Publications by authors named "Santosh Kumar"

1,035 Publications

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Resistin-Like Molecule α Dysregulates Cardiac Bioenergetics in Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:574708. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Heart (right) failure is the most frequent cause of death in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Although historically, increased right ventricular afterload has been considered the main contributor to right heart failure in such patients, recent evidence has suggested a potential role of load-independent factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that resistin-like molecule α (RELMα), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling in pulmonary artery hypertension, also contributes to cardiac metabolic remodeling, leading to heart failure. Recombinant RELMα (rRELMα) was generated via a Tet-On expression system in the T-REx 293 cell line. Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with purified rRELMα for 24 h at a dose of 50 nM. Treated cardiomyocytes exhibited decreased mRNA and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and transcription factors PPARα and ERRα, which regulate mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, whereas genes that encode for glycolysis-related proteins were significantly upregulated. Cardiomyocytes treated with rRELMα also exhibited a decreased basal respiration, maximal respiration, spare respiratory capacity, ATP-linked OCR, and increased glycolysis, as assessed with a microplate-based cellular respirometry apparatus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial ultrastructure in cardiomyocytes treated with rRELMα. Our data indicate that RELMα affects cardiac energy metabolism and mitochondrial structure, biogenesis, and function by downregulating the expression of the PGC-1α/PPARα/ERRα axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.574708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107692PMC
April 2021

Chitosan Nanocomposite Coatings Containing Chemically Resistant ZnO-SnO Core-shell Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Antifouling.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 26;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Functional Materials Group, Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Hannes Alfvéns väg 12, 114 19 Stockholm, Sweden.

Functional nanocomposites with biopolymers and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles is an emerging application of photocatalysis in antifouling coatings. The reduced chemical stability of ZnO in the acidic media in which chitosan is soluble affects the performance of chitosan nanocomposites in antifouling applications. In this study, a thin shell of amorphous tin dioxide (SnO) was grown on the surface of ZnO to form ZnO-SnO core-shell nanoparticles that improved the chemical stability of the photocatalyst nanoparticles, as examined at pH 3 and 6. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO-SnO in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under visible light showed a higher efficiency than that of ZnO nanoparticles due to the passivation of electronic defects. Chitosan-based antifouling coatings with varying percentages of ZnO or ZnO-SnO nanoparticles, with or without the glutaraldehyde (GA) crosslinking of chitosan, were developed and studied. The incorporation of photocatalysts into the chitosan matrix enhanced the thermal stability of the coatings. Through a mesocosm study using running natural seawater, it was found that chitosan/ZnO-SnO/GA coatings enabled better inhibition of bacterial growth compared to chitosan coatings alone. This study demonstrates the antifouling potential of chitosan nanocomposite coatings containing core-shell nanoparticles as an effective solution for the prevention of biofouling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094513DOI Listing
April 2021

Adipocyte, Immune Cells, and miRNA Crosstalk: A Novel Regulator of Metabolic Dysfunction and Obesity.

Cells 2021 Apr 24;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center (UTHSC), 881 Madison Avenue, Memphis, TN 38103, USA.

Obesity is characterized as a complex and multifactorial excess accretion of adipose tissue (AT) accompanied with alterations in the immune response that affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups around the globe. The abnormal accumulation of AT leads to several metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disorder (NAFLD), low-grade inflammation, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), and cancer. AT is an endocrine organ composed of adipocytes and immune cells, including B-Cells, T-cells and macrophages. These immune cells secrete various cytokines and chemokines and crosstalk with adipokines to maintain metabolic homeostasis and low-grade chronic inflammation. A novel form of adipokines, microRNA (miRs), is expressed in many developing peripheral tissues, including ATs, T-cells, and macrophages, and modulates the immune response. miRs are essential for insulin resistance, maintaining the tumor microenvironment, and obesity-associated inflammation (OAI). The abnormal regulation of AT, T-cells, and macrophage miRs may change the function of different organs including the pancreas, heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. Since obesity and inflammation are closely associated, the dysregulated expression of miRs in inflammatory adipocytes, T-cells, and macrophages suggest the importance of miRs in OAI. Therefore, in this review article, we have elaborated the role of miRs as epigenetic regulators affecting adipocyte differentiation, immune response, AT browning, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance (IR), glucose homeostasis, obesity, and metabolic disorders. Further, we will discuss a set of altered miRs as novel biomarkers for metabolic disease progression and therapeutic targets for obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10051004DOI Listing
April 2021

