Publications by authors named "Saurabh Singh"

289 Publications

Hautfarbene Papeln und Infiltration an sonnenexponierter Haut bei einer älteren Frau.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2021 Sep;19(9):1359-1362

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ddg.14385_gDOI Listing
September 2021

Joint preservation surgery in grade 2 and 3 giant cell tumors of bone around the knee.

SICOT J 2021 14;7:49. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Senior Resident, Department of Orthopaedics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 249203 Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes of joint preservation surgery in high-grade giant cell tumors (GCT) around the knee joint.

Methods: A retrospective review of 25 patients of high-grade GCT (Campanacci grade 2 and 3) involving proximal tibia or distal femur managed by extended curettage, bone grafting, and stabilization with knee spanning external fixator between 2016 and 2018 was done. The radiographic outcomes, functional outcomes (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society [MSTS] score for lower limb), and complications including donor site morbidity were evaluated.

Results: The mean age of the patient population was 24.04 years with an average follow-up period of 30.24 months. Fourteen patients had involvement of distal femur, and 11 involved proximal tibia. There were 16 cases of grade 2 lesions and 9 cases of grade 3 lesions. Twenty-four out of the 25 patients had radiological consolidation of graft, while one patient had graft subsidence. Twenty-two out of 25 patients had full extension and knee flexion more than 100 degrees. The mean MSTS score was 25.2. Three patients had an MSTS score under 20. All three patients had an extension lag with a restricted range of motion.

Conclusion: Joint preservation surgery, when done in line with the basic principles of tumor surgery, gives good radiographic and functional outcomes even in grade 2 and 3 giant cell tumors of bone around the knee and should be attempted before replacement surgeries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/sicotj/2021049DOI Listing
September 2021

An Unusual Nodular Tumour of the Penile Shaft with Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Correlation.

Turk Patoloji Derg 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, JODHPUR, INDIA.

Granular cell tumours are uncommon acquired benign tumours of nerve sheath origin that are usually seen in the head and neck region and upper aero-digestive tract. They usually present as solitary small sized nodules in middle age. The tumour is usually benign and composed of sheets of large sized cells with abundant granular cytoplasm containing lysosomal macro-inclusions known as pustulo-ovoid bodies of Milian (POB) that represent the heterogeneity of the lysosomes. No well-established criteria for malignancy have been described for this tumour. In this article, we have discussed a rare case of granular cell tumour of the penis with its characteristic histomorphology and immunohistochemistry and relevant differential diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5146/tjpath.2021.01534DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcome Analysis of Dual Implant Osteosynthesis for Ipsilateral Proximal and Shaft Femur Fractures: Do We Need Cephalomedullary Nails?

Cureus 2021 Jul 25;13(7):e16613. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Orthopedic Surgery, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, IND.

Introduction Most surgeons prefer a single implant for segmental proximal and diaphyseal femur fractures, although results are controversial and still no consensus for proper management is present. This prospective study analyses the functional and radiological outcome of managing 17 patients with ipsilateral shaft and proximal femur fractures by dual implant osteosynthesis at our center. Methods Over a two-year period, we managed 17 patients with a mean age of 35 years, with cancellous cannulated screws or dynamic hip screws for intracapsular femur fractures and improvised proximal femoral nail for extracapsular proximal femur fractures. Distal femoral locking plates or distal femoral nails were used for shaft femur fractures depending upon fracture morphology. The patients had a maximum follow-up of 18 months. Results A total of 80% of patients had a good functional outcome (using the Friedman-Wyman scoring system) while 60% had an excellent Harris Hip Score. The mean time taken for the bone union for proximal femur fractures was 4.75 months and for shaft femur fractures, it was 6 months. Conclusion We had a satisfactory functional and clinical outcome of managing these fractures with two implants, one focusing biomechanically on each fracture. This principle of dual implant osteosynthesis can reliably be used in such difficult fracture patterns and it negates the use of the single cephalomedullary nail for fixating both fractures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.16613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383820PMC
July 2021

Predicting length of stay after proximal femoral endoprosthetic replacement for oncological conditions.

Surgeon 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, HA7 4LP, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Endoprosthetic replacement of the proximal femur plays a vital role in managing metastatic and primary bone tumours. Length of stay (LOS) has important resource implications but is driven by patient and disease factors over and above the procedure itself. The aim of this project was to identify factors that drive LOS in patients undergoing proximal femoral replacement (PFR).

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical records from a single centre (RNOH). 144 cases were identified over a 4 year-period. These were divided into 3 diagnostic categories: primary bone tumour with chemotherapy, primary bone tumour without chemotherapy and metastatic bone disease. Several factors were considered that could influence the length of stay including age, ASA grade, gender, admission to the high dependency unit (HDU), diagnosis, saving the greater trochanter, pre-operative radiotherapy, admission with a fracture and return to theatre.

