Publications by authors named "Shin Takeda"

144 Publications

High-resolution spatiotemporal transcriptome analyses during cellularization of rice endosperm unveil the earliest gene regulation critical for aleurone and starchy endosperm cell fate specification.

J Plant Res 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan.

The major tissues of the cereal endosperm are the starchy endosperm (SE) in the inner and the aleurone layer (AL) at the outer periphery. The fates of the cells that comprise these tissues are determined according to positional information; however, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms remains limited. Here, we conducted a high-resolution spatiotemporal analysis of the rice endosperm transcriptome during early cellularization. In rice, endosperm cellularization proceeds in a concentric pattern from a primary alveolus cell layer, such that developmental progression can be defined by the number of cell layers. Using laser-capture microdissection to obtain precise tissue sections, transcriptomic changes were followed through five histologically defined stages of cellularization from the syncytial to 3-cell layer (3 L) stage. In addition, transcriptomes were compared between the inner and the outermost peripheral cell layers. Large differences in the transcriptomes between stages and between the inner and the peripheral cells were found. SE attributes were expressed at the alveolus-cell-layer stage but were preferentially activated in the inner cell layers that resulted from periclinal division of the alveolus cell layer. Similarly, AL attributes started to be expressed only after the 2 L stage and were localized to the outermost peripheral cell layer. These results indicate that the first periclinal division of the alveolus cell layer is asymmetric at the transcriptome level, and that the cell-fate-specifying positional cues and their perception system are already operating before the first periclinal division. Several genes related to epidermal identity (i.e., type IV homeodomain-leucine zipper genes and wax biosynthetic genes) were also found to be expressed at the syncytial stage, but their expression was localized to the outermost peripheral cell layer from the 2 L stage onward. We believe that our findings significantly enhance our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell fate specification in rice endosperm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-021-01329-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Acetic-acid-induced jasmonate signaling in root enhances drought avoidance in rice.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 18;11(1):6280. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba, 305-8602, Japan.

Conferring drought resistant traits to crops is one of the major aims of current breeding programs in response to global climate changes. We previously showed that exogenous application of acetic acid to roots of various plants could induce increased survivability under subsequent drought stress conditions, but details of the metabolism of exogenously applied acetic acid, and the nature of signals induced by its application, have not been unveiled. In this study, we show that rice rapidly induces jasmonate signaling upon application of acetic acid, resulting in physiological changes similar to those seen under drought. The major metabolite of the exogenously applied acetic acid in xylem sap was determined as glutamine-a common and abundant component of xylem sap-indicating that acetic acid is not the direct agent inducing the observed physiological responses in shoots. Expression of drought-responsive genes in shoot under subsequent drought conditions was attenuated by acetic acid treatment. These data suggest that acetic acid activates root-to-shoot jasmonate signals that partially overlap with those induced by drought, thereby conferring an acclimated state on shoots prior to subsequent drought.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85355-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7973560PMC
March 2021

Phase II multi-institutional prospective trial of nab-paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer refractory to fluoropyrimidine with modified dose reduction criteria (CCOG1303).

Int J Clin Oncol 2020 Oct 21;25(10):1793-1799. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Background: The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with modified dose reduction criteria by which the doses were manipulated earlier.

Methods: Gastric cancer patients who developed progression during the fluoropyrimidine-containing first-line chemotherapy were assigned to receive nab-paclitaxel (260 mg/m) by triweekly administration. Dose reduction was regulated according to predefined toxicity criteria which included neutropenia less than 1000/mm and/or peripheral sensory neuropathy of grade 2 or more. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival.

Results: A total of 50 patients were enrolled, 47 of whom were eligible for efficacy analyses. The median number of treatment cycles and relative dose intensity given per patient was four (range 1-25), and 90% (range 60-100). Of total administration throughout the trial of 280 cycles, dose reduction was required in 50 cycles. The median progression-free survival was 3.5 months (95% confidence interval 2.5-4.4) that met the primary endpoint. The median overall survival was 9.0 months (95% confidence interval 6.8-11.8), overall response rate was 16% (95% confidence interval 2-30), and disease control rate was 72% (95% confidence interval 54-90). The median time to treatment failure was 3.5 months (95% confidence interval 2.5-4.4). Adverse events of grade 3 or worse included neutropenia in 49%, and peripheral sensory neuropathy in 11%. Febrile neutropenia occurred only in one patient (2%).

Conclusion: The modified dose reduction criteria for triweekly administration of nab-paclitaxel resulted in decreased incidence of severe peripheral sensory neuropathy without decline in efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-020-01724-8DOI Listing
October 2020

Elliptic neutron-focusing supermirror for illuminating small samples in neutron reflectometry.