PLGA Nanoparticle-Based Formulations to Cross the Blood-Brain Barrier for Drug Delivery: From R&D to cGMP.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 6;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 881 Madison Ave, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a natural obstacle for drug delivery into the human brain, hindering treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as acute ischemic stroke, brain tumors, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Poly(lactic--glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a biocompatible polymer that is used in Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmaceutical products and medical devices. PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported to improve drug penetration across the BBB both in vitro and in vivo. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poloxamer (Pluronic) are widely used as excipients to further improve the stability and effectiveness of PLGA formulations. Peptides and other linkers can be attached on the surface of PLGA to provide targeting delivery. With the newly published guidance from the FDA and the progress of current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) technologies, manufacturing PLGA NP-based drug products can be achieved with higher efficiency, larger quantity, and better quality. The translation from bench to bed is feasible with proper research, concurrent development, quality control, and regulatory assurance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067506PMC
April 2021

An evaluation of intraoperative and postoperative outcomes of phacoemulsification surgery in eyes with shallow anterior chamber.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 May;69(5):1346-1347

Department of Ophthalmology, Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, M.D. Eye Hospital, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijo.IJO_3483_20DOI Listing
May 2021

Inhibition of extracellular vesicle pathway using neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitors as a neuroprotective treatment for brain injury.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Dec;16(12):2349-2352

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Traumatic brain injury is a sudden trauma or blow on the head, and severe traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The acute and chronic consequences following traumatic brain injury can lead to progressive secondary neurodegenerative changes and cognitive dysfunction. To date, there is no effective pharmaceutical products for the treatment to reduce secondary damage after brain injury. The discovery of extracellular vesicles has attracted considerable scientific attention due to their role in cell-to-cell communication. Extracellular vesicles have shown their potential to carry not only biological molecules but also as a drug delivery vehicle. As a carrier of molecular information, extracellular vesicles have been involved in physiological functions as well as in the modulation of immune responses. Here, we aim to provide new insights into the contrasting role of extracellular vesicles in the propagation of inflammatory responses after brain injury. As a carrier of pro-inflammatory molecules, their role as functional mediators in the pathophysiology of brain injury is discussed, addressing the inhibition of the extracellular vesicle pathway as an anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective approach to improve the outcome of both acute and chronic inflammation following brain injury. Here, we summarize therapeutic strategies to diminish the risk the neurodegeneration post brain injury and propose that neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitors could be used as potentially useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of brain injury associated neuroinflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.313014DOI Listing
December 2021

HIMF deletion ameliorates acute myocardial ischemic injury by promoting macrophage transformation to reparative subtype.

Basic Res Cardiol 2021 Apr 23;116(1):30. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Genome Stability and Human Disease Prevention, Department of Pathophysiology, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, 518060, China.

Appropriately manipulating macrophage M1/M2 phenotypic transition is a promising therapeutic strategy for tissue repair after myocardial infarction (MI). Here we showed that gene ablation of hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF) in mice (Himf and HIMF;Lyz2-Cre) attenuated M1 macrophage-dominated inflammatory response and promoted M2 macrophage accumulation in infarcted hearts. This in turn reduced myocardial infarct size and improved cardiac function after MI. Correspondingly, expression of HIMF in macrophages induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines; the culturing medium of HIMF-overexpressing macrophages impaired the cardiac fibroblast viability and function. Furthermore, macrophage HIMF was found to up-regulate C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) expression, which exaggerated the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via activating signal transducer of activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and 3 (STAT3) signaling. Together these data suggested that HIMF promotes M1-type and prohibits M2-type macrophage polarization by activating the CHOP-STAT1/STAT3 signaling pathway to negatively regulate myocardial repair. HIMF might thus constitute a novel target to treat MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-021-00867-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064941PMC
April 2021

THE STRATIFIED MICRO-RANDOMIZED TRIAL DESIGN: SAMPLE SIZE CONSIDERATIONS FOR TESTING NESTED CAUSAL EFFECTS OF TIME-VARYING TREATMENTS.

Ann Appl Stat 2020 Jun 29;14(2):661-684. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Harvard University.