Results: The median LOS for PFR was 15 days, with 79% admitted to HDU. LOS was almost doubled for patients returning to theatre (P = 0.04). Patients with ASA grades of 3 and 4 had a 75% longer LOS compared to those with grade 1. Additionally, a 10-year increase in age was associated with a 6-8% increase in LOS. Incorporating these factors produced a model which explained 27% of the variability of LOS.

Conclusion: Majority of the variables which were tested were significantly associated with LOS. However, factors other than those in our model drive length of stay. This analysis can support conversations with patients and service planning around LOS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surge.2021.07.002DOI Listing
August 2021

Effect of yoga on polycystic ovarian syndrome: A systematic review.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2021 Jul 5;27:281-286. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Indo-China Yoga Center, Yunnan Minzu University, China.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is not a disease but a mere syndrome. Many researchers have studied polycystic ovarian syndrome and found that there is no proper cause of that, it may occur due to hormonal imbalance or stress, or due to a sedentary lifestyle. The rate of polycystic ovarian syndrome in Indian women has been increasing rapidly. The symptoms include acne, weight gain, hirsutism, difficulties in fertility, irregular or infrequent periods, immature ovarian eggs that do not ovulate, multiple cysts in the ovary. If left untreated, it may become the cause for heart diseases, diabetes, hypertension, infertility, and even cancer. There are varieties of medical treatments available to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome but they have a temporary effect and if taken for a long time then it may lead to serious side effects. Yoga has proven effects in reducing and managing the symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome more effectively along with medicine. This review work has been designed to consider the available literature concerning the effectiveness of yoga in the management of the polycystic ovarian syndrome. It includes some research papers published between 2012 and 2019. By providing yogic treatment effect on several parameters (such as blood lipid level, glucose metabolism, endocrine parameters, quality of life, resting cardiovascular parameters, level of anxiety, depression) on the woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome were measured. After thoroughly studying about 74 research papers, 16 are found most relevant to be reviewed. The studies of these papers concluded the successful use of different yogic limbs for the management of polycystic ovarian syndrome with or without medications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2021.02.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Emerging methods for prostate cancer imaging: evaluating cancer structure and metabolic alterations more clearly.

Mol Oncol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

UCL Centre for Medical Imaging, London, UK.

Imaging plays a fundamental role in all aspects of the cancer management pathway. However, conventional imaging techniques are largely reliant on morphological and size descriptors that have well-known limitations, particularly when considering targeted-therapy response monitoring. Thus, new imaging methods have been developed to characterise cancer and are now routinely implemented, such as diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast enhancement, positron emission technology (PET) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, despite the improvement these techniques have enabled, limitations still remain. Novel imaging methods are now emerging, intent on further interrogating cancers. These techniques are at different stages of maturity along the biomarker pathway and aim to further evaluate the cancer microstructure (vascular, extracellular and restricted diffusion for cytometry in tumours) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), luminal water fraction imaging] as well as the metabolic alterations associated with cancers (novel PET tracers, hyperpolarised MRI). Finally, the use of machine learning has shown powerful potential applications. By using prostate cancer as an exemplar, this Review aims to showcase these potentially potent imaging techniques and what stage we are at in their application to conventional clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.13071DOI Listing
July 2021

Utility of diffusion MRI characteristics of cervical lymph nodes as disease classifier between patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and healthy volunteers.

NMR Biomed 2021 Jul 8:e4587. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London, UK.

Diffusion MRI characteristics assessed by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have been reported as helpful in classifying tumours based on diffusion characteristics. There is little reported on HNSCC lymph nodes classification by diffusion characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine whether pretreatment nodal microstructural diffusion MRI characteristics can classify diseased nodes of patients with HNSCC from normal nodes of healthy volunteers. Seventy-nine patients with histologically confirmed HNSCC prior to chemoradiotherapy, and eight healthy volunteers, underwent diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI at a 1.5-T MR scanner. Two radiologists contoured lymph nodes on DW (b = 300 s/m ) images. ADC, distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and alpha (α) values were calculated by monoexponential and stretched exponential models. Histogram analysis metrics of drawn volume were compared between patients and volunteers using a Mann-Whitney test. The classification performance of each metric between the normal and diseased nodes was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients determined interobserver reproducibility of each metric based on differently drawn ROIs by two radiologists. Sixty cancerous and 40 normal nodes were analysed. ADC histogram analysis revealed significant differences between patients and volunteers (p ≤0.0001 to 0.0046), presenting ADC distributions that were more skewed (1.49 for patients, 1.03 for volunteers; p = 0.0114) and 'peaked' (6.82 for patients, 4.20 for volunteers; p = 0.0021) in patients. Maximum ADC values exhibited the highest area under the curve ([AUC] 0.892). Significant differences were revealed between patients and volunteers for DDC and α value histogram metrics (p ≤0.0001 to 0.0044); the highest AUC were exhibited by maximum DDC (0.772) and the 25th percentile α value (0.761). Interobserver repeatability was excellent for mean ADC (ICC = 0.88) and the 25th percentile α value (ICC = 0.78), but poor for all other metrics. These results suggest that pretreatment microstructural diffusion MRI characteristics in lymph nodes, assessed by ADC and α value histogram analysis, can identify nodal disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4587DOI Listing
July 2021

Hystrix-like linear porokeratosis: a clinicopathological challenge.