Opt Express 2019 Sep;27(19):26807-26820

This paper details the development of a precise assembly of two supermirrors for neutron-focusing, designed for installation in neutron reflectometer SOFIA at BL16 in J-PARC MLF to intensify the illumination for small samples. The supermirrors are sputtered on two metal substrates, whose surfaces are coated with amorphous Ni-P plating, and are figured by diamond cutting and polished to subnanometer roughness. Special care is taken while polishing the substrates to reduce waviness and surface roughness for achieving a sharp focusing spot and uniform neutron reflectivity. The supermirror could converge the neutrons into a focal spot with a width of 0.13 mm in the full width at half maximum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.026807DOI Listing
September 2019

The wheat TdRL1 is the functional homolog of the rice RSS1 and promotes plant salt stress tolerance.

Plant Cell Rep 2018 Dec 11;37(12):1625-1637. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Plant Physiology and Functional Genomics Research Unit, Institute of Biotechnology, University of Sfax, BP 1175, 3038, Sfax, Tunisia.

Key Message: Rice rss1 complementation assays show that wheat TdRL1 and RSS1 are true functional homologs. TdRL1 over-expression in Arabidopsis conferred salt stress tolerance and alleviated ROS accumulation. Plants have developed highly flexible adaptive responses to their ever-changing environment, which are often mediated by intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP). RICE SALT SENSITIVE 1 and Triticum durum RSS1-Like 1 protein (TdRL1) are both IDPs involved in abiotic stress responses, and possess conserved D and DEN-Boxes known to be required for post-translational degradation by the APC/C cyclosome. To further understand their function, we performed a computational analysis to compare RSS1 and TdRL1 co-expression networks revealing common gene ontologies, among which those related to cell cycle progression and regulation of microtubule (MT) networks were over-represented. When over-expressed in Arabidopsis, TdRL1::GFP was present in dividing cells and more visible in cortical and endodermal cells of the Root Apical Meristem (RAM). Incubation with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 stabilized TdRL1::GFP expression in RAM cells showing a post-translational regulation. Moreover, immuno-cytochemical analyses of transgenic roots showed that TdRL1 was present in the cytoplasm and within the microtubular spindle of mitotic cells, while, in interphasic cells, it was rather restricted to the cytoplasm with a spotty pattern at the nuclear periphery. Interestingly in cells subjected to stress, TdRL1 was partly relocated into the nucleus. Moreover, TdRL1 transgenic lines showed increased germination rates under salt stress conditions as compared to wild type. This enhanced salt stress tolerance was associated to an alleviation of oxidative damage. Finally, when expressed in the rice rss1 mutant, TdRL1 suppressed its dwarf phenotype upon salt stress, confirming that both proteins are true functional homologs required for salt stress tolerance in cereals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-018-2333-2DOI Listing
December 2018

Development of precision elliptic neutron-focusing supermirror.

Opt Express 2017 Aug;25(17):20012-20024

This paper details methods for the precision design and fabrication of neutron-focusing supermirrors, based on electroless nickel plating. We fabricated an elliptic mirror for neutron reflectometry, which is our second mirror improved from the first. The mirror is a 550-millimeter-long segmented mirror assembled using kinematic couplings, with each segment figured by diamond cutting, polished using colloidal silica, and supermirror coated through ion-beam sputtering. The mirror was evaluated with neutron beams, and the reflectivity was found to be 68-90% at a critical angle. The focusing width was 0.17 mm at the full width at half maximum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.020012DOI Listing
August 2017

Development of a large plano-elliptical neutron-focusing supermirror with metallic substrates.

Opt Express 2016 Jun;24(12):12478-88

Results of this study demonstrated that electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) plated metal substrate is an excellent material for producing large aspherical neutron-focusing supermirrors. A large plano-elliptical neutron-focusing supermirror comprising two metallic segments was fabricated using single-point diamond cutting, precision polishing and supermirror coating. The average surface roughness of the metallic substrates was approximately 0.3 nm rms. For evaluation, the focusing supermirror was installed at the SOFIA neutron reflectometer, showing high neutron reflectivity and giving minimal beam width of 0.34 mm in FWHM. Because of the large beam divergence accepted by the mirror, the count rate with the focusing mirror was 3.3 times higher than that obtained using conventional two-slit collimation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.012478DOI Listing
June 2016

[Mobilization of the Liver for Farther Incision of the Diaphragm in Transdiaphragmatic Re-do Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting].

Kyobu Geka 2016 May;69(5):361-3

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Re-do coronary artery bypass grafting to the right coronary artery via the diaphragm is useful, especially when re-sternotomy may injure a patent internal thoracic artery graft under the sternum. When the target vessel is located on the posterior wall of the heart, however, anastomosis becomes difficult. In our case, we mobilized the liver from the diaphragm and divided the diaphragm more posteriorly. The gastroepiploic artery was successfully anastomosed to the target vessel.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2016

Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies.