Technological advancements in the field of mobile devices and wearable sensors have helped overcome obstacles in the delivery of care, making it possible to deliver behavioral treatments anytime and anywhere. Here, we discuss our work on the design of a mobile health smoking cessation intervention study with the goal of assessing whether reminders, delivered at times of stress, result in a reduction/prevention of stress in the near-term, and whether this effect changes with time in study. Multiple statistical challenges arose in this effort, leading to the development of the design. In these designs, each individual is randomized to treatment repeatedly at times determined by predictions of risk. These may be impacted by prior treatment. We describe the statistical challenges and detail how they can be met.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/19-aoas1293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049613PMC
June 2020

17.8  fs broadband Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:CALGO oscillator.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1892-1895

Pulses as short as 17.8 fs with a spectral bandwidth of 145 nm and central wavelength of 1118 nm have been generated from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:CALGO oscillator. The oscillator operating at an average power of 26 mW and a repetition rate of 95.9 MHz is pumped by a cost-effective single-mode fiber coupled laser diode emitting 800 mW at 976 nm. The dispersion is compensated using a prism pair combined with broadband chirp mirrors. To the best of our knowledge, the pulse durations corresponding to approximately 4.8 optical cycle pulses are the shortest achieved durations through a Yb-doped bulk oscillator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.421999DOI Listing
April 2021

Robust and efficient single-pixel image classification with nonlinear optics.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1848-1851

We present a hybrid image classifier by feature-sensitive image upconversion, single pixel photodetection, and deep learning, aiming at fast processing of high-resolution images. It uses partial Fourier transform to extract the images' signature features in both the original and Fourier domains, thereby significantly increasing the classification accuracy and robustness. Tested on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology handwritten digit images and verified by simulation, it boosts accuracy from 81.25% (by Fourier-domain processing) to 99.23%, and achieves 83% accuracy for highly contaminated images whose signal-to-noise ratio is only -17. Our approach could prove useful for fast lidar data processing, high-resolution image recognition, occluded target identification, and atmosphere monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.420388DOI Listing
April 2021

Rice drought breeding has selected for longer flag leaves and lower stomatal density.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines.

Direct selection for yield under drought has resulted in the release of a number of drought-tolerant rice varieties across Asia. In this study, we characterized physiological traits affected by that strategy in breeding trials across sites in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. The drought breeding lines and drought-tolerant varieties showed consistently longer flag leaves and lower stomatal density than the drought-susceptible check, IR64. The influence of environmental parameters other than drought treatments on leaf traits was evidenced by the close grouping of treatments within a site. Flag leaf length and width appeared to be regulated by different environmental parameters. In separate trials in the Philippines, the same breeding lines studied in South Asia showed that canopy temperature under drought and harvest index across treatments were most correlated with grain yield. Both atmospheric and soil stress increased the relationship between leaf traits and yield. The stable expression of leaf traits among genotypes and the identification of the environmental conditions in which they contribute to yield, as well as the observation that some breeding lines showed longer time to flowering and higher canopy temperature than IR64, suggest that selection for additional physiological traits may result in further improvement of this breeding pool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab160DOI Listing
April 2021

Satisfaction and genital perception after orchiectomy for prostate cancer: does the technique matter? A randomized trial.

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632004, India.

Objectives: Bilateral extracapsular or total orchiectomy (BEO) for prostate cancer is presumed to have psychological consequences after the surgery due to perception of an empty scrotum. Bilateral subcapsular orchiectomy (BSO) was designed to preserve perception of palpable testes. We compared the patients' satisfaction and genital perception following BEO and BSO.

Materials And Methods: Prostate cancer patients eligible for androgen deprivation therapy who opted for orchiectomy were enrolled in prospective randomized study. Patients with bleeding disorder or uncorrected coagulopathy, poor performance score, and psychiatric problems were excluded. Outlook to life and own health in-general, overall satisfaction to the procedure and genital perception was evaluated using modified Fugl-Meyer questionnaire (FMQ) which was administered before and after 3 months of the surgery. Patients were randomized to BEO and BSO groups at the time of surgery using block randomization. Primary outcome was to compare the genital perception of testicular loss and patients' satisfaction to BSO and BEO. Secondary outcomes included testosterone and PSA control, operative time, and complications.