Int J Dermatol 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15711DOI Listing
June 2021

A Multicentric, Randomized, Controlled Phase III Study of Centhaquine (Lyfaquin) as a Resuscitative Agent in Hypovolemic Shock Patients.

Drugs 2021 Jun 1;81(9):1079-1100. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

New Era Hospital, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Centhaquine (Lyfaquin) showed significant safety and efficacy in preclinical and clinical phase I and II studies.

Methods: A prospective, multicentric, randomized phase III study was conducted in patients with hypovolemic shock, systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤ 90 mmHg, and blood lactate levels ≥ 2 mmol/L. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to the centhaquine group (n = 71) or the control (saline) group (n = 34). Every patient received standard of care (SOC) and was followed for 28 days. The study drug (normal saline or centhaquine 0.01 mg/kg) was administered in 100 mL of normal saline infusion over 1 h. The primary objectives were to determine changes (mean through 48 h) in SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood lactate levels, and base deficit. The secondary objectives included the amount of fluids, blood products, and vasopressors administered in the first 48 h, duration of hospital stay, time in intensive care units, time on ventilator support, change in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and the proportion of patients with 28-day all-cause mortality.

Results: The demographics of patients and baseline vitals in both groups were comparable. The cause of hypovolemic shock was trauma in 29.4 and 47.1% of control group and centhaquine group patients, respectively, and gastroenteritis in 44.1 and 29.4%, respectively. Shock index (SI) and quick sequential organ failure assessment at baseline were similar in the two groups. An equal amount of fluids and blood products were administered in both groups during the first 48 h of resuscitation. A lesser amount of vasopressors was needed in the first 48 h of resuscitation in the centhaquine group. An increase in SBP from baseline was consistently higher up to 48 h (12.9% increase in area under the curve from 0 to 48 h [AUC]) in the centhaquine group than in the control group. A significant increase in pulse pressure (48.1% increase in AUC) in the centhaquine group compared with the control group suggests improved stroke volume due to centhaquine. The SI was significantly lower in the centhaquine group from 1 h (p = 0.032) to 4 h (p = 0.049) of resuscitation. Resuscitation with centhaquine resulted in a significantly greater number of patients with improved blood lactate (control 46.9%; centhaquine 69.3%; p = 0.03) and the base deficit (control 43.7%; centhaquine 69.8%; p = 0.01) than in the control group. ARDS and MODS improved with centhaquine, and an 8.8% absolute reduction in 28-day all-cause mortality was observed in the centhaquine group.

Conclusion: Centhaquine is an efficacious resuscitative agent for treating hypovolemic shock. The efficacy of centhaquine in distributive shock is being explored.

Trial Registration: Clinical Trials Registry, India; ctri.icmr.org.in, CTRI/2019/01/017196; clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04045327.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-021-01547-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167383PMC
June 2021

Selective Enhancement in Phonon Scattering Leads to a High Thermoelectric Figure-of-Merit in Graphene Oxide-Encapsulated ZnO Nanocomposites.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 17;13(20):23771-23786. Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram 695551, India.

ZnO is a promising candidate for use as an environmentally friendly thermoelectric (TE) material. However, high thermal conductivity leading to a poor TE figure-of-merit (zT) needs to be addressed to achieve a significant TE efficiency for commercial applications. Here, we demonstrate that selective enhancement in phonon scattering leads to an increase in the zT of ZnO because of Al doping and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) encapsulation. These nanocomposites are synthesized via a facile and scalable method. The incorporation of 1 at% Al with 1.5 wt % RGO into ZnO has been found to show significant improvement in zT (0.52 at 1100 K), which is an order of magnitude larger compared to that of bare undoped ZnO. Photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirm that RGO encapsulation significantly quenches surface oxygen vacancies in ZnO along with nucleation of new interstitial Zn donor states. Tunneling spectroscopy performed on bare as well as composite particles reveals that the band gap of ∼3.4 eV for bare ZnO reduces effectively to ∼0.5 eV upon RGO encapsulation, facilitating charge transport. The electrical conductivity also benefits from high densification (>95%) achieved using the spark plasma sintering method, which also aids in reduction of graphene oxide into RGO. The same Al doping and RGO capping synergistically bring about drastic reduction of thermal conductivity, through enhanced interfacial and point-defect-phonon scatterings. These opposing effects on electrical and thermal conductivities lead to enhancement in the power factors as well as the zT value. Overall, a practically viable route has been demonstrated for the synthesis of oxide-RGO TE materials, which could find their potential applications in high-temperature TE power generation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04125DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcome Analysis of Fixed Angle Locking Plate in Patella Fractures: A Single Centre Experience from North India.

