI with a presumed diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis at a single institution between 2017 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were stratified based on MRI indication into the following groups: preoperative evaluation, pain, neurological symptoms, abnormal radiographic curve appearance, rapidly progressive curve, and other. Neural axis abnormalities recorded included concern for tethered spinal cord, syringomyelia, and Chiari malformation. The MRI findings of preoperative patients with large curves were compared with all other patients. The number needed to diagnose (NND) a neurological finding was calculated in patients whose MRIs were ordered during routine clinical care. The amount charged for each patient undergoing entire-spine MRI was determined by review of our institution's Financial Decision Support system.

Results: There were 344 patients included in this study with 214 (62%) MRIs performed for preoperative evaluation. Although MRI abnormalities were found in 49% of patients, only 7.0% (24/344) demonstrated neural axis abnormalities with no difference between preoperative and other indications (P=0.37). For patients with nonsurgical curves undergoing MRI due to a complaint of back pain (n=28), there were no neural axis abnormalities, and a lower rate of disk herniation/degenerative changes detected compared with preoperative MRI (3.6% vs. 18%, P=0.06). Among the 15 patients undergoing MRI for a neurological concern, 1 had a neural axis abnormality that required surgical detethering. The NND for MRI to detect a neural axis abnormality that potentially required neurosurgical intervention in nonpreoperative patients with a neurological concern was 34.4. The average cost for MRI was $17,816 (range: $2601 to $22,411) with a total cost of $2,368,439 for nonsurgical curves.

Conclusions: Entire-spine MRI for nonpreoperative indications including pain, abnormal radiographic curve appearance, and rapid curve progression has minimal utility for patients with AIS. For patients with neurological complaints, the NND a potentially treatment-altering finding with MRI is 34.4.

Level Of Evidence: Level II-diagnostic.
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October 2021

Management of Salter-Harris II distal femur fractures - what is the state of practice? A survey of Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America membership.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2022 Jan;31(1):e49-e55

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Level Of Evidence: Level V Expert Opinion.
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January 2022

Risk of Scoliosis Progression in Nonoperatively Treated Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Based on Skeletal Maturity.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Oct;41(9):543-548

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Hand radiographs for skeletal maturity staging are now frequently used to evaluate remaining growth potential for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Our objective was to create a model predicting a patient's risk of curve progression based on modern treatment standards.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all AIS patients presenting with a major curve <50 degrees, available hand radiographs, and complete follow up through skeletal maturity at our institution over a 3-year period. Patients with growth remaining underwent rigid bracing of curves >25 degrees, whereas patients between 10 and 25 degrees were observed. Treatment success was defined as reaching skeletal maturity with a major curve <50 degrees. Four risk categories were identified based on likelihood of curve progression.

Results: Of 609 AIS patients (75.4% female) presenting with curves over 10 degrees and reaching skeletal maturity at most recent follow up, 503 (82.6%) had major thoracic curves. 16.3% (82/503) of thoracic curves progressed into surgical treatment range. The highest risk group (Sanders 1 to 6 and curve 40 to 49 degrees, Sanders 1 to 2 and curve 30 to 39) demonstrate a 30% success rate with nonoperative treatment. This constitutes an 111.1 times (95% confidence interval: 47.6 to 250.0, P<0.001) higher risk of progression to surgical range than patients in the lowest risk categories (Sanders 1 to 8 and curve 10 to 19 degrees, Sanders 3 to 8 and curve 20 to 29 degrees, Sanders 5 to 8 and curve 30 to 39 degrees).

Conclusions: Skeletal maturity and curve magnitude have strong predictive value for future curve progression. The results presented here represent a valuable resource for orthopaedic providers regarding a patient's risk of progression and ultimate surgical risk.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-retrospective cohort study.
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October 2021

Complex Fracture-Dislocations of the Elbow in the Pediatric Population.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Jul;41(6):e470-e474

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Complex fracture-dislocations of the elbow, including terrible triad of the elbow, are serious injuries with guarded outcomes in adults. Although described extensively in adults, little is known about similar complex fracture-dislocations of the elbow in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of elbow dislocations with associated fractures in children and report the outcomes of these injuries.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of patients who presented to a level I trauma center from 2007 to 2019 with an elbow dislocation and at least 2 associated fractures. Demographic data, fracture locations, and treatment modality were recorded. Operative reports and radiographs were reviewed to determine clinical outcomes and complications.