Results: Total 35 patients were enrolled in each group which was comparable. There was no difference in PSA control at 3 months. Mean operative time and blood loss were significantly lesser in BEO group. FMQ score at 3 months did not show significant difference. Majority of the patients in both groups were satisfied with procedure and the aesthetic value of scrotum after surgery. However, 84% in BSO group did not feel that testes were removed on self-examination, as compared to 28% in BEO group. Majority patients in both groups did not report physical or psychological discomfort from change in scrotal content.

Conclusions: Results showed that patients' satisfaction and genital perception following BSO and BEO were similar. Feeling of remaining intrascrotal contents after BSO did not had added psychological advantage in terms of perception of genitalia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-021-02849-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of urinary aquaporin-1 as a biomarker for renal cell carcinoma.

Indian J Urol 2021 Jan-Mar;37(1):59-64. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: Optimal patient selection plays a vital role in management of renal tumors with the introduction of nephron-sparing approaches and active surveillance. A reliable and accurate diagnostic biomarker will be a useful adjunct to decision-making. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of urinary aquaporin-1 (uAQP-1), an upcoming urinary biomarker, for renal cell carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: In this prospective biomarker study, urine samples were obtained preoperatively from 36 patients with an imaged renal mass suggestive of RCC and 24 healthy age-matched controls, chosen from among voluntary kidney donors. uAQP-1 concentrations were estimated with a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and normalized by estimation of urinary creatinine. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare differences between any two groups. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of uAQP-1 for RCC.

Results: The median uAQP-1 concentration among the cases and controls was 8.78 ng/mg creatinine (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.56-12.67) and 9.52 ng/mg creatinine (IQR: 5.55-12.45), respectively. There was no significant difference in uAQP-1 concentrations between the two groups. ROC analysis showed that, for a cutoff value of 8 ng/mg creatinine, the sensitivity and specificity of uAQP-1 as a diagnostic test were 47.2% and 66.7%, respectively, and area under the curve was 0.52 (95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.62).

Conclusions: uAQP-1 concentrations did not discriminate between healthy individuals and patients with RCC. The results of this study suggest that uAQP-1 may not be a suitable diagnostic biomarker for RCC in the study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/iju.IJU_330_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033244PMC
January 2021

Assessment of arsenic exposure in the population of Sabalpur village of Saran District of Bihar with mitigation approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Mahavir Cancer Sansthan and Research Centre, Phulwarisharif, Patna, Bihar, 801505, India.

Arsenic poisoning through groundwater is the world's greatest normal groundwater catastrophe which got an immense effect on worldwide general wellbeing. India is confronting the outcomes of arsenic poisoning in the zone of Ganga Brahmaputra alluvial plains. In Bihar, out of 38 districts, 18 districts are exceptionally influenced with groundwater arsenic defilement. In the present study, we have assessed the current situation of arsenic exposure in Sabalpur village of Saran district of Bihar after reporting of breast, renal, skin and thyroid cancer cases from this village along with typical symptoms of arsenicosis. Such cancer patients were identified at our institute and were taken for the study. The present investigation deals with the quantification of arsenic in groundwater, hair and nail samples of subjects as well as the survey of entire village to know the overall health status of the village people. A total of n=128 household handpump water samples as well as n=128 human hair and nail samples were collected from over n=520 households. Using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GF-AAS), all the samples were analysed. The investigation resulted that the 61% of the analysed samples particularly the groundwater had the arsenic levels more than the permissible limit of WHO (> 10 μg/L) with 244.20 μg/L as the highest arsenic contamination in one of the handpump water sample. The exposure effect of hair sample was worst as 88% of all the collected samples were having high arsenic levels more than the permissible limit (> 0.2 mg/Kg). In case of nail samples, 92% of the samples were having high arsenic concentration more than the permissible limit (> 0.5 mg/Kg). The health survey study revealed high magnitude of disease burden in the exposed population with symptoms such as asthma, anaemia, hepatomegaly, diabetes, cardiac problem, skin fungal infections, breathlessness and mental disability. Few cancer cases of renal, skin, breast and cervix were also found among the exposed population of this village. The percentage of cancer cases in this village was 0.94% that was low, but it would be an aggravated situation in the near future if people will continue drinking arsenic-contaminated water. Therefore, a mitigation intervention was carried out in March 2020 by installing an arsenic filter plant. The health situation in the village in the present scenario is hope to improve in the coming years. However, motivation and awareness among the village population are still required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13521-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced balanitis following intravesical immunotherapy for urothelial cancer.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 9;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Urology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-240778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042997PMC
April 2021

Nitro-oxidative stress induces the formation of roots' cortical aerenchyma in rice under osmotic stress.