Indian J Orthop 2021 Jun 9;55(3):655-661. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005 India.

Background: Tension band wiring supposedly is the most commonly used technique for displaced patella fractures, but is not effective in comminuted fractures and osteoporotic bones. It often leads to loosening of wires, dislocation of fracture, hardware problem and failure of osteosynthesis, resulting in knee stiffness and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical outcome in patients with acute patella fractures (< 3 week) treated with unidirectional angle fixed low-profile titanium patella locking plate.

Materials And Methods: Twenty patients who presented with displaced patella fractures, aged between 18-70 years were included in the study. All fractures were reduced and fixed with unidirectional angle fixed stable low-profile titanium patella locking plate. Knee Range of motion and Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADL) was used to evaluate the outcome.

Results: We were able to achieve union in 19 out of 20 patients. One patient with comminuted patella fracture had failure of fixation, which was revised. Mean flexion at final follow-up was 124° (110°-130°) and none of the patients had extensor lag. The final radiograph revealed complete union in all patients.

Conclusion: This technique offers an option of fixation in comminuted patella fracture and in osteoporotic individuals. It provides mechanical stability for fracture fixation resulting in anatomical reduction, good functional outcome, lower incidence of symptomatic implant or failure of osteosynthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-020-00302-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081821PMC
June 2021

Elucidating Mitochondrial DNA Markers of -Based CMS Lines in Indian Cauliflowers ( var. L.) and Their Floral Abnormalities Due to Diversity in Cytonuclear Interactions.

Front Plant Sci 2021 30;12:631489. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Vegetable Science, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Mitochondrial markers can be used to differentiate diverse mitotypes as well as cytoplasms in angiosperms. In cauliflower, cultivation of hybrids is pivotal in remunerative agriculture and cytoplasmic male sterile lines constitute an important component of the hybrid breeding. In diversifying the source of male sterility, it is essential to appropriately differentiate among the available male sterile cytoplasms in cauliflower. PCR polymorphism at the key mitochondrial genes associated with male sterility will be instrumental in analyzing, molecular characterization, and development of mitotype-specific markers for differentiation of different cytoplasmic sources. Presence of auto- and alloplasmic cytonuclear combinations result in complex floral abnormalities. In this context, the present investigation highlighted the utility of organelle genome-based markers in distinguishing cytoplasm types in Indian cauliflowers and unveils the epistatic effects of the cytonuclear interactions influencing floral phenotypes. In PCR-based analysis using a set of primers targeted to , 76 Indian cauliflower lines depicted the presence of cytoplasm albeit the amplicons generated exhibited polymorphism within the sequence. The polymorphic fragments were found to be spanning over 200-280 bp and 410-470 bp genomic regions of and , respectively. Sequence analysis revealed that such cytoplasmic genetic variations could be attributed to single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertion or deletions of 31/51 nucleotides. The cytoplasmic effects on varying nuclear-genetic backgrounds rendered an array of floral abnormalities like reduction in flower size, fused flowers, splitted style with the exposed ovule, absence of nonfunctional stamens, and petaloid stamens. These floral malformations caused dysplasia of flower structure affecting female fertility with inefficient nectar production. The finding provides an important reference to ameliorate understanding of mechanism of cytonuclear interactions in floral organ development in The study paves the way for unraveling developmental biology of CMS phenotypes in eukaryotic organisms and intergenomic conflict in plant speciation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.631489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120243PMC
April 2021

Angio-tropic melanocytes: Possibly a distinctive finding in extra-facial acquired dermal melanocytosis.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 Apr 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

Background: Acquired dermal melanocytosis is a heterogenous group of hyperpigmented lesioins which predominantly involve the face.

Aim: The aim of this study was to study the clinical presentation and histopathology of cases with extra-facial acquired dermal melanocytosis.

Methods: Retrospective record analysis was performed between May 2016 to August 2019 to retrieve cases of extra-facial acquired dermal melanocytosis seen at the out-patient department of dermatology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur. Consecutive cases with histopathologically proven diagnosis of acquired dermal melanocytosis were included. Documentation of variation in clinical presentation and histopathologic findings was done in light of the existing literature.

Results: Overall, four cases of extra-facial acquired dermal melanocyosis (female:male = 1:3) were seen during the study period. The lone case on head and neck involved the ear lobule and peri-auricular area. The other three cases had involvement of the hand. The histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of dermal melanocytosis but revealed peculiar findings of angiotropic melanocytes and dilated capillaries.

Limitations: Small sample size and lack of comparison with perilesional normal skin were the limitations of this study.

