Publications by authors named "Samuel Jk Abraham"

12 Publications

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A 3D Polymer Scaffold Platform for Enhanced Culture of Human & Rabbit Buccal Epithelial Cells for Cell Therapies.

Tokai J Exp Clin Med 2021 Apr 20;46(1):1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

II Department of Surgery & Center for Advancing Clinical Research (CACR), University of Yamanashi, Faculty of Medicine, 1110, Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.

Background: Buccal mucosal epithelial cells show promising application for various regenerative medicine approaches. In this study, we examined the feasibility of culturing rabbit and human buccal mucosal epithelial cells in a novel thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) scaffold, without feeder layers or other foreign proteins.

Methods & Results: The results of this 28-day culture, u sing the conventional technique (2D) and TGP (3D) showed that the epithelial cell morphology could be maintained only in the TGP group while cells in the 2D group de-differentiated to fibroblast morphology in both human and rabbit samples. CK3 expression, a marker for epithelial differentiation was higher in 3D-TGP cultured cells than 2D.

Conclusion: TGP based cell culture is a prospective methodology to culture buccal mucosal epithelial cells efficiently without using foreign biological components for tissue engineering applications.
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April 2021

β-glucans: wide-spectrum immune-balancing food-supplement-based enteric (β-WIFE) vaccine adjuvant approach to COVID-19.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Mar 2:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

The Fujio-Eiji Academic Terrain (FEAT), Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM), Chennai, India.

Conventional vaccines to combat COVID-19 through different approaches are at various stages of development. The complexity of COVID-19 such as the potential mutations of the virus leading to antigenic drift and the uncertainty on the duration of the immunity induced by the vaccine have hampered the efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, we suggest an alternative interim treatment strategy based on biological response modifier glucans such as the AFO-202-derived β-glucan, which has been reported to induce trained immunity, akin to that induced by the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine, by epigenetic modifications at the central level in the bone marrow. These β-glucans act as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, activating mucosal immunity by binding with specific pathogen recognition receptors such as dectin-1 and inducing both the adaptive and innate immunity by reaching distant lymphoid organs. β-Glucans have also been used as immune adjuvants for vaccines such as the influenza vaccine. Therefore, until a conventional vaccine is widely available, an orally consumable vaccine adjuvant that acts like biosimilars, termed as the wide-spectrum immune-balancing food-supplement-based enteric (β-WIFE) vaccine adjuvant approach, with well-reported safety is worth in-depth investigation and can be considered for a clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1880210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938654PMC
March 2021

A three-dimensional in vitro culture environment of a novel polymer scaffold, yielding chondroprogenitors and mesenchymal stem cells in human chondrocytes derived from osteoarthritis-affected cartilage tissue.

J Orthop 2021 Jan-Feb;23:138-141. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Centre for Advancing Clinical Research (CACR), University of Yamanashi -Faculty of Medicine, 1110, Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi, 409-3898, Japan.

Objective: We evaluated the expression of stem/progenitor biomarkers in osteoarthritic tissue derived chondrocytes cultured using a three-dimensional (3D) thermo-reversible gelation polymer (TGP).

Methods: The chondrocytes from discarded biopsy tissues obtained from human elderly patients with osteoarthritis were cultured using the 3D-TGP up to six weeks.

Results: The chondrocytes grew in a tissue-like manner, without de-differentiation into fibroblasts, and the cells thus tissue-engineered were proven positive for CD49e, OCT4, CD-105 and STRO-1 by immunohistochemistry.

Conclusion: This study establishes the efficacy of this 3D-TGP platform for clinically useable tissue-engineered cartilage for improvising the clinical outcome of cell therapy for cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2021.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7815488PMC
January 2021

Potential of combination of bone marrow nucleated and mesenchymal stem cells in complete spinal cord injury.

Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2020 Oct 29. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Edogawa Evolutionary Laboratory of Science (EELS), Edogawa Hospital, 2-24-18 Higashikoiwa, Edogawa, 133-0052, Tokyo. Japan.

Background: Cell-based therapies represent one of the definitive treatment approaches to SCI which to become a routine clinical application is marred by several known unknowns. The bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent the most clinically applied cell types for SCI in humans, with safety established and to an extent, efficacy reported.

Methods: In this review we have analysed the clinical studies done using BMMNC and MSC for complete SCI separately and the potential for applying those cells in combination. We have also analysed those factors whose outcome in animal studies of SCI could be evaluated in depth but the clinical outcome cannot be evaluated intrinsically owing to practical difficulties.