Physiol Plant 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Life Science, Central University of South Bihar, Gaya, Bihar, India.

Drought stress induces the formation of cortical aerenchyma in roots, providing drought tolerance by reducing respiration. However, unrestricted aerenchyma formation impedes the radial transport of water through the root's central cylinder; thereby decreasing the water uptake under drought stress. Therefore, exploring the root architectural and anatomical alterations in rice under drought is essential for targeting crop improvement. Drought stress-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in the lysigenous aerenchyma development. However, the influence of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the development of lysigenous aerenchyma under drought has never been studied in rice. The present study examined the effect of ROS and RNS, generated by progressive drought stress, on the lysigenous aerenchyma formation in the roots of contrasting rice genotypes of the Eastern Indo-Gangetic plains (EIGP). As expected, the PEG-induced drought stress stimulated the expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX), thereby promoting the ROS generation in roots of the rice seedlings. Excessive ROS and RNS accumulations in roots affected the membrane lipids, promoting the tissue-specific programmed cell death (PCD) in rice. The activation of the antioxidant defense system played a major role in the ROS and RNS detoxification, thereby restricting the root aerenchyma formation in rice under drought stress. The results also displayed that drought tolerance in rice is associated with the formation of the Casparian strip, which limits the apoplastic flow of water in the water-deficient roots. Overall, our study revealed the association of nitro-oxidative metabolism with PCD and lysigenous aerenchyma formation in the cortical cells of root under drought stress in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13415DOI Listing
April 2021

A Narrative Systematic Literature Review: A Focus on Qualitative Studies on HIV and Medication-Assisted Therapy in the United States.

Pharmacy (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;9(1). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38163, USA.

Over the last two decades, the United States (U.S.) has experienced an opioid crisis that has had a significant negative societal and economic impact. Due to the high utilization of opioids in Persons Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA), there is a need for a qualitative literature review that presents opioid-use related problems in this population. This study aims to present and identify a thematic overview of the qualitative manuscripts on PLWHA who take opioid medications in the U.S., with a focus on perceptions surrounding medication assisted therapy. The systematic literature search was performed in December 2019. Four databases were searched: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). A total of 5348 results were exported from databases into EndNote x9, and duplicates were removed for a total of 3039 unique abstracts to screen. The records were imported into Rayyan, an online platform designed to expedite the screening process. Three authors screened titles and abstracts and determined 19 articles that would be screened in full text. On 9 April 2020, it was determined that eight articles would be included for review. The analysis of the eight manuscripts that fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria revealed barriers and facilitators to medication assisted therapy (MAT) in PLWHA. This review communicates or describes the story of PLWHA who might have delayed access to HIV healthcare providers and the commencement of antiretroviral therapy. In the literature, several studies have focused on the role of physicians in prescribing and addressing the medication regimens but none of the studies examined the role of pharmacists in access to care in this population. Therefore, further research is needed for a better understanding of the social aspects of taking opioid medications in PLWHA and the role of pharmacists within the continuum of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005949PMC
March 2021

Effect of coronavirus lockdowns on the ambient seismic noise levels in Gujarat, northwest India.

Sci Rep 2021 03 30;11(1):7148. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, 500007, India.

The Covid-19 pandemic created havoc and forced lockdowns in almost all the countries worldwide, to inhibit social spreading. In India as well, as a precautionary measure, complete and partial lockdowns were announced in phases during March 25 to May 31, 2020. The restricted human activities led to a drastic reduction in seismic background noise in the high frequency range of 1-20 Hz, representative of cultural noise. In this study, we analyse the effect of anthropogenic activity on the Earth vibrations, utilizing ambient noise recorded at twelve broadband seismographs installed in different environmental and geological conditions in Gujarat. We find that the lockdowns caused 1-19 dB decrease in seismic noise levels. The impact of restricted anthropogenic activities is predominantly visible during the daytime in urban areas, in the vicinity of industries and/or highways. A 27-79% reduction in seismic noise ground displacement (d) is observed in daytime during the lockdown, in populated areas. However, data from station MOR reveals a drastic decrease in d amplitude both during the day (79%) and night times (87%) since factories in this area operate round the clock. The noise at stations located in remote areas and that due to microseisms, shows negligible variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86557-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010099PMC
March 2021

COVID-19 Pandemic: Review of Contemporary and Forthcoming Detection Tools.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 17;14:1049-1082. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Microbiology, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, 1342, Bangladesh.