Conclusion: The findings of angiotropic melanocytes may be unique to extra-facial acquired dermal melanocytosis. This might indicate interaction between dermal melanocytes and capillary endothelial cells. This finding along with dermal capillary ectasia may indicate a possible role for vascular lasers in the management of these disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/IJDVL_966_19DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation of PSA and PSA Density in a Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Directed Diagnostic Pathway for Suspected Prostate Cancer: The INNOVATE Trial.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

: To assess the clinical outcomes of mpMRI before biopsy and evaluate the space remaining for novel biomarkers. The INNOVATE study was set up to evaluate the validity of novel fluidic biomarkers in men with suspected prostate cancer who undergo pre-biopsy mpMRI. We report the characteristics of this clinical cohort, the distribution of clinical serum biomarkers, PSA and PSA density (PSAD), and compare the mpMRI Likert scoring system to the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System v2.1 (PI-RADS) in men undergoing biopsy. : 340 men underwent mpMRI to evaluate suspected prostate cancer. 193/340 (57%) men had subsequent MRI-targeted prostate biopsy. Clinically significant prostate cancer (csigPCa), i.e., overall Gleason ≥ 3 + 4 of any length OR maximum cancer core length (MCCL) ≥4 mm of any grade including any 3 + 3, was found in 96/195 (49%) of biopsied patients. Median PSA (and PSAD) was 4.7 (0.20), 8.0 (0.17), and 9.7 (0.31) ng/mL (ng/mL/mL) in mpMRI scored Likert 3,4,5 respectively for men with csigPCa on biopsy. The space for novel biomarkers was shown to be within the group of men with mpMRI scored Likert3 (178/340) and 4 (70/350), in whom an additional of 40% (70/178) men with mpMRI-scored Likert3, and 37% (26/70) Likert4 could have been spared biopsy. PSAD is already considered clinically in this cohort to risk stratify patients for biopsy, despite this 67% (55/82) of men with mpMRI-scored Likert3, and 55% (36/65) Likert4, who underwent prostate biopsy had a PSAD below a clinical threshold of 0.15 (or 0.12 for men aged <50 years). Different thresholds of PSA and PSAD were assessed in mpMRI-scored Likert4 to predict csigPCa on biopsy, to achieve false negative levels of ≤5% the proportion of patients whom who test as above the threshold were unsuitably high at 86 and 92% of patients for PSAD and PSA respectively. When PSA was re tested in a sub cohort of men repeated PSAD showed its poor reproducibility with 43% (41/95) of patients being reclassified. After PI-RADS rescoring of the biopsied lesions, 66% (54/82) of the Likert3 lesions received a different PI-RADS score. : The addition of simple biochemical and radiological markers (Likert and PSAD) facilitate the streamlining of the mpMRI-diagnostic pathway for suspected prostate cancer but there remains scope for improvement, in the introduction of novel biomarkers for risk assessment in Likert3 and 4 patients, future application of novel biomarkers tested in a Likert cohort would also require re-optimization around Likert3/PI-RADS2, as well as reproducibility testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074769PMC
April 2021

Phytomicrobiome for promoting sustainable agriculture and food security: Opportunities, challenges, and solutions.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jul 5;248:126763. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Hawkesbury Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2750, Sydney, Australia; Global Centre for Land-Based Innovation, Western Sydney University, Hawkesbury Campus, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW, 2750, Sydney, Australia.

Ensuring food security in an environmentally sustainable way is a global challenge. To achieve this agriculture productivity requires increasing by 70 % under increasingly harsh climatic conditions without further damaging the environmental quality (e.g. reduced use of agrochemicals). Most governmental and inter-governmental agencies have highlighted the need for alternative approaches that harness natural resource to address this. Use of beneficial phytomicrobiome, (i.e. microbes intimately associated with plant tissues) is considered as one of the viable solutions to meet the twin challenges of food security and environmental sustainability. A diverse number of important microbes are found in various parts of the plant, i.e. root, shoot, leaf, seed, and flower, which play significant roles in plant health, development and productivity, and could contribute directly to improving the quality and quantity of food production. The phytomicrobiome can also increase productivity via increased resource use efficiency and resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this article, we explore the role of phytomicrobiome in plant health and how functional properties of microbiome can be harnessed to increase agricultural productivity in environmental-friendly approaches. However, significant technical and translation challenges remain such as inconsistency in efficacy of microbial products in field conditions and a lack of tools to manipulate microbiome in situ. We propose pathways that require a system-based approach to realize the potential to phytomicrobiome in contributing towards food security. We suggest if these technical and translation constraints could be systematically addressed, phytomicrobiome can significantly contribute towards the sustainable increase in agriculture productivity and food security.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2021.126763DOI Listing
July 2021

Topical imiquimod as a neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for cartilage salvage in the treatment of nodular basal cell carcinomas of the head and neck.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 May-Jun;87(3):452-454

Department of Dermatology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/IJDVL_414_20DOI Listing
April 2020

Skin-colored papules and infiltration on sun-exposed skin in an elderly woman.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2021 Sep 16;19(9):1359-1362. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ddg.14385DOI Listing
September 2021

Alteration of the risk of pre-oral cancer and cancer in North Indian population by NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms genotypes and haplotypes.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Oct 4;278(10):4081-4089. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 226028, India.

