Publications by authors named "Sacha Kacki"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Complex mortuary dynamics in the Upper Paleolithic of the decorated Grotte de Cussac, France.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 06 15;117(26):14851-14856. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

De la Préhistoire à l'Actuel : Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie (PACEA), UMR 5199, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 33615 Pessac, France;

The Mid-Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) karstic Grotte de Cussac (France) contains two areas of human remains in the context of abundant (and spectacular) parietal engravings. The first area (loci 1 and 2) includes the skeleton of a young adult male in a bear nest, rearranged by postdecomposition inundation, and the variably fragmentary remains of at least two individuals distributed across two bear nests, sorted anatomically and with most of the elements constrained to one side of one nest. The second area (locus 3) retains remains of two adults and an adolescent, in upper hollows and variably distributed down the slope, largely segregated into upper versus lower body groups. The only decoration associated with the human remains is red pigment on some of the bones or underlying sediment. The human remains indicate variable nonnatural deposition and manipulation of human bodies, body portions, and skeletal elements of at least six individuals. Moreover, Cussac is unusual in the association of these remains with exceptional parietal art. The complex Cussac mortuary pattern joins growing evidence from other Gravettian sites of variable treatment of individuals after death, within and across sites, in terms of formal deposition of the body versus postmortem manipulation versus surface abandonment. It provides a window onto the social diversity and the complex interactions of the living and the dead among these successful Late Pleistocene foragers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005242117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334446PMC
June 2020

Multiple occurrence of premature polyarticular osteoarthritis in an early medieval Bohemian cemetery (Prague, Czech Republic).

Int J Paleopathol 2020 09 14;30:35-46. Epub 2020 May 14.

CNRS, UMR 5199 PACEA, Université de Bordeaux, Bât. B8, Allée Geoffroy St Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France; Department of Archaeology, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: To highlight conditions that may cause early-onset degenerative joint disease, and to assess the possible impact of such diseases upon everyday life.

Material: Four adults aged under 50 years from a medieval skeletal collection of Prague (Czechia).

Methods: Visual, osteometric, X-ray, and histological examinations, stable isotope analysis of bone collagen.

Results: All four individuals showed multiple symmetrical degenerative changes, affecting the majority of joints of the postcranial skeleton. Associated dysplastic deformities were observed in all individuals, including bilateral hip dysplasia (n = 1), flattening of the femoral condyles (n = 3), and substantial deformation of the elbows (n = 3). The diet of the affected individuals differed from the contemporary population sample.

Conclusions: We propose the diagnosis of a mild form of skeletal dysplasia in these four individuals, with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia or type-II collagenopathy linked to premature osteoarthritis as the most probable causes.

Significance: Combining the skeletal findings with information from the medical literature, this paper defines several characteristic traits which may assist with the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia in the archaeological record.

Limitations: As no genetic analysis was performed to confirm the possible kinship of the individuals, it is not possible to definitively assess whether the individuals suffered from the same hereditary condition or from different forms of skeletal dysplasia.

Suggestions For Further Research: Further studies on premature osteoarthritis in archaeological skeletal series are needed to correct the underrepresentation of these mild forms of dysplasia in past populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2020.04.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Phylogeography of the second plague pandemic revealed through analysis of historical Yersinia pestis genomes.

Nat Commun 2019 10 2;10(1):4470. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745, Jena, Germany.

The second plague pandemic, caused by Yersinia pestis, devastated Europe and the nearby regions between the 14 and 18 centuries AD. Here we analyse human remains from ten European archaeological sites spanning this period and reconstruct 34 ancient Y. pestis genomes. Our data support an initial entry of the bacterium through eastern Europe, the absence of genetic diversity during the Black Death, and low within-outbreak diversity thereafter. Analysis of post-Black Death genomes shows the diversification of a Y. pestis lineage into multiple genetically distinct clades that may have given rise to more than one disease reservoir in, or close to, Europe. In addition, we show the loss of a genomic region that includes virulence-related genes in strains associated with late stages of the pandemic. The deletion was also identified in genomes connected with the first plague pandemic (541-750 AD), suggesting a comparable evolutionary trajectory of Y. pestis during both events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12154-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6775055PMC
October 2019

Integrative approach using genomes to revisit the historical landscape of plague during the Medieval Period.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 12 26;115(50):E11790-E11797. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway;