Recent severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as COVID-19, presents a deadly challenge to the global healthcare system of developing and developed countries, exposing the limitations of health facilities preparedness for emerging infectious disease pandemic. Opportune detection, confinement, and early treatment of infected cases present the first step in combating COVID-19. In this review, we elaborate on various COVID-19 diagnostic tools that are available or under investigation. Consequently, cell culture, followed by an indirect fluorescent antibody, is one of the most accurate methods for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, restrictions imposed by the regulatory authorities prevented its general use and implementation. Diagnosis via radiologic imaging and reverse transcriptase PCR assay is frequently employed, considered as standard procedures, whereas isothermal amplification methods are currently on the verge of clinical introduction. Notably, techniques such as CRISPR-Cas and microfluidics have added new dimensions to the SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Furthermore, commonly used immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA), neutralization assay, and the chemiluminescent assay can also be used for early detection and surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, advancement in the next generation sequencing (NGS) and metagenomic analysis are smoothing the viral detection further in this global challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S289629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982560PMC
March 2021

Prostatic urethral cyst: a rare cause of acute urinary retention in a young male.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 22;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Urology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-241385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986877PMC
March 2021

Droplet evaporation residue indicating SARS-COV-2 survivability on surfaces.

Phys Fluids (1994) 2021 Jan 15;33(1):013309. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

We conducted a systematic investigation of droplet evaporation on different surfaces. We found that droplets formed even with distilled water do not disappear with evaporation but instead shrink to a residue of a few micrometers lasting over 24 h. The residue formation process differs across surfaces and humidity levels. Specifically, under 40% relative humidity, 80% of droplets form residues on plastic and uncoated and coated glass, while less than 20% form on stainless steel and none on copper. The formation of residues and their variability are explained by modeling the evaporation process considering the presence of nonvolatile solutes on substrates and substrate thermal conductivity. Such variability is consistent with the survivability of SARS-CoV-2 measured on these surfaces. We hypothesize that these long-lasting microscale residues can potentially insulate the virus against environmental changes, allowing them to survive and remain infectious for extended durations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0038562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976051PMC
January 2021

Large spontaneous steinstrasse: Our experience and management issues in tertiary care centre.

Urologia 2021 Mar 14:3915603211001174. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Urology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Steinstrasse, is described as array of stone pieces in the ureter following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). It is well-recognized, transient event. Steinstrasse clears spontaneously, however about 6% require intervention. Spontaneous steinstrasse without prior history of SWL is a rare occurrence and only few case reports are published in literature. Objective of the study was to assess the aetiology and management issues of large spontaneous steinstrasse in our centre.

Method: From February 2017 to March 2019, 684 patients underwent SWL for renal or ureteric stones. Twenty-eight patients presented with steinstrasse of which nine patients had no prior history of SWL. Detailed clinical profile and management issues have been discussed.

Result: Among the nine patients of spontaneous steinstrasse, there were six males and three females. Mean age of the patients was 39 years (±13 years SD). Bilateral large spontaneous steinstrasse was seen in one out of nine patients. Seven patients had associated renal stones. Five patients presented with obstructive uropathy and three out of them had urosepsis as initial presentation. Ureterolithotomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy were commonly performed procedures for stone clearance. Metabolic work was done in all cases in follow up period. Three patients had hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia suggestive of renal tubular acidosis.