Purpose: The risk of oral cancer is strongly related to consumption of tobacco, smoking and drinking alcohol. N-acetyl transferases 1,2 are phase II metabolic enzymes, metabolize aryl and heterocyclic amines which are present in tobacco. NAT2 slows acetylator phenotype and the genotype is related to reduced ability to detoxify these xenobiotic that are carcinogenic to tissues. The aim of our study to determine the risk of oral cancer as well as oral precancerous lesions in North Indian population with polymorphisms in these two N-acetyl transferases 1,2 genes.

Materials And Methods: A total of 250 patients with pre oral cancer, oral cancer and 250 healthy volunteers were genotypes for the NAT1 and NAT2 gene polymorphisms. Genotypes were identified by PCR and RFLP. Genotype frequencies were evaluated by Chi-square test and risk of disease was estimated by Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval.

Result: Our results showed that individuals with CT and TT genotypes of NAT1 C > T polymorphism were significantly lower risk of oral diseases (p value = 0.02, OR = 0.60 and p value = 0.04, OR = 0.58, respectively). For NAT2 C > T polymorphism, the TT genotype significantly increased the risk of OSMF (Oral Sub mucous Fibrosis) and Leukoplakia (p value = 0.001, OR = 4.16; p value = 0.002, OR = 4.38, respectively). In contrary, the CC genotype for NAT2 T > C polymorphism increased the risk of OSMF (p value = 0.01, OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.31-6.86).

Conclusion: Our study concludes that the NAT1 polymorphism shows protective association with oral diseases and NAT2 polymorphism and haplotypes also influence the susceptibility to oral diseases in North Indian population subjects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06774-wDOI Listing
October 2021

MR Imaging‒Guided Intervention: Evaluation of MR Conditional Biopsy and Ablation Needle Tip Artifacts at 3T Using a Balanced Fast Field Echo Sequence.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2021 Jul 31;32(7):1068-1074.e1. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre of Medical Imaging, University College London Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Interventional Oncology Service, University College London Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To systematically investigate artifacts produced by biopsy and ablation needles imaged at various trajectories with respect to the static magnetic field (B0).

Materials And Methods: An acrylic phantom was scanned using a rapid balanced fast field echo sequence with 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging. A 15-gauge microwave needle, a 17-gauge cryoneedle, and an 18-gauge coaxial biopsy needle were imaged in sagittal and axial planes, in 7 different orientations to B0 (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°). For 4 angles (15°, 30°, 60°, and 75°), images were acquired with the slice orientation aligned to the needle angulation, resulting in the frequency encoding direction being parallel to the needle's long axis for the sagittal slice and perpendicular to the needle angulation for the axial acquisition. The artifact length at the needle tip and maximum artifact width were recorded.

Results: No significant difference was noted in mean artifact length for the cryoneedle (13 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7-19) and coaxial biopsy needle (8 mm; 95% CI, 5-10; P = .08). The mean artifact length was significantly smaller for the microwave ablation needle (1 mm; 95% CI, 0-2; P < .05). The mean artifact width was highest for the coaxial needle (17 mm; 95% CI, 14-19) and significantly higher than the cryoneedle (12 mm; 95% CI, 10-15; P = .024) and microwave ablation needle (8 mm; 95% CI, 6-10; P < .01). The needle tip artifact was significantly smaller when the slice orientation was aligned to the needle angulation for the coaxial and cryoablation needles (P < .01).

Conclusions: Needle tip artifact length and width increase with increasing angulation to the static field. At large angles (>15°), the needle tip position can be predicted better from images acquired when the slice orientation is aligned to the needle's angulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2021.03.536DOI Listing
July 2021

A 4-year multicentric experience of intravenous cannula-based intralesional radiofrequency ablation as an effective and safe office procedure for common cutaneous nodules.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 May-Jun;87(3):433-435

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, ESIC MedicalCollege and Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/IJDVL_565_19DOI Listing
July 2019

Long-term biopsy outcomes in prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Sep 8;24(3):612-622. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Biopsy after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localised prostate cancer (PCa) is an infrequently used but potentially valuable technique to evaluate local recurrence and predict long-term outcomes.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of studies until March 2020 where a post-EBRT biopsy was performed on patients with low-to intermediate risk PCa, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. The primary outcome was the aggregate post-EBRT positive biopsy rate (≥2 years after EBRT) and the associated odds ratio (OR) of a positive biopsy on biochemical failure (BCF), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). A sensitivity analysis was performed which examined biopsy rate as a function of post-EBRT biopsy protocol, PCa risk, ADT usage and radiation dose.

