Publications by authors named "S Arai"

1,654 Publications

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Novel variant fibrinogen γp.C352R produced hypodysfibrinogenemia leading to a bleeding episode and failure of infertility treatment.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Investigation, Graduate School of Medicine, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, 390-8621, Japan.

Introduction: We identified a patient with a novel heterozygous variant fibrinogen, γp.C352R (Niigata II; N-II), who had a bleeding episode and failed infertility treatment and was suspected to have hypodysfibrinogenemia based on low and discordant fibrinogen levels (functional assay 0.33 g/L, immunological assay 0.91 g/L). We analyzed the mechanism of this rare phenotype of a congenital fibrinogen disorder.

Materials And Methods: Patient plasma fibrinogen was purified and protein characterization and thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization performed. Recombinant fibrinogen-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were established and the assembly and secretion of variant fibrinogen analyzed by ELISA and western blotting.

Results: Purified N-II plasma fibrinogen had a small lower molecular weight band below the normal γ-chain and slightly reduced fibrin polymerization. A limited proportion of p.C352R fibrinogen was secreted into the culture medium of established CHO cell lines, but the γ-chain of p.C352R was synthesized and variant fibrinogen was assembled inside the cells.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that fibrinogen N-II, γp.C352R was associated with markedly reduced secretion of variant fibrinogen from CHO cells, that fibrin polymerization of purified plasma fibrinogen was only slightly affected, and that fibrinogen N-II produces hypodysfibrinogenemia in plasma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03174-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Exploring PI3Kδ Molecular Pathways in Stable COPD and Following an Acute Exacerbation, Two Randomized Controlled Trials.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 3;16:1621-1636. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Refractory Respiratory Inflammation Discovery Performance Unit, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage, UK.

Background: Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ (PI3Kδ) exerts corrective effects on the dysregulated migration characteristics of neutrophils isolated from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Objective: To develop novel, induced sputum endpoints to demonstrate changes in neutrophil phenotype in the lung by administering nemiralisib, a potent and selective inhaled PI3Kδ inhibitor, to patients with stable COPD or patients with acute exacerbation (AE) of COPD.

Methods: In two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials patients with A) stable COPD (N=28, randomized 3:1) or B) AECOPD (N=44, randomized 1:1) received treatment with inhaled nemiralisib (1mg). Endpoints included induced sputum at various time points before and during treatment for the measurement of transcriptomics (primary endpoint), inflammatory mediators, functional respiratory imaging (FRI), and spirometry.

Results: In stable COPD patients, the use of nemiralisib was associated with alterations in sputum neutrophil transcriptomics suggestive of an improvement in migration phenotype; however, the same nemiralisib-evoked effects were not observed in AECOPD. Inhibition of sputum inflammatory mediators was also observed in stable but not AECOPD patients. In contrast, a placebo-corrected improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec of 136 mL (95% Credible Intervals -46, 315mL) with a probability that the true treatment ratio was >0% (Pr(θ>0)) of 93% was observed in AECOPD. However, FRI endpoints remained unchanged.

Conclusion: We provide evidence for nemiralisib-evoked changes in neutrophil migration phenotype in stable COPD but not AECOPD, despite improving lung function in the latter group. We conclude that induced sputum can be used for measuring evidence of alteration of neutrophil phenotype in stable patients, and our study provides a data set of the sputum transcriptomic changes during recovery from AECOPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S309303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184158PMC
June 2021

Renal Involvement as Rare Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis in a Patient with Eosinophilic Disorder Treated with Early Add-on Administration of Mepolizumab.

Intern Med 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Japan.

A 39-year-old man presented with peripheral eosinophilia, pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrate, and renal failure due to acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN). He had experienced childhood asthma and was negative for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). He was tentatively diagnosed with ANCA-negative eosinophilic granulomatous polyangiitis (EGPA) or idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Renal involvement of isolated TIN with eosinophil infiltration is rare in EGPA and HES and does not seem to have a good prognosis in the literature. However, his condition improved well with corticosteroids and mepolizumab. The revised classification of EGPA based on the etiology should dictate the proper treatment in suspected EGPA patients with nonsystemic vasculitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.7490-21DOI Listing
June 2021

Phosphorylation of human phospholipase A1 DDHD1 at newly identified phosphosites affects its subcellular localization.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jun 2:100851. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Faculty of Pharma-Science, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan. Electronic address:

Phospholipase A1 (PLA1) hydrolyzes the fatty acids of glycerophospholipids, which are structural components of the cellular membrane. Genetic mutations in DDHD1, an intracellular PLA1, result in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) in humans. However, the regulation of DDHD1 activity has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we examined the phosphorylation of DDHD1 and identified the responsible protein kinases. We performed MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis and Phos-tag SDS-PAGE in alanine-substitution mutants in HEK293 cells and revealed multiple phosphorylation sites in human DDHD1, primarily Ser8, Ser11, Ser723, and Ser727. The treatment of cells with a protein phosphatase inhibitor induced the hyper-phosphorylation of DDHD1, suggesting that multi-site phosphorylation occurred not only at these major, but also at minor sites. Site-specific kinase-substrate prediction algorithms and in vitro kinase analyses indicated that cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1/cyclin A2 phosphorylated Ser8, Ser11, and Ser727 in DDHD1 with a preference for Ser11, and that CDK5/p35 also phosphorylated Ser11 and Ser727 with a preference for Ser11. In addition, casein kinase CK2α1 was found to phosphorylate Ser104, although this was not a major phosphorylation site in cultivated HEK293 cells. The evaluation of the effects of phosphorylation revealed that the phosphorylation mimic mutants S11/727E exhibit only 20% reduction in PLA1 activity. However, the phosphorylation mimics were mainly localized to focal adhesions, whereas the phosphorylation-resistant mutants S11/727A were not. This suggested that phosphorylation alters the subcellular localization of DDHD1 without greatly affecting its PLA1 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100851DOI Listing
June 2021

Broadened bioactivity and enhanced durability of two structurally distinct metal-organic frameworks containing Zn ions and thiabendazole.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jun;50(21):7176-7180

College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-8501, Japan.

Novel metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on thiabendazole (TBZ) were developed. The two structurally distinct TBZ-MOFs synthesized in this study exhibited enhanced durability and a broader biocidal spectrum than either individual bioactive species (i.e., Zn2+ and TBZ). The characteristics of each TBZ-MOF are related to the coordination modes among the Zn2+ ions and ligand donors. The difference in water solubility between the two TBZ-MOFs due to the structural design allows for the controlled release of the desired bioactive component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00733eDOI Listing
June 2021