Exp Anim 2016 May 28;65(2):175-87. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Mouse Epigenetics Project, ISS/Kibo experiment, JAXA, Japan.

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo") on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides "space-based controls" by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1538/expanim.15-0077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4873486PMC
May 2016

Oral Food Intake Versus Fasting on Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula After Distal Pancreatectomy: A Multi-Institutional Randomized Controlled Trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Dec;94(52):e2398

From the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan (TF, SY, YO, MK, AN, YK); Center for Clinical Research, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan (KM); Department of Surgery, Konan Kosei Hospital, Konan, Japan (KI); Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan (ST); Department of Biomedical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan (SM); and Department of Surgery, Nagoya Central Hospital, Nagoya, Japan (AN).

The usefulness of enteral nutrition via a nasointestinal tube for patients who develop postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after miscellaneous pancreatectomy procedures has been reported. However, no clear evidence regarding whether oral intake is beneficial or harmful during management of POPF after distal pancreatectomy (DP) is currently available.To investigate the effects of oral food intake on the healing process of POPF after DP.Multi-institutional randomized controlled trial in Nagoya University Hospital and 4 affiliated hospitals.Patients who developed POPF were randomly assigned to the dietary intake (DI) group (n = 15) or the fasted group (no dietary intake [NDI] group) (n = 15). The primary endpoint was the length of drain placement.No significant differences were found in the length of drain placement between the DI and NDI groups (12 [6-58] and 12 [7-112] days, respectively; P = 0.786). POPF progressed to a clinically relevant status (grade B/C) in 5 patients in the DI group and 4 patients in the NDI group (P = 0.690). POPF-related intra-abdominal hemorrhage was found in 1 patient in the NDI group but in no patients in the DI group (P = 0.309). There were no significant differences in POPF-related intra-abdominal hemorrhage, the incidence of other complications, or the length of the postoperative hospital stay between the 2 groups.Food intake did not aggravate POPF and did not prolong drain placement or hospital stay after DP. There may be no need to avoid oral DI in patients with POPF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5291633PMC
December 2015

The Arabidopsis transcription factor NAI1 is required for enhancing the active histone mark but not for removing the repressive mark on PYK10, a seedling-specific gene upon embryonic-to-postgerminative developmental phase transition.

Plant Signal Behav 2015 ;10(12):e1105418

a Bioscience and Biotechnology Center; Nagoya University ; Nagoya, Japan.

We have recently shown that the expression onset of a seedling-specific gene, PYK10, occurs in a cell-by-cell manner upon the transition from the embryonic to the postgerminative phase and during embryogenesis in seed maturation regulator mutants such as lec1, and implicated epigenetic mechanisms in the process. Here, the role of the NAI1 transcription factor required for PYK10 expression in the developmental switching of PYK10 was investigated. The cell-by-cell onset of PYK10-EGFP in lec1 embryo was still observed in the nai1 background, but at greatly reduced levels. Decreases in the level of the repressive histone mark, H3K27 trimethylation observed upon the transition to the postgeminative phase normally occurred in nai1. However, concomitant increases in the level of the active mark, H3K4 trimethylation observed in wild type was significantly compromised in nai1. These results indicate that the switching of PYK10 upon developmental phase transition involves 2 separable steps of chromatin state change.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2015.1105418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854352PMC
October 2016

Stress Tolerance Profiling of a Collection of Extant Salt-Tolerant Rice Varieties and Transgenic Plants Overexpressing Abiotic Stress Tolerance Genes.

Plant Cell Physiol 2015 Oct 1;56(10):1867-76. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, 464-8601 Japan

Environmental stress tolerance is an important trait for crop improvement. In recent decades, numerous genes that confer tolerance to abiotic stress such as salinity were reported. However, the levels of salt tolerance differ greatly depending on growth conditions, and mechanisms underlying the complicated nature of stress tolerance are far from being fully understood. In this study, we investigated the profiles of stress tolerance of nine salt-tolerant rice varieties and transgenic rice lines carrying constitutively expressed genes that are potentially involved in salt tolerance, by evaluating their growth and viability under salt, heat, ionic and hyperosmotic stress conditions. Profiling of the extant varieties and selected chromosome segment substitution lines showed that salt tolerance in a greenhouse condition was more tightly correlated with ionic stress tolerance than osmotic stresses. In Nona Bokra, one of the most salt-tolerant varieties, the contribution of the previously identified sodium transporter HKT1;5 to salt tolerance was fairly limited. In addition, Nona Bokra exhibited high tolerance to all the stresses imposed. More surprisingly, comparative evaluation of 74 stress tolerance genes revealed that the most striking effect to enhance salt tolerance was conferred by overexpressing CYP94C2b, which promotes deactivation of jasmonate. In contrast, genes encoding ABA signaling factors conferred multiple stress tolerance. Genes conferring tolerance to both heat and hyperosmotic stresses were preferentially linked to functional categories related to heat shock proteins, scavenging of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) signaling. These comparative profiling data provide a new basis for understanding the ability of plants to grow under harsh environmental conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcv106DOI Listing
October 2015

Overexpression of a CYP94 family gene CYP94C2b increases internode length and plant height in rice.