Conclusion: A combination of these two cell types, BMMNC and MSC has been proven to be advantageous than applying them separately. Therefore, a thorough evaluation including rationale and potential implications of applying these two therapies has been presented here and we hypothesize that such a combination is likely to improvise the outcome of a wholesome approach to spinal cord regeneration after SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574888X15666201029160542DOI Listing
October 2020

Cross-Protection Induced by Encephalitis Vaccines against COVID-19 Might be a Reason for Relatively Lower Mortality Rate in Some Countries.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2020 21;8(1):e54. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Yamanashi University-Faculty of Medicine, 1110, Shimokato, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan.

COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an on-going pandemic attributed to a novel virus named SARS-CoV-2. Comparing the statistics of incidence and death rates between nations reveals that there is discrepancy amongst countries in these regards, even between countries that share borders. We herein present information from the literature indicating how cross-protection against COVID-19 conferred by the encephalitis vaccine could be the reason for lower fatality rate in the countries where immunization against encephalitis is widespread or included in national programs. This may pave the way for arriving at efficient prevention strategies as well as vaccine development.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212070PMC
April 2020

Articular chondrocytes from osteoarthritic knee joints of elderly, expanded in thermo-reversible gelation polymer (TGP), exhibiting higher UEA-1 expression in lectin microarray.

Regen Ther 2020 Jun 15;14:234-237. Epub 2020 May 15.

The Mary-Yoshio Translational Hexagon (MYTH), Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM), PB 1262, Chennai 600034, Tamil Nadu, India.

Autologous chondrocytes expanded, are used as tools of regenerative therapies for cartilage injuries. However, inability to maintain the hyaline phenotype both and post transplantation, remains one of the major hurdles for long term efficacy under clinical settings. We have reported earlier, hyaline phenotype maintenance of both human and rabbit chondrocytes for a long duration both when cultured conditions using a Thermo-reversible Gelation Polymer (TGP) scaffold-based methodology and post-transplantation animal model of cartilage damage. Having intrigued by such encouraging outcome, we in this study, analysed the similar TGP culture environment whether would be able to allow expansion of severe osteoarthritis affected cartilage tissue from elderly patients and evaluated the cells using lectin microarray characterization for pluripotency. Cartilage tissue were obtained from patients (n = 7; age: 60-85 years) undergoing total knee arthroplasty for severe osteoarthritis. Chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in two groups: i. conventional culture without scaffold (2D) and ii. using a TGP scaffold-based culture (3D) up to 18 weeks. In addition to earlier reported findings such as maintenance of hyaline phenotype having been confirmed in this study as well, surface glycoprotein analysis by lectin microarray demonstrated that the α1-2 Fuc recognition lectin (UEA-1) (marker reported in literature for pluripotent stem cells) was found to be more highly expressed in 3D culture compared to 2D culture and even increased over time in 3D culture. We have developed an environment where osteoarthritis affected chondrocytes from the elderly could be cultured up to 18 weeks using TGP scaffold which express pluripotent cell associated surface glycoproteins compared to the conventional methodology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reth.2020.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229400PMC
June 2020

Buccal epithelium Expanded and Encapsulated in Scaffold-Hybrid Approach to Urethral Stricture (BEES-HAUS) procedure: A novel cell therapy-based pilot study.

Int J Urol 2019 02 22;26(2):253-257. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

The Mary-Yoshio Translational Hexagon, Nichi-In Center for Regenerative Medicine, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objectives: To describe the feasibility of a novel cell-based endoscopic technique using buccal epithelium, expanded and encapsulated in a thermoreversible gelation polymer scaffold for the treatment of urethral stricture.

Methods: Six male patients with bulbar urethral stricture ranging from 2.0 to 3.5 cm in length were included in this pilot study. Autologous buccal epithelial cells from a small buccal mucosal biopsy were isolated, cultured and encapsulated in thermoreversible gelation polymer scaffold, and were implanted at the stricture site after a wide endoscopic urethrotomy.

Results: All the patients voided well, with a mean peak flow rate of 24 mL/s. Urethroscopy carried out at 6 months showed healthy mucosa at the urethrotomy site. However, two of the six patients had recurrence at 18 and 24 months, respectively.

Conclusions: This endoscopic-based Buccal epithelium Expanded and Encapsulated in Scaffold-Hybrid Approach to Urethral Stricture (BEES-HAUS) technique is a promising alternative for the open substitution buccal graft urethroplasty. It is possible to achieve the benefits of open substitution buccal urethroplasty with this endoscopic technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iju.13852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379713PMC
February 2019

Human corneal endothelial cell transplantation using nanocomposite gel sheet in bullous keratopathy.