Results: A total of 26 patients (mean age, 9.8 y) were identified. The majority of patients sustained an elbow dislocation and a medial epicondyle fracture (n=16). The most common third fractures involved the lateral condyle (n=8) or radial neck (n=7). At mean 6.03±3.11 months follow-up, 3 patients lacked ≥10 degrees of extension, and 2 patients lacked ≥15 degrees of flexion. Most patients had a Flynn score of "excellent" (n=20, 76.9%) or "good" (n=2, 7.7%). One patient with significant residual stiffness (>30 degrees flexion contracture) eventually underwent open contracture release.

Conclusions: The most common complex elbow fracture-dislocation pattern in this series was an elbow dislocation with fracture of the medial epicondyle and lateral condyle or radial neck. In contrast to adult terrible triad injuries, most patients had a favorable clinical outcome, with nearly 80% excellent results and a low rate of complications.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV-case series.
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July 2021

Closed Reduction of Pediatric Distal Radial Fractures and Epiphyseal Separations.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Background: Sedated, closed reduction of a displaced distal radial fracture followed by cast immobilization is indicated in cases of unacceptable alignment on post-splint imaging. The aim of this procedure is to obtain acceptable reduction and cast immobilization for fracture-healing.

Description: The patient is positioned supine with the injured arm on the image intensifier. Adequate sedation is achieved with conscious sedation, general anesthesia, or regional anesthesia (hematoma block). The radial or ulnar translation is corrected with in-line traction. The wrist is typically hyperdorsiflexed, and traction is applied to the distal fragment. The distal fragment is then walked up and over as axial traction is applied and the wrist is brought from extension to flexion. The reduced wrist is held in a position of gentle flexion and slight ulnar deviation, and post-reduction fluoroscopy in anteroposterior and lateral views is obtained. A long-arm cast is applied by first applying a short-arm cast and a 3-point mold. Minimal cast padding is utilized to obtain the optimal "cast index." The wrist is re-imaged on the fluoroscopy device to obtain anteroposterior and lateral views.

Alternatives: Alternative treatments include cast immobilization in situ, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning, and open reduction and internal fixation.

Rationale: Closed reduction and cast immobilization is a low-risk procedure that has a high rate of union with acceptable alignment without the risk of an additional surgical procedure.

Expected Outcomes: The long-arm cast is maintained for 6 weeks, and radiographs are obtained at 1 and at 2 weeks postoperatively to confirm maintained alignment. It is advisable to instruct the patient not to put anything down the cast because this can result in skin breakdown. Additionally, care must be taken on removal of the cast. Cast saws should be kept sharp and be replaced frequently. There are commercially available "zip sticks" and other such devices to prevent cast-saw burns that should be utilized if cast technicians or residents are assisting in the removal. Following removal of the cast, we recommend wrist-motion exercises be performed 3 times daily. If the fracture line is clearly visible on radiographs, a removable wrist splint is utilized for another 2 to 4 weeks. A full return to activity is expected at 3 months. Some residual deformity is acceptable if the remodeling capacity is excellent at the distal aspect of the radius. However, the tolerance for malreduction decreases as the patient ages, if the deformity worsens, or if there is a deformity further from the physis.

Important Tips: Particular attention should be given to the median nerve sensory component. The thumb, index, and long fingers are assessed for sensation and compared with the 2 ulnar digits. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome is possible in children who have distal radial fractures.Waterproof cast padding is not recommended in cases in which a closed reduction is performed because such padding does not provide good protection to the skin with adequate cast molding.After reduction is obtained, no additional traction should be applied. If an assistant applies traction with the wrist in extension, reduction can be lost, so it is preferred to maintain the wrist in slight flexion while placing the cast.Although it is beneficial to hold the fracture in the cotton-loader position, this position should not be exaggerated because this position can cause excessive pressure on the carpal tunnel.The median nerve passes through the carpal tunnel and is often at risk because of hematoma formation as a result of a distal radial fracture.A cast index of 0.8 or more has been found to have an increased risk of failure of closed treatment. The cast index is the ratio of sagittal (measured on a lateral view) to coronal (measured on an anteroposterior view) width from the inside edges of the cast at the fracture site.Keeping cast saw blades sharp, using saws attached to vacuum devices, and cooling the blade while in use can prevent cast-saw burns.Zip sticks can be utilized to protect the skin but can sometimes be difficult to get under the cast.It is important to remember that swelling will occur following fracture reduction. The cast should not be wrapped tightly. Consideration should be given to bivalving the cast at the time of reduction and overwrapping after a few days when acute swelling has improved.Vigilance for growth arrest is necessary in patients with fractures of the distal aspect of the radius. This can occur in up to 4% to 5% of cases and is more common with reduction, particularly late reduction. Radiographic screening 6 to 12 months after the injury can help identify an early arrest.
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November 2020