Plant Signal Behav 2015 ;10(7):e1046667

a Bioscience and Biotechnology Center; Nagoya University ; Nagoya , Japan.

Plant growth is controlled by intrinsic developmental programmes and environmental cues. Jasmonate (JA) has important roles in both processes, by regulating cell division and differentiation, as well as in defense responses and senescence. We report an increase in rice plant height caused by overexpression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP94C2b, which promoted deactivation of JA-Ile. The height increase occurred through enhanced elongation of internodes in the absence of concomitant cell elongation, unlike previous findings with coi1 knock-down plants. Thus, modulating JA metabolism can increase the number of elongated cells in an internode. Based on these and previous findings, we discuss the difference in the effects of CYP94C2b overexpression vs. coi1 knock-down.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2015.1046667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623425PMC
May 2016

Figure correction of a metallic ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror.

Rev Sci Instrum 2015 Jun;86(6):063108

Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0808, Japan.

An increasing number of neutron focusing mirrors is being adopted in neutron scattering experiments in order to provide high fluxes at sample positions, reduce measurement time, and/or increase statistical reliability. To realize a small focusing spot and high beam intensity, mirrors with both high form accuracy and low surface roughness are required. To achieve this, we propose a new figure correction technique to fabricate a two-dimensional neutron focusing mirror made with electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) by effectively combining ultraprecision shaper cutting and fine polishing. An arc envelope shaper cutting method is introduced to generate high form accuracy, while a fine polishing method, in which the material is removed effectively without losing profile accuracy, is developed to reduce the surface roughness of the mirror. High form accuracy in the minor-axis and the major-axis is obtained through tool profile error compensation and corrective polishing, respectively, and low surface roughness is acquired under a low polishing load. As a result, an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror is successfully fabricated with high form accuracy of 0.5 μm peak-to-valley and low surface roughness of 0.2 nm root-mean-square.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4922635DOI Listing
June 2015

Influence of Food Intake on the Healing Process of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreatoduodenectomy: A Multi-institutional Randomized Controlled Trial.

Ann Surg Oncol 2015 Nov 17;22(12):3905-12. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: The usefulness of enteral nutrition via a nasointestinal tube for patients who develop postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after miscellaneous pancreatectomy procedures has been reported. However, no clear evidence regarding whether oral intake is possible during management of POPF after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) is currently available. We investigated the effects of oral food intake on the healing process of POPF after PD by a multi-institutional randomized controlled trial.

Methods: Patients who developed POPF were randomly assigned to the dietary intake (DI) group (n = 30) or the fasted group [no dietary intake (NDI) group] (n = 29). The primary endpoint was the length of drain placement.

Results: No significant differences were found in the length of drain placement between the DI and NDI groups [27 (7-80) vs. 26 (7-70) days, respectively; p = .8858]. POPF progressed to a clinically relevant status (grade B/C) in 20 patients in the DI group and 19 patients in the NDI group (p = .9257). POPF-related intra-abdominal hemorrhage was found in 2 patients in the NDI group, but in no patients in the DI group (p = .1434). There were no significant differences in POPF-related intra-abdominal hemorrhage, the incidence of other complications, or the length of the postoperative hospital stay between the 2 groups.

Conclusion: Food intake did not aggravate POPF and did not prolong the length of drain placement or hospital stay after PD. There may be no need to avoid oral dietary intake in patients with POPF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-015-4496-1DOI Listing
November 2015

Elevated levels of CYP94 family gene expression alleviate the jasmonate response and enhance salt tolerance in rice.

Plant Cell Physiol 2015 Apr 29;56(4):779-89. Epub 2015 Jan 29.

Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, 464-8601 Japan

The plant hormone jasmonate and its conjugates (JAs) have important roles in growth control, leaf senescence and defense responses against insects and microbial attacks. JA biosynthesis is induced by several stresses, including mechanical wounding, pathogen attacks, drought and salinity stresses. However, the roles of JAs under abiotic stress conditions are unclear. Here we report that increased expression of the Cyt P450 family gene CYP94C2b enhanced viability of rice plants under saline conditions. This gene encodes an enzyme closely related to CYP94C1 that catalyzes conversion of bioactive jasmonate-isoleucine (JA-Ile) into 12OH-JA-Ile and 12COOH-JA-Ile. Inactivation of JA was facilitated in a rice line with enhanced CYP94C2b expression, and responses to exogenous JA and wounding were alleviated. Moreover, salt stress-induced leaf senescence but not natural senescence was delayed in the transgenic rice. These results suggest that bioactive JAs have a negative effect on viability under salt stress conditions and demonstrate that manipulating JA metabolism confers enhanced salt tolerance in rice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcv006DOI Listing
April 2015

Overexpression of the JAZ factors with mutated jas domains causes pleiotropic defects in rice spikelet development.