Over the last few years, genomic studies on , the causative agent of all known plague epidemics, have considerably increased in numbers, spanning a period of about 5,000 y. Nonetheless, questions concerning historical reservoirs and routes of transmission remain open. Here, we present and describe five genomes from the second half of the 14th century and reconstruct the evolutionary history of by reanalyzing previously published genomes and by building a comprehensive phylogeny focused on strains attributed to the Second Plague Pandemic (14th to 18th century). Corroborated by historical and ecological evidence, the presented phylogeny, which includes our genomes, could support the hypothesis of an entry of plague into Western European ports through distinct waves of introduction during the Medieval Period, possibly by means of fur trade routes, as well as the recirculation of plague within the human population via trade routes and human movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1812865115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294933PMC
December 2018

Rich table but short life: Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) and its possible consequences.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(4):e0195920. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

PACEA-UMR 5199, University of Bordeaux, Pessac, France.

The exhumation of Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was performed in 2010 to verify speculative views on the cause of his death. Previous analyses of skeletal and hair remains recovered from his grave refuted the presumption that he died from poisoning. These studies also outlined the possibility that he actually died from an acute illness, echoing the rather vague and inaccurate testimony of some historical records. We performed a detailed paleopathological analysis of Tycho Brahe's skeletal remains, along with a reconstruction of his diet based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis and an estimate of his physical status (relative body fat) based on medullar and cortical dimensions of the femoral shaft. The astronomer's remains exhibit bone changes indicative of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). The study further allows us to classify him as obese (100% reliability according to our decision tree designed from Danish males), and points out his rich diet (high input of animal protein and/or marine resources) and high social status. Comorbidities of DISH and obesity are reviewed, and their influence on health status is discussed. We further consider some conditions associated with metabolic syndrome as possible causes of Tycho Brahe's final symptoms (urinary retention, renal failure and coma), including diabetes, alcoholic ketoacidosis and benign prostatic hypertrophy. Although a definite and specific diagnosis cannot be established, our study points to today's civilization diseases often associated with DISH and metabolic syndrome as the possible cause of death of Tycho Brahe.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195920PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5909615PMC
July 2018

Demographic Patterns Distinctive of Epidemic Cemeteries in Archaeological Samples.

Microbiol Spectr 2016 08;4(4)

UMR 5199 du CNRS, PACEA, Anthropologie des Populations Passées et Présentes, Pessac, France.

The analysis of biological parameters such as age and sex is particularly relevant to the interpretation of ancient skeletal assemblages related to abrupt mortality crises, and more particularly epidemics. In such a context, the mechanisms of selection within a population or part of a population differ according to the pathogen involved. They may also vary depending on the period and location in which the population lived. Here, we illustrate the specificity of plague mortality through the study of several European burial sites contemporary with the first and second plague pandemics. The paleodemographic patterns obtained for different plague outbreaks from the 6th to the 16th centuries reveal some constant features over time and space as well as some differences that suggest a possible evolution in the epidemiological characteristics of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0015-2015DOI Listing
August 2016

Normal growth, altered growth? Study of the relationship between harris lines and bone form within a post-medieval plague cemetery (Dendermonde, Belgium, 16th Century).

Am J Hum Biol 2017 Jan 24;29(1). Epub 2016 Jun 24.

UMR 5199 PACEA "Anthropologie des populations passées et présentes, ", CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Building B8, Allée Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615, Pessac Cedex, France.

Objectives: Harris lines (HLs) are defined as transverse, mineralized lines associated with temporary growth arrest. In paleopathology, HLs are used to reconstruct health status of past populations. However, their etiology is still obscure. The aim of this article is to test the reliability of HLs as an arrested growth marker by investigating their incidence on human metrical parameters.

Methods: The study was performed on 69 individuals (28 adults, 41 subadults) from the Dendermonde plague cemetery (Belgium, 16th century). HLs were rated on distal femora and both ends of tibiae. Overall prevalence and age-at-formation of each detected lines were calculated. ANOVA analyses were conducted within subadult and adult samples to test if the presence of HLs did impact size and shape parameters of the individuals.

Results: At Dendermonde, 52% of the individuals had at least one HL. The age-at-formation was estimated between 5 and 9 years old for the subadults and between 10 and 14 years old for the adults. ANOVA analyses showed that the presence of HLs did not affect the size of the individuals. However, significant differences in shape parameters were highlighted by HL presence. Subadults with HLs displayed slighter shape parameters than the subadults without, whereas the adults with HLs had larger measurements than the adults without.