Am J Stem Cells 2018 1;7(1):18-24. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

The Mary-Yoshio Translational Hexagon (MYTH), Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM)Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Transplantation of expanded human corneal endothelial precursors (HCEP) cells using a nanocomposite (D25-NC) gel sheet as supporting material in bovine's cornea has been earlier reported. Herein we report the transplantation of HCEP cells derived from a cadaver donor cornea to three patients using the NC gel sheet. In three patients with bullous keratopathy, one after cataract surgery, one after trauma and another in the corneal graft, earlier performed for congenital corneal dystrophy, not amenable to medical management HCEP cells isolated from a human cadaver donor cornea expanded using a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) for 26 days were divided into three equal portions and 1.6 × 10 HCEP cells were injected on to the endothelium of the affected eye in each patient using the D25-NC gel sheet as a supporting material. The sheets were removed after three days. The bullae in the cornea disappeared by the 3-11 post-operative day in all the three patients. Visual acuity improved from Perception of light (PL)+/Projection of rays (PR)+ to Hand movements (HM)+ in one of the patients by post-operative day 3 which was maintained at 18 months follow-up. At 18 months follow-up, in another patient the visual acuity had improved from HM+ to 6/60 while in the third patient, visual acuity remained HM+ as it was prior to HCEP transplantation. There were no adverse effects during the follow-up in any of the patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5840311PMC
February 2018

An invention of thermo-responsive polymer surface, yielding cell sheet based regenerative therapies in cardiology and ophthalmology.

J Stem Cells Regen Med 2015 31;11(2):51-3. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

The Mary-Yoshio Translational Hexagon (MYTH), Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM), Chennai, India; Yamanashi University- School of Medicine, Chuo, Japan.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728217PMC
June 2016

Combining autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells with fibroblast growth factor therapy along with stringent infection control leading to successful limb salvage in diabetic patient with chronic renal failure and severe toe gangrene.

Int J Stem Cells 2014 Nov;7(2):158-61

The Mary-Yoshio Translational Hexagon (MYTH), Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM), Chennai, India ; Yamanashi University- School of Medicine, Chuo, Japan.

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and often culminates in amputation of the affected foot. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections associated with PAD are difficult to treat due to their multi-drug resistance. Herein we report a 38 year old male who reported with DM, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and rest pain of the right second toe in October 2011. He underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) which was unsuccessful. The gangrene of the toes worsened and amputation of the right second toe was done. Bacteriological examination showed presence of P. aeruginosa which during the course of antibiotic therapy became multi-drug resistant. Gangrene and abscess of the foot worsened and amputation of the right third toe was performed. Then autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) therapy was performed but as infection control could not still be achieved, the fourth toe was amputated. A protocol of foot bath using carbonic water, local usage of antibiotics (Polymyxin-B), and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) spray was then employed after which the infection could be controlled and improvement in vascularity of the right foot could be observed in angiography. This combined approach after proper validation could be considered for similar cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15283/ijsc.2014.7.2.158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4249899PMC
November 2014

In vitro culture and characterization of enteric neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens using polymer scaffold.

Intractable Rare Dis Res 2013 Aug;2(3):98-102

The Mary-Yoshio Translational Hexagon (MYTH), Nichi-In Centre for Regenerative Medicine (NCRM), Nungambakkam, Chennai, India; ; Yamanashi University- School of Medicine, Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan;

In vitro expansion and characterization of neural precursor cells from human gut biopsy specimens with or without Hirschsprung's disease using a novel thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) is reported aiming at a possible future treatment. Gut biopsy samples were obtained from five patients undergoing gut resection for Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1) or gastrointestinal disorders (n = 4). Cells isolated from the smooth muscle layer and the myenteric plexus were cultured in two groups for 18 to 28 days; Group I: conventional culture as earlier reported and Group II: using TGP scaffold. Neurosphere like bodies (NLBs) were observed in the cultures between 8th to 12th day and H & E staining was positive for neural cells in both groups including aganglionic gut portion from the Hirschsprung's disease patient. Immunohistochemistry using S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) was positive in both groups but the TGP group (Group II) showed more number of cells with intense cytoplasmic granular positivity for both NSE and S-100 compared to Group I. TGP supports the in vitro expansion of human gut derived neuronal cells with seemingly better quality NLBs. Animal Studies can be tried to validate their functional outcome by transplanting the NLBs with TGP scaffolds to see whether this can enhance the outcome of cell based therapies for Hirschsprung's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2013.v2.3.98DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4204546PMC
August 2013