Plant Signal Behav 2014 ;9(10):e970414

a Bioscience and Biotechnology Center ; Nagoya University ; Chikusa , Nagoya , Japan.

In a determinate meristem, such as a floral meristem, a genetically determined number of organs are produced before the meristem is terminated. In rice, iterative formation of organs during flower development with defects in meristem determinacy, classically called 'proliferation', is caused by several mutations and observed in dependence on environmental conditions. Here we report that overexpression of several JAZ proteins, key factors in jasmonate signaling, with mutations in the Jas domains causes an increase in the numbers of organs in florets, aberrant patterns of organ formation and repetitious organ production in spikelets. Our results imply that JAZ factors modulate mechanisms that regulate meristem functions during spikelet development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/15592316.2014.970414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623050PMC
August 2015

Rice SNF2 family helicase ENL1 is essential for syncytial endosperm development.

Plant J 2015 Jan 11;81(1):1-12. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan.

The endosperm of cereal grains represents the most important source of human nutrition. In addition, the endosperm provides many investigatory opportunities for biologists because of the unique processes that occur during its ontogeny, including syncytial development at early stages. Rice endospermless 1 (enl1) develops seeds lacking an endosperm but carrying a functional embryo. The enl1 endosperm produces strikingly enlarged amoeboid nuclei. These abnormal nuclei result from a malfunction in mitotic chromosomal segregation during syncytial endosperm development. The molecular identification of the causal gene revealed that ENL1 encodes an SNF2 helicase family protein that is orthologous to human Plk1-Interacting Checkpoint Helicase (PICH), which has been implicated in the resolution of persistent DNA catenation during anaphase. ENL1-Venus (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)) localizes to the cytoplasm during interphase but moves to the chromosome arms during mitosis. ENL1-Venus is also detected on a thread-like structure that connects separating sister chromosomes. These observations indicate the functional conservation between PICH and ENL1 and confirm the proposed role of PICH. Although ENL1 dysfunction also affects karyokinesis in the root meristem, enl1 plants can grow in a field and set seeds, indicating that its indispensability is tissue-dependent. Notably, despite the wide conservation of ENL1/PICH among eukaryotes, the loss of function of the ENL1 ortholog in Arabidopsis (CHR24) has only marginal effects on endosperm nuclei and results in normal plant development. Our results suggest that ENL1 is endowed with an indispensable role to secure the extremely rapid nuclear cycle during syncytial endosperm development in rice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.12705DOI Listing
January 2015

New fabrication method for an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror with a metal substrate.

Opt Express 2014 Oct;22(20):24666-77

We propose an ellipsoidal neutron focusing mirror using a metal substrate made with electroless nickel-phosphorus (NiP) plated material for the first time. Electroless NiP has great advantages for realizing an ellipsoidal neutron mirror because of its amorphous structure, good machinability and relatively large critical angle of total reflection for neutrons. We manufactured the mirror by combining ultrahigh precision cutting and fine polishing to generate high form accuracy and low surface roughness. The form accuracy of the mirror was estimated to be 5.3 μm P-V and 0.8 μm P-V for the minor-axis and major-axis direction respectively, while the surface roughness was reduced to 0.2 nm rms. The effect of form error on focusing spot size was evaluated by using a laser beam and the focusing performance of the mirror was verified by neutron experiments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.024666DOI Listing
October 2014

Cell-by-cell developmental transition from embryo to post-germination phase revealed by heterochronic gene expression and ER-body formation in Arabidopsis leafy cotyledon mutants.

Plant Cell Physiol 2014 Dec 4;55(12):2112-25. Epub 2014 Oct 4.

Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, 464-8601 Japan

LEC1, LEC2, FUS3 and ABI3 (collectively abbreviated LEC/ABI3 here) are required for embryo maturation and have apparent roles in repressing post-germinative development. lec mutant embryos exhibit some heterochronic characteristics, as exemplified by the development of true leaf-like cotyledons during embryogenesis. Although the roles of LEC/ABI3 as positive regulators of embryo maturation have been extensively studied, their roles in the negative regulation of post-germinative development have not been explored in detail. Based on microarray analyses, we chose PYK10, which encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-body-localized protein, as a molecular marker of post-germinative development. lec/abi3 embryos exhibited PYK10 misexpression and the formation of 'constitutive' ER-bodies, which develop specifically during the seedling stage, confirming the heterochronic nature of these mutants at both the gene expression and cellular levels. The PYK10 reporter expression in lec1 embryos started as early as the globular-heart transition stage. The onset of PYK10 promoter-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter expression occurred in a stochastic, cell-by-cell manner in both developing lec/abi3 embryos and germinating wild-type seedlings. Additionally, clustered EGFP-positive cells were frequently found along cell files, probably representing the transmission of the expression state via cell division. These observations, together with the results of the experiments using PYK10-EGFP/PYK10-CFP double reporter transgenic lines and the analyses of H3K27me3 levels in the PYK10 chromatin, suggested the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in repressing post-germinative genes during embryogenesis and derepressing these genes upon the transition to post-germinative development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcu139DOI Listing
December 2014

Combination therapy of oncolytic herpes simplex virus HF10 and bevacizumab against experimental model of human breast carcinoma xenograft.