Conclusion: Large spontaneous steinstrasse is uncommon case scenario. It can be subtle in presentation and yet have significant patient consequence in terms of renal function and infection. Prompt management is essential to preclude permanent loss of renal function. Metabolic evaluation is indispensable in such cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03915603211001174DOI Listing
March 2021

Synthesis of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid-enriched-chitosan for anti-inflammatory and metal ion uptake.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 9;179:500-506. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, South Korea; Department of Organic and Nano System Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, South Korea. Electronic address:

The main aim of the present study is to synthesize a hitherto unreported polymer of chitosan (CS) and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) derived from renewable biomass resources. For this purpose, CS was chosen which had -NH groups as abundant active sites. Synthesis of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid-enriched-chitosan polymer (CS-FDCA) was carried out by reaction involving EDC-NHS coupling reagents. The structure of CS-FDCA polymer was confirmed by various characterization techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), high resolution-field emission scanning electron microscope (HR-FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, CS and CS-FDCA were scrutinized to examine their efficacies towards ameliorate inflammation via detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production. As compared to CS, CS-FDCA with low concentration (1.0 μM) exhibited the better efficacy to reduce the NO production. Furthermore, CS-FDCA polymer showed high as 12.6% of Cu ion uptake while CS showed 9.2% of Cu ion uptake. Overall, it can be inferred that CS-FDCA polymer is expected to be used for biomedical application and for the removal of metal contaminants from industrial wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.036DOI Listing
May 2021

Norcantharidin combined with 2-deoxy-d-glucose suppresses the hepatocellular carcinoma cells proliferation and migration.

3 Biotech 2021 Mar 25;11(3):142. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, No.193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, 230009 Anhui China.

Present study aims to investigate the combined effect of anticancer drug, norcantharidin (NCTD) in combination with glycolytic inhibitor, i.e. 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) in liver cancer (HepG2 and Hepa 1-6) cells. Cell viability of NCTD and 2-DG exposed cells was determined by MTT assay, whereas, colony-forming efficiency and migration rate was determined by clonogenic assay and wound healing assay, respectively. Nuclear DAPI staining and Annexin V FITC-PI staining were used to study the apoptosis induction in cells. Fluorescence microscopy imaging was performed to detect the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential by staining with DCFDA and JC-1 dye, respectively. Cell viability assay revealed that NCTD and 2-DG exposure in combination displays more cytotoxic effect than a single drug. Additionally, cells lose their colony formation efficiency, as well as the reduced migration rate ability was also observed upon combined exposure. Increased nuclear condensation and mitochondrial membrane depolarization are considered as key features for apoptosis induction in cancerous cells. Furthermore, oxidative stress produced in cells due to enhanced intracellular ROS generation is also major probability for cellular damage. Thus, from the initial data it can be concluded that further preclinical studies will be needed to prove the efficacy of NCTD and 2-DG in hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02688-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907403PMC
March 2021

Optimization, fabrication, and performance analysis of SMF-/MMF-based microfiber ball structure.

Appl Opt 2021 Feb;60(5):1196-1200

In this paper, four kinds of microfiber ball structure of different sizes, such as 330, 340, 350, and 360 µm were fabricated by single-mode fiber and multimode fiber, respectively. To test its performance, the reflected intensity was measured, and the results showed that the microfiber ball with the largest diameter of 360 µm had the maximum reflected intensity. The 360 µm microfiber ball was characterized by scanning electron microscope. This indicates that compared with a small-diameter microfiber ball, large-diameter microspheres are more suitable to be used as follow-up experimental objects, with the diameter of the fiber ball ranging from 330 to 360 µm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.417358DOI Listing
February 2021

Fabrication techniques and stability analysis of SMF-/MMF-based differently tapered optical fiber structures.

Appl Opt 2021 Mar;60(7):2077-2082

In this work, fabrication techniques and optimization of single-mode fiber (SMF)- and multi-mode fiber (MMF)-based differently tapered optical fiber (TOF) structures are discussed. Further, taper characteristics such as diameter, transmitted intensity, and repeatability are analyzed. The results show that 25 µm TOF consists of lower transmitted intensity, meaning higher evanescent waves materialize at the tapered surface, which helps in suitable potential application of TOF as an optical fiber sensor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.418875DOI Listing
March 2021

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: a rare presentation of disbelieved renal cell cancer recurrence after nephron-sparing surgery.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2021 Apr 8;103(4):e120-e123. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare, painful inflammatory subtype of chronic renal infection, which can lead to severe parenchymal destruction. It imitates virtually every other renal inflammatory disease. We report a 51-year-old male presenting with left flank pain, on evaluation found to have a renal mass with a history of nephron-sparing surgery in the same kidney performed 6 months previously. Radical nephrectomy was carried out and histopathology was suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis rather than renal cell cancer recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1308/rcsann.2020.7049DOI Listing
April 2021

The Validity of MotionSense HRV in Estimating Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity under Free-Living and Simulated Activity Settings.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 18;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Health and Kinesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.