Conclusions: The results suggest that HLs can have a certain impact on shape parameters. The underlying causes can be various, especially for the early formed HLs. However, HLs deposited around puberty are more likely to be physiological lines reflecting hormonal secretions. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 29:e22885, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22885DOI Listing
January 2017

Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

Cell Host Microbe 2016 Jun;19(6):874-81

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07743, Germany; Department of Archeological Sciences, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen 72070, Germany. Electronic address:

Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2016.05.012DOI Listing
June 2016

Palaeopathological diagnosis of spondyloarthropathies: Insights from the biomedical literature.

Int J Paleopathol 2014 Dec 31;7:70-75. Epub 2014 Aug 31.

PACEA, UMR 5199, Anthropologie des Populations Passées et Présentes, Université de Bordeaux, Bâtiment B8, Allée Geoffroy St Hilaire, CS 50023, 33615 Pessac Cedex, France.

In palaeopathology, the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathies traditionally relies on the association of three types of skeletal lesions: erosive and proliferative modifications of the sacroiliac joint, formation of vertebral syndesmophytes and erosive and proliferative changes in peripheral joints. These conditions can therefore be recognised only in well-preserved skeletons that exhibit the most typical pattern of lesions. In order to develop additional criteria for the diagnosis of spondyloarthropathies, a literature survey was conducted as a preliminary step by comparing biomedical data with the palaeopathological literature. We point out musculoskeletal changes and localisations rarely, if ever, used for identification of spondyloarthropathies in skeletal material. Whereas a specific focus has been put on entheseal changes encountered in spondyloarthropathies, the results highlight skeletal changes that may contribute to the diagnosis of the spondyloarthropathies from osseous remains such as erosive lesions of the temporomandibular joint and erosive changes of entheses in the pectoral girdle. Recording of these lesions in future studies of archaeological samples would contribute to discussions of their diagnostic relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2014.07.002DOI Listing
December 2014

Probable hepatic capillariosis and hydatidosis in an adolescent from the late Roman period buried in Amiens (France).

Parasite 2014 28;21. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Department of Parasitology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 69 Pasteur Avenue, Tehran 13169-43551, Iran.

Two calcified objects recovered from a 3rd to 4th-century grave of an adolescent in Amiens (Northern France) were identified as probable hydatid cysts. By using thin-section petrographic techniques, probable Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) eggs were identified in the wall of the cysts. Human hepatic capillariosis has not been reported from archaeological material so far, but could be expected given the poor level of environmental hygiene prevalent in this period. Identification of tissue-dwelling parasites such as C. hepaticum in archaeological remains is particularly dependent on preservation conditions and taphonomic changes and should be interpreted with caution due to morphological similarities with Trichuris sp. eggs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2014010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3936287PMC
January 2015

Erosive polyarthropathy in a Late Roman skeleton from northern France: A new case of rheumatoid arthritis from the pre-Columbian Old Word?

Authors:
Sacha Kacki

Int J Paleopathol 2013 Mar 26;3(1):59-63. Epub 2013 Jan 26.

Inrap, ZI de la Pilaterie, 11 rue des Champs, 59650 Villeneuve-d'Ascq, France; PACEA, UMR 5199, Anthropologie des Populations Passées et Présentes, Bâtiment B8, Avenue des Facultés, 33405 Talence Cedex, France. Electronic address:

A skeleton from the Late Roman period, recovered in Amiens, northern France, exhibits multiple symmetrical marginal erosions, primarily involving the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. Other skeletal changes include erosions of several peripheral joints and some entheses, and severe osteoporosis. Macroscopic and radiological aspects of the lesions, as well as the absence of spinal and sacroiliac joints involvement, are consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Differential diagnosis includes other erosive arthropathies, in particular the diseases belonging to the spondyloarthropathy group. This case provides a new evidence of the presence of rheumatoid arthritis in Western Europe long before the colonisation of the Americas by Europeans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpp.2012.12.001DOI Listing
March 2013

Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.

PLoS Pathog 2010 Oct 7;6(10):e1001134. Epub 2010 Oct 7.

Institute for Anthropology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th) century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951374PMC
October 2010