Is There a Benefit to Weaning Pavlik Harness Treatment in Infantile DDH?

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Mar;41(3):143-148

Division of Orthopedics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Following successful treatment of developmental hip dysplasia with a Pavlik harness, controversy exists over the benefit of continued harness use for an additional "weaning" period beyond ultrasonographic normalization versus simply terminating treatment. Although practitioners are often dogmatic in their beliefs, there is little literature to support the superiority of 1 protocol over the other. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiographic outcomes of 2 cohorts of infants with developmental hip dysplasia treated with Pavlik harness, 1 with a weaning protocol and 1 without.

Methods: This was a comparative review of patients with dislocated/reducible hips and stable dysplasia from 2 centers. All patients had pretreatment ultrasounds, and all started harness treatment before 3 months of age. On the basis of power analysis, a sufficient cohort of hips were matched based on clinical examination, age at initiation, initial α angle, and initial percent femoral head coverage. Patients from institution W (weaned) were weaned following ultrasonographic normalization, whereas those from institution NW (not weaned) immediately ceased treatment. The primary outcome was the acetabular index at 1 year of age.

Results: In total, 16 dislocated/reducible and 16 stable dysplastic hips were matched at each center (64 total hips in 53 patients). Initial α angle and initial femoral head coverage were not different between cohorts for either stable dysplasia (P=0.59, 0.81) or dislocated/reducible hips (P=0.67, 0.70), respectively. As expected, weaned hips were treated for significantly longer in both the stable dysplasia (1540.4 vs. 1066.3 h, P<0.01), and dislocated/reducible cohorts (1596.6 vs. 1362.5 h, P=0.01). Despite this, we found no significant difference in the acetabular index at 1 year in either cohort (22.8 vs. 23.1 degrees, P=0.84 for stable dysplasia; 23.9 vs. 24.8 degrees, P=0.32 for Ortolani positive).

Conclusions: Despite greater total harness time, infants treated with additional Pavlik weaning did not demonstrate significantly different radiographic results at 1 year of age compared with those who were not weaned. However, differences in follow-up protocols between centers support the need for a more rigorous randomized controlled trial.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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March 2021

Predicting subsequent contralateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis: an evidence-based approach.

J Child Orthop 2020 Apr;14(2):91-97

Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for developing a subsequent contralateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and provide a prediction score to quantify risk of subsequent slip at the time of initial presentation.

Methods: This retrospective study included patients that presented with a unilateral SCFE between 2006 and 2017. Chart and radiographic review were performed to collect demographic, clinical and radiographic risk factors. Descriptive statistics, univariate analyses and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare risk factors between patients that did or did not develop a subsequent contralateral SCFE.

Results: This study included 183 patients and 33 patients (18%) developed a subsequent contralateral SCFE. Younger age at time of initial presentation, lower modified Oxford Score and smaller difference in epiphyseal-diaphyseal angle between both sides during index presentation were significant predictors of subsequent contralateral SCFE. Specifically, age ≤ 11 years, modified Oxford Score ≤ 20 and difference in epiphyseal-diaphyseal angle of ≤ 21° between both hips were predictive of a contralateral slip (Area Under the Curve = 0.78; p < 0.05). The presence of each risk factor increased the risk of subsequent contralateral SCFE and having all three risk factors increased the risk to 73%.

Conclusion: There is a significant risk of subsequent contralateral SCFE in patients with unilateral SCFE, and predictive risk factors include younger age, lower modified Oxford Score and smaller difference in epiphyseal-diaphyseal angle between the affected and unaffected hips.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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April 2020