MotionSense HRV is a wrist-worn accelerometery-based sensor that is paired with a smartphone and is thus capable of measuring the intensity, duration, and frequency of physical activity (PA). However, little information is available on the validity of the MotionSense HRV. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the MotionSense HRV in estimating sedentary behavior (SED) and PA. A total of 20 healthy adults (age: 32.5 ± 15.1 years) wore the MotionSense HRV and ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer (GT9X) on their non-dominant wrist for seven consecutive days during free-living conditions. Raw acceleration data from the devices were summarized into average time (min/day) spent in SED and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Additionally, using the Cosemed K5 indirect calorimetry system (K5) as a criterion measure, the validity of the MotionSense HRV was examined in simulated free-living conditions. Pearson correlations, mean absolute percent errors (MAPE), Bland-Altman (BA) plots, and equivalence tests were used to examine the validity of the MotionSense HRV against criterion measures. The correlations between the MotionSense HRV and GT9X were high and the MAPE were low for both the SED (r = 0.99, MAPE = 2.4%) and MVPA (r = 0.97, MAPE = 9.1%) estimates under free-living conditions. BA plots illustrated that there was no systematic bias between the MotionSense HRV and criterion measures. The estimates of SED and MVPA from the MotionSense HRV were significantly equivalent to those from the GT9X; the equivalence zones were set at 16.5% for SED and 29% for MVPA. The estimates of SED and PA from the MotionSense HRV were less comparable when compared with those from the K5. The MotionSense HRV yielded comparable estimates for SED and PA when compared with the GT9X accelerometer under free-living conditions. We confirmed the promising application of the MotionSense HRV for monitoring PA patterns for practical and research purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922785PMC
February 2021

Effect of Variation of SiC Reinforcement on Wear Behaviour of AZ91 Alloy Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 19;14(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Technology and Automation, Częstochowa University of Technology, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland.

In this investigation, the extensive wear behaviour of materials was studied using SiC reinforced magnesium alloy composites fabricated through the stir casting process. The wear properties of AZ91 alloy composites with a small variation (i.e., 3%, 6%, 9% and 12%) of SiC particulates were evaluated by varying the normal load with sliding velocity and sliding distance. The worn surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscope to predict the different wear mechanisms on the pin while sliding on the hard disk in the dry sliding wear test condition. The microhardness of the SiC reinforced AZ91 composites was found to be more than the un-reinforced AZ91 alloy. Pins tested at load 19.62 N, and 2.6 m/s exhibited a series of short cracks nearly perpendicular to the sliding direction. At higher speed and load, the oxidation and delamination were observed to be fully converted into adhesion wear. Abrasion, oxidation, and delamination wear mechanisms were generally dominant in lower sliding velocity and lower load region, while adhesion and thermal softening/melting were dominant in higher sliding velocity and loads. The wear rate and coefficient of friction of the SiC reinforced composites were lower than that of the unreinforced alloy. This is due to the fact of higher hardness exhibited by the composites. The wear behaviour at the velocity of 1.39 m/s was dominated by oxidation and delamination wear, whereas at the velocity of 2.6 m/s the wear behaviour was dominated by abrasion and adhesion wear. It was also found that the plastic deformation and smearing occurred at higher load and sliding velocity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14040990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923286PMC
February 2021

SARS-CoV-2: Insights into its structural intricacies and functional aspects for drug and vaccine development.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 1;179:45-60. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

Globally, SARS-CoV-2 has emerged as threat to life and economy. Researchers are trying to find a cure against this pathogen but without much success. Several attempts have been made to understand the atomic level details of SARS-CoV-2 in the past few months. However, one review with all structural details for drug and vaccine development has been missing. Hence, this review aims to summarize key functional roles played by various domains of SARS-CoV-2 genome during its entry into the host, replication, repression of host immune response and overall viral life cycle. Additionally, various proteins of SARS-CoV-2 for finding a potent inhibitor have also been highlighted. To mitigate this deadly virus, an understanding of atomic level information, pathogenicity mechanisms and functions of different proteins in causing the infection is imperative. Thus, these structural details would finally pave the way for development of a potential drug/vaccine against the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919520PMC
May 2021