Results: A total of 22 studies were included, of which 10 were randomised controlled trials and 12 were cohort studies. Nine out of the 22 studies used dosing regimens consistent with the 2020 NCCN radiotherapy guidelines. The weighted-average positive biopsy rate across all 22 studies was 32% (95%-CI: 25-39%, n = 3017). In studies where post-treatment biopsy was part of the study protocol, the rate was 35% (95%-CI: 21-38%, n = 2450). In the subgroup of studies that conformed to the 2020 NCCN radiotherapy guidelines, this rate was 22% (95% CI: 19-41%, n = 832). Patients with positive biopsy had a 10-fold higher odds of developing BCF (OR of 10.3, 95%-CI: 3.7-28.7, p < 0.00001), 3-fold higher odds of developing distant metastasis (OR 3.1, 95%-CI: 2.1-4.7, p < 0.00001) and 5-fold higher odds of dying from their PCa (OR 5.1, 95%-CI: 2.6-10, p < 0.00001).

Conclusion: A positive biopsy after EBRT is associated with a poor prognosis compared to a negative biopsy. The post-EBRT positive biopsy rate is an important measure which provides additional insight when comparing EBRT to other treatment modalities for PCa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00323-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384630PMC
September 2021

Prostatic calcifications: Quantifying occurrence, radiodensity, and spatial distribution in prostate cancer patients.

Urol Oncol 2021 Oct 20;39(10):728.e1-728.e6. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Centre of Medical Imaging, University College London, London, UK.

Background: To evaluate the prevalence, density, and distribution of prostate calcification in patients with prostate cancer.

Methods: Patients who underwent both Gallium-68 PSMA PET/CT and MRI of the prostate over the course of a year were selected for analysis. The CT images with visible calcifications within the prostate were included and calcifications automatically isolated using a threshold of 130 HU. The corresponding multiparametric MRI was assessed and the peripheral zone, transition zone, MRI-visible tumor, and urethra manually contoured. The contoured MRI and CT images were registered using rigid registration, and calcifications mapped automatically to the MRI contours.

Results: A total of 85 men (age range 50-88, mean 69 years, standard deviation 7.2 years) were assessed. The mean serum Prostate Specific Antigen PSA was 16.7, range 0.12 to 94.4. Most patients had intermediate-risk disease (68%; Gleason grade group 2 and 3), 26% had high-risk disease (Gleason grade group 4 and 5), and 6% had low-risk disease (Gleason grade group 1). Forty-six patients out of 85 (54%) had intraprostatic calcification. Calcification occurred more in transition zone than the peripheral zone (65% vs. 35%). The mean density of the calcification was 227 HU (min 133, max 1,966 HU). In 12 patients, the calcification was within an MRI-visible tumor, in 24 patients, there were calcifications within a 9 mm distance of the tumor border, and in 9 patients, there were calcifications located between the urethra and tumor.

Conclusions: Calcifications are common in patients with prostate cancer. Their density and location may make them a significant consideration when planning treatment or retreatment with some types of minimally invasive therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.12.028DOI Listing
October 2021

Smart technologies driven approaches to tackle COVID-19 pandemic: a review.

3 Biotech 2021 Feb 11;11(2):50. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.

The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) is not diminishing without vaccine, but it impinges on human safety and economy can be minimized by adopting smart technology to combat pandemic situation. The implementation of new innovations and novel tactics has proven to be effective in curbing the risk of COVID-19. The present study covers the role of smart technology in mitigating the spread of COVID-19 with specific focus on advancement in the field of drone, robotics, artificial intelligence (AI), mask, and sensor technology. The findings shed light on the robotics and drone technology-driven approaches that have been applied for assisting health system, surveillance, and disinfection process, etc. The AI technology strategies and framework is highlighted in terms of bulk data computing, predicting infection threats, providing medical assistance, and analyzing diagnosis results. Besides this, the technological shift in mask and sensor technology during the pandemic have been illustrated, which includes fabrication method like 3D printing and optical sensing, respectively. Furthermore, the strength, weakness, opportunities, and possible threats that have been shaped by the rigorous implementation of these technologies are also covered in detail.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-020-02581-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799428PMC
February 2021

A Survey on Applications of Artificial Intelligence for Pre-Parametric Project Cost and Soil Shear-Strength Estimation in Construction and Geotechnical Engineering.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 11;21(2). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Computer Science & Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea.