Int J Cancer 2015 Apr 27;136(7):1718-30. Epub 2014 Sep 27.

Department of Surgery II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.

Breast cancer is one of the most common and feared cancers faced by women. The prognosis of patients with advanced or recurrent breast cancer remains poor despite refinements in multimodality therapies involving chemotherapeutic and hormonal agents. Multimodal therapy with more specific and effective strategy is urgently needed. The oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) has potential to become a new effective treatment option because of its broad host range and tumor selective viral distribution. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody against VEGFA, which inhibits angiogenesis and therefore tumor growth. Our approach to enhance the antitumor effect of the oncolytic HSV is to combine oncolytic HSV HF10 and bevacizumab in the treatment of breast cancer. Our results showed that bevacizumab enhanced viral distribution as well as tumor hypoxia and expanded the population of apoptotic cells and therefore induced a synergistic antitumor effect. HF10 is expected to be a promising agent in combination with bevacizumab in the anticancer treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29163DOI Listing
April 2015

Hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hemophilia.

J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2014 Nov 31;21(11):824-8. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Background: Hepatitis C virus infection due to contamination in large-pool clotting factor concentrate is a major co-morbidity in adult patients with hemophilia. Although the development of hepatocellular carcinoma following infection with hepatitis virus is a crucial health problem, there are few reports of hemophilia patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: Six patients with hemophilia underwent liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma in our department from January 2003 to December 2012. We compared these hemophilic patients (H group, n = 6) to control patients without hemophilia (C group, n = 191) who underwent liver resection in the same period.

Results: All six patients in the H group were hepatitis C virus positive. Administration of coagulation factors was performed perioperatively, and no differences in the operative time and estimated blood loss were observed between the groups. No postoperative complications occurred in the H group, but five patients suffered from recurrence after surgery and subsequently underwent radiofrequency ablation or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. The median recurrence-free survival time was 17.9 months and 25.3 months in H and C group, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusions: Adequate replacement of coagulation factors enables hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma patients with hemophilia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbp.142DOI Listing
November 2014

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is associated with shorter disease-free survival in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2014 Nov 15;21(12):3882-90. Epub 2014 May 15.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan,

Background: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in cancer cell invasion and metastasis as well as chemoresistance. Elucidation of EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) might contribute to deeper understanding of its biology.

Methods: Overall, 100 patients with HCC, who underwent resection, were analyzed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the mesenchymal marker Vimentin were measured, and the EMT status of each patient was determined as follows: Vimentin/E-cadherin <2 = Epithelial (E), Vimentin/E-cadherin ≥2 = Mesenchymal (M). The correlation between these values and clinicopathological factors and prognosis were analyzed statistically. Moreover, the expression of transcription factors involved in EMT (Twist-1, Snail, Slug, Zeb-1, and Zeb-2) were measured and the role of interleukin (IL)-6 in inducing EMT and chemoresistance was examined.

Results: Patients with a mesenchymal tumor were more prone to have an earlier recurrence than those with an epithelial tumor. EMT-inducing transcription factors were more highly expressed in mesenchymal tumors than in epithelial tumors, and Twist-1 and Zeb-2 were significantly overexpressed. α-Fetoprotein (AFP) values were significantly higher in patients with epithelial tumors, and AFP-expressing HCC cell lines were more responsive to sorafenib. IL-6 expression was significantly higher in mesenchymal tumors, and knockdown of IL-6 in mesenchymal HCC cell lines increased E-cadherin expression and sensitivity to sorafenib.

Conclusions: Analysis of surgically resected tumors suggests that EMT is involved in early disease recurrence in HCC. Twist-1 and Zeb-2 might be important for inducing EMT, and IL-6 might be a potential therapeutic target for alleviating the chemoresistance of mesenchymal HCC tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-014-3779-2DOI Listing
November 2014

Life and death under salt stress: same players, different timing?

J Exp Bot 2014 Jul 22;65(12):2963-79. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

Molecular Cell Biology, Botanical Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany.

Salinity does not only stress plants but also challenges human life and the economy by posing severe constraints upon agriculture. To understand salt adaptation strategies of plants, it is central to extend agricultural production to salt-affected soils. Despite high impact and intensive research, it has been difficult to dissect the plant responses to salt stress and to define the decisive key factors for the outcome of salinity signalling. To connect the rapidly accumulating data from different systems, treatments, and organization levels (whole-plant, cellular, and molecular), and to identify the appropriate correlations among them, a clear conceptual framework is required. Similar to other stress responses, the molecular nature of the signals evoked after the onset of salt stress seems to be general, as with that observed in response to many other stimuli, and should not be considered to confer specificity per se. The focus of the current review is therefore on the temporal patterns of signals conveyed by molecules such as Ca(2+), H(+), reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid, and jasmonate. We propose that the outcome of the salinity response (adaptation versus cell death) depends on the timing with which these signals appear and disappear. In this context, the often-neglected non-selective cation channels are relevant. We also propose that constraining a given signal is as important as its induction, as it is the temporal competence of signalling (signal on demand) that confers specificity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eru159DOI Listing
July 2014

Identification of the collagen type 1 α 1 gene (COL1A1) as a candidate survival-related factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2014 Feb 19;14:108. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Gastroenterological Surgery (Department of Surgery II), Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major causes of cancer-related death especially among Asian and African populations. It is urgent that we identify carcinogenesis-related genes to establish an innovative treatment strategy for this disease.

Methods: Triple-combination array analysis was performed using one pair each of HCC and noncancerous liver samples from a 68-year-old woman. This analysis consists of expression array, single nucleotide polymorphism array and methylation array. The gene encoding collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) was identified and verified using HCC cell lines and 48 tissues from patients with primary HCC.

Results: Expression array revealed that COL1A1 gene expression was markedly decreased in tumor tissues (log2 ratio -1.1). The single nucleotide polymorphism array showed no chromosomal deletion in the locus of COL1A1. Importantly, the methylation value in the tumor tissue was higher (0.557) than that of the adjacent liver tissue (0.008). We verified that expression of this gene was suppressed by promoter methylation. Reactivation of COL1A1 expression by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment was seen in HCC cell lines, and sequence analysis identified methylated CpG sites in the COL1A1 promoter region. Among 48 pairs of surgical specimens, 13 (27.1%) showed decreased COL1A1 mRNA expression in tumor sites. Among these 13 cases, 10 had promoter methylation at the tumor site. The log-rank test indicated that mRNA down-regulated tumors were significantly correlated with a poor overall survival rate (P = 0.013).

Conclusions: Triple-combination array analysis successfully identified COL1A1 as a candidate survival-related gene in HCCs. Epigenetic down-regulation of COL1A1 mRNA expression might have a role as a prognostic biomarker of HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-14-108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4015503PMC
February 2014

A functional polymorphism in the epidermal growth factor gene predicts hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Japanese hepatitis C patients.

Onco Targets Ther 2013 13;6:1805-12. Epub 2013 Dec 13.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene (rs4444903) has been associated with increased risk of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the EGF SNP genotype and the development and prognosis of HCC, in a Japanese population.

Methods: Restriction fragment-length polymorphism was used to determine the presence of the EGF SNP genotype in 498 patients, including 208 patients with HCC. The level of EGF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in cancerous tissues was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The correlation between the EGF SNP genotype and prognosis was statistically analyzed in the patients with HCC.

Results: The proportion of the A/A, A/G, and G/G genotypes were 5.3%, 42.8%, and 51.9%, respectively, in the patients with HCC, whereas in those without HCC, they were 8.6%, 35.9%, and 55.5%, respectively, revealing that the odds ratio (OR) of developing HCC was higher in patients with a G allele (OR =1.94, P=0.080 for A/G patients and OR =1.52, P=0.261 for G/G patients, as compared with A/A patients). In particular, when the analysis was limited to the 363 patients with hepatitis C, the OR for developing HCC was 3.54 (P=0.014) for A/G patients and was 2.85 (P=0.042) for G/G patients, as compared with A/A patients. Tumoral EGF mRNA expression in G/G patients was significantly higher than that in A/A patients (P=0.033). No statistically significant differences were observed between the EGF SNP genotype and diseasefree or overall survival.

Conclusion: The EGF SNP genotype might be associated with a risk for the development of HCC in Japanese patients but not with prognosis. Of note, the association is significantly stronger in patients with hepatitis C, which is the main risk factor for HCC in Japan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S53625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3865974PMC
December 2013

[Recurrent acute pancreatitis due to arteriovenous malformation of the pancreas].

Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2013 Nov;110(11):1983-8

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Department of Surgery II) , Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

A 46-year-old man presented with acute epigastric pain and was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. Although successfully managed, it recurred shortly after; he was subsequently referred to our institute for further investigation. Dynamic computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the body and tail of the pancreas. A diagnosis of pancreatic AVM causing recurrent pancreatitis was made and distal pancreatectomy was performed. Follow-up CT after surgery confirmed no further recurrence of either the AVM or pancreatitis. AVM of the pancreas is rare, and surgical resection is necessary in symptomatic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2013

Dynamin 3: a new candidate tumor suppressor gene in hepatocellular carcinoma detected by triple combination array analysis.