Ensuring soil strength, as well as preliminary construction cost and duration prediction, is a very crucial and preliminary aspect of any construction project. Similarly, building strong structures is very important in geotechnical engineering to ensure the bearing capability of structures against external forces. Hence, in this first-of-its-kind state-of-the-art review, the capability of various artificial intelligence (AI)-based models toward accurate prediction and estimation of preliminary construction cost, duration, and shear strength is explored. Initially, background regarding the revolutionary AI technology along with its different models suited for geotechnical and construction engineering is presented. Various existing works in the literature on the usage of AI-based models for the abovementioned applications of construction and maintenance are presented along with their advantages, limitations, and future work. Through analysis, various crucial input parameters with great impact on the estimation of preliminary construction cost, duration, and soil shear strength are enumerated and presented. Lastly, various challenges in using AI-based models for accurate predictions in these applications, as well as factors contributing to the cost-overrun issues, are presented. This study can, thus, greatly assist civil engineers in efficiently using the capabilities of AI for solving complex and risk-sensitive tasks, and it can also be used in Internet of things (IoT) environments for automated applications such as smart structural health-monitoring systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21020463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827696PMC
January 2021

Luer-lock cap for tackling acne scar subcision-related blood spill.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jan 10. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.12.084DOI Listing
January 2021

CRISPR/Cas mediated epigenome editing for cancer therapy.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Novartis Healthcare Pvt Ltd., Hyderabad 500032, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

The understanding of the relationship between epigenetic alterations, their effects on gene expression and the knowledge that these epigenetic alterations are reversible, have opened up new therapeutic pathways for treating various diseases, including cancer. This has led the research for a better understanding of the mechanism and pathways of carcinogenesis and provided the opportunity to develop the therapeutic approaches by targeting such pathways. Epi-drugs, DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) inhibitors and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are the best examples of epigenetic therapies with clinical applicability. Moreover, precise genome editing technologies such as CRISPR/Cas has proven their efficacy in epigenome editing, including the alteration of epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation or histone modification. The main disadvantage with DNA gene editing technologies is off-target DNA sequence alteration, which is not an issue with epigenetic editing. It is known that cancer is linked with epigenetic alteration, and thus CRISPR/Cas system shows potential for cancer therapy via epigenome editing. This review outlines the epigenetic therapeutic approach for cancer therapy using CRISPR/Cas, from the basic understanding of cancer epigenetics to potential applications of CRISPR/Cas in treating cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.12.018DOI Listing
January 2021

Thermoelectric properties of GaN with carrier concentration modulation: an experimental and theoretical investigation.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jan;23(2):1601-1609

Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, 110067, India.

The present work investigates the less explored thermoelectric properties of the n-type GaN semiconductor by combining both experimental and computational tools. The Seebeck coefficients of GaN epitaxial thin films were experimentally measured in the wide temperature range from 77 K to 650 K in steps of ∼10 K covering both low and high-temperature regimes as a function of the carrier concentration (2 × 1016, 2 × 1017, 4 × 1017 and 8 × 1017 cm-3). The measured Seebeck coefficient at room temperature was found to be highest (-374 μV K-1) at the lowest concentration of 4 × 1016 cm-3, and decreases in magnitude monotonically (-327.6 μV K-1, -295 μV K-1, -246 μV K-1 for 2 × 1017, 4 × 1017, 8 × 1017 cm-3, respectively) as the sample carrier concentration increases. The Seebeck coefficient remains negative in the entire temperature range under study indicating that electrons are the dominant carriers. To understand the temperature-dependent behaviour, we also carried out the electronic structure and transport coefficient calculations using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory implemented in WIEN2k and BoltzTraP code, respectively. The experimentally observed carrier concentrations were used in the calculations. The estimated results obtained under constant relaxation time approximations provide a very good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data of Seebeck coefficients in the temperature range from 260 to 625 K.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp03950kDOI Listing
January 2021

Integron mediated antimicrobial resistance in diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children: in vitro and in silico analysis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jan 7;150:104680. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Microbiology, University College of Medical Sciences & GTB Hospital (University of Delhi), Delhi, India. Electronic address:

The exchange of genes between bacterial chromosome and plasmid(s) and their integration into integrons are mainly responsible for acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. We investigated the role of integrons and their underlying molecular mechanisms leading to development of adaptability in E. coli and eventual resistance to antimicrobials. Escherichia coli isolates (n = 120); including 40 diarrheagenic isolates, an even number of isolates from cases other than diarrhea, and equal number of isolates from healthy children recovered from fresh stool samples were used for identification of integron genes and gene cassettes. The association of integrons with antibiotic resistance was assayed before phylogenetic analysis. DNA sequence analysis revealed class 1 and 2 integrons in 55.83% and 21.66% isolates, respectively. The integron presence was found significantly associated with the probability of antibiotic resistance in E. coli; the association being highest with class 1 integron. Modelling and molecular docking along with molecular dynamics simulation analyses found ceftriaxone and amoxicillin as potential inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The class 1 integrons of these pathogenic isolates can serve as prospective therapeutic targets using specific silencing strategies and combinational antimicrobial therapy. The findings may be useful for the development of a potent and versatile drug for DHFR inhibition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104680DOI Listing
January 2021

Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome: Mimicker for Hereditary Tyrosinemia.

Indian J Pediatr 2021 04 26;88(4):377. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Pediatrics, KAHER's Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03583-7DOI Listing
April 2021
-->