Onco Targets Ther 2013 9;6:1417-24. Epub 2013 Oct 9.

Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya Japan.

Background: To identify genes associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis, we developed a triple combination array strategy comprising methylation, gene expression, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis.

Methods: Surgical specimens obtained from a 68-year-old female HCC patient were analyzed by triple combination array, and identified Dynamin 3 (DNM3) as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in HCC. Subsequently, samples from 48 HCC patients were evaluated for DNM3 methylation and expression status using methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR; MSP) and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, respectively. The relationship between clinicopathological factors and DNM3 methylation status was also investigated.

Results: DNM3 was shown to be hypermethylated (methylation value 0.879, range 0-1.0) in cancer tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue (0.213) by methylation array in the 68-year-old female patient. Expression arrays revealed decreased expression of DNM3 in cancerous tissue. SNP arrays revealed that the copy number of chromosome 1q24.3, in which DNM3 resides, was normal. MSP revealed hypermethylation of the DNM3 promoter region in 33 of 48 tumor samples. A trend toward decreased DNM3 expression was observed in patients with DNM3 promoter methylation (P = 0.189). Furthermore, patients with reduced expression of DNM3 in tumor tissues exhibited worse prognosis with decreased disease specific survival compared to patients without decreased expression (P = 0.014).

Conclusion: The present study indicates that a triple combination array strategy is an effective method to detect novel genes related to HCC. We propose that DNM3 is a tumor suppressor gene in HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S51913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3797647PMC
October 2013

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition predicts prognosis of pancreatic cancer.

Surgery 2013 Nov 26;154(5):946-54. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis that is attributed to common local invasiveness and metastasis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis and is associated with early dissemination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EMT and the prognoses for patients with pancreatic cancer.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry of E-cadherin and vimentin was performed on surgical specimens from 174 patients who underwent resection of their pancreatic cancers. Tumoral stainings of E-cadherin and vimentin were graded, and EMT statuses were determined by calculating the ratio of vimentin to E-cadherin, whereby patients were categorized into 3 groups: epithelial, intermediate, and mesenchymal. The correlations between EMT statuses and clinicopathologic factors and prognoses were analyzed.

Results: There was a significant correlation between EMT status and CA19-9 levels (P = .020); peritoneal washing cytology (P = .025); portal vein invasion (P = .038); and lymph node metastasis (P = .030). The median survival for patients with epithelial tumors was 40.2 months as compared to 13.7 months for patients with mesenchymal tumors. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that perineural invasion (P = .024); lymph node metastasis (P = .033); and EMT status (P < .0001) were significant prognostic factors. It is interesting that adjuvant chemotherapy (gemcitabine and/or S-1) improved the median survival time from 10.8 to 16.1 months in patients with mesenchymal tumors (P = .002); however, no significant difference was seen in patients with epithelial tumors.

Conclusion: EMT status is an important prognostic factor for pancreatic cancer and is associated with portal vein invasion and lymph node metastasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2013.05.004DOI Listing
November 2013

Detection of doublecortin domain-containing 2 (DCDC2), a new candidate tumor suppressor gene of hepatocellular carcinoma, by triple combination array analysis.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2013 Sep 14;32:65. Epub 2013 Sep 14.

Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550, Japan.

Background: To detect genes correlated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we developed a triple combination array consisting of methylation array, gene expression array and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis.

Methods: A surgical specimen obtained from a 68-year-old female HCC patient was analyzed by triple combination array, which identified doublecortin domain-containing 2 (DCDC2) as a candidate tumor suppressor gene of HCC. Subsequently, samples from 48 HCC patients were evaluated for their DCDC2 methylation and expression status using methylation specific PCR (MSP) and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR, respectively. Then, we investigated the relationship between clinicopathological factors and methylation status of DCDC2.

Results: DCDC2 was revealed to be hypermethylated (methylation value 0.846, range 0-1.0) in cancer tissue, compared with adjacent normal tissue (0.212) by methylation array in the 68-year-old female patient. Expression array showed decreased expression of DCDC2 in cancerous tissue. SNP array showed that the copy number of chromosome 6p22.1, in which DCDC2 resides, was normal. MSP revealed hypermethylation of the promoter region of DCDC2 in 41 of the tumor samples. DCDC2 expression was significantly decreased in the cases with methylation (P = 0.048). Furthermore, the methylated cases revealed worse prognosis for overall survival than unmethylated cases (P = 0.048).

Conclusions: The present study indicates that triple combination array is an effective method to detect novel genes related to HCC. We propose that DCDC2 is a tumor suppressor gene of HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-9966-32-65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3847884PMC
September 2013
-->