SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubmedArticle] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => MEDLINE [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 29447759 [DateCompleted] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2019 [Month] => 09 [Day] => 09 ) [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2019 [Month] => 09 [Day] => 09 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Print-Electronic ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 1095-8606 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 114 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2018 [Month] => 01 ) ) [Title] => Journal of human evolution [ISOAbbreviation] => J Hum Evol ) [ArticleTitle] => Ecomorphological analysis of bovid mandibles from Laetoli Tanzania using 3D geometric morphometrics: Implications for hominin paleoenvironmental reconstruction. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 20-34 ) [ELocationID] => Array ( [0] => S0047-2484(17)30393-7 [1] => 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.09.010 ) [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category. The protocol was reduced to a subset of landmarks on the mandibular corpus in order to make it applicable to incomplete fossils. The reduced landmark set resulted in greater overlap between feeding categories but maintained the same continuum as the complete landmark model. The DFA resubstitution and jackknife analyses resulted in classification success rates of 85% and 80%, respectively. The reduced landmark model was applied to fossil mandibles from the Upper Laetolil Beds (∼4.3-3.5 Ma) and Upper Ndolanya Beds (∼2.7-2.6 Ma) at Laetoli, Tanzania in order to assess antelope diet, and indirectly evaluate paleo-vegetation structure. The majority of the fossils were classified by the DFA as browsers or mixed feeders preferring browse. Our results indicate a continuous presence of wooded habitats and are congruent with recent environmental studies at Laetoli indicating a mosaic woodland-bushland-grassland savanna ecosystem. [CopyrightInformation] => Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Forrest [ForeName] => Frances L [Initials] => FL [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Sackler Educational Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Human Origins, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: FForrest@amnh.org. ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Plummer [ForeName] => Thomas W [Initials] => TW [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA; Department of Anthropology, Queens College, City University of New York, Flushing, New York, USA; New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York, NY, USA. ) ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Raaum [ForeName] => Ryan L [Initials] => RL [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA; Department of Anthropology, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York, USA; New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York, NY, USA. ) ) ) ) [Language] => eng [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Array ( [0] => Journal Article [1] => Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't ) ) [ArticleDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [DateType] => Electronic ) [Year] => 2017 [Month] => 10 [Day] => 21 ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => England [MedlineTA] => J Hum Evol [NlmUniqueID] => 0337330 [ISSNLinking] => 0047-2484 ) [CitationSubset] => IM [MeshHeadingList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MeshHeading] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Animals ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Antelopes [QualifierName] => anatomy & histology ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Discriminant Analysis ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Environment ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Fossils [QualifierName] => anatomy & histology ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Hominidae ) [6] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Mandible [QualifierName] => anatomy & histology ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Paleontology [QualifierName] => methods ) [8] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Principal Component Analysis ) [9] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Tanzania ) ) ) [KeywordList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Owner] => NOTNLM ) [Keyword] => Array ( [0] => Australopithecus afarensis [1] => Chewing mechanics [2] => Dietary adaptations [3] => Functional morphology [4] => Paleoecology ) ) ) [PubmedData] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [History] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubMedPubDate] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => received ) [Year] => 2014 [Month] => 10 [Day] => 26 ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => revised ) [Year] => 2017 [Month] => 09 [Day] => 16 ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => accepted ) [Year] => 2017 [Month] => 09 [Day] => 23 ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => entrez ) [Year] => 2018 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 16 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => pubmed ) [Year] => 2018 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 16 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => medline ) [Year] => 2019 [Month] => 9 [Day] => 10 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) ) ) [PublicationStatus] => ppublish [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => Array ( [0] => 29447759 [1] => S0047-2484(17)30393-7 [2] => 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.09.010 ) ) ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => MEDLINE [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 24921250 [DateCompleted] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2015 [Month] => 06 [Day] => 23 ) [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2019 [Month] => 02 [Day] => 02 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Electronic-eCollection ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 1553-7404 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 10 [Issue] => 6 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2014 [Month] => Jun ) ) [Title] => PLoS genetics [ISOAbbreviation] => PLoS Genet ) [ArticleTitle] => Early back-to-Africa migration into the Horn of Africa. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => e1004393 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Genetic studies have identified substantial non-African admixture in the Horn of Africa (HOA). In the most recent genomic studies, this non-African ancestry has been attributed to admixture with Middle Eastern populations during the last few thousand years. However, mitochondrial and Y chromosome data are suggestive of earlier episodes of admixture. To investigate this further, we generated new genome-wide SNP data for a Yemeni population sample and merged these new data with published genome-wide genetic data from the HOA and a broad selection of surrounding populations. We used multidimensional scaling and ADMIXTURE methods in an exploratory data analysis to develop hypotheses on admixture and population structure in HOA populations. These analyses suggested that there might be distinct, differentiated African and non-African ancestries in the HOA. After partitioning the SNP data into African and non-African origin chromosome segments, we found support for a distinct African (Ethiopic) ancestry and a distinct non-African (Ethio-Somali) ancestry in HOA populations. The African Ethiopic ancestry is tightly restricted to HOA populations and likely represents an autochthonous HOA population. The non-African ancestry in the HOA, which is primarily attributed to a novel Ethio-Somali inferred ancestry component, is significantly differentiated from all neighboring non-African ancestries in North Africa, the Levant, and Arabia. The Ethio-Somali ancestry is found in all admixed HOA ethnic groups, shows little inter-individual variance within these ethnic groups, is estimated to have diverged from all other non-African ancestries by at least 23 ka, and does not carry the unique Arabian lactase persistence allele that arose about 4 ka. Taking into account published mitochondrial, Y chromosome, paleoclimate, and archaeological data, we find that the time of the Ethio-Somali back-to-Africa migration is most likely pre-agricultural. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Hodgson [ForeName] => Jason A [Initials] => JA [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Life Sciences, Silwood Park Campus, Imperial College London, Ascot, Berkshire, United Kingdom. ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Mulligan [ForeName] => Connie J [Initials] => CJ [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology and the Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America. ) ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] 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2014 [Month] => Jun ) ) [Title] => Molecular phylogenetics and evolution [ISOAbbreviation] => Mol Phylogenet Evol ) [ArticleTitle] => Primate phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 165-83 ) [ELocationID] => Array ( [0] => 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.023 [1] => S1055-7903(14)00082-7 ) [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => The origins and the divergence times of the most basal lineages within primates have been difficult to resolve mainly due to the incomplete sampling of early fossil taxa. The main source of contention is related to the discordance between molecular and fossil estimates: while there are no crown primate fossils older than 56Ma, most molecule-based estimates extend the origins of crown primates into the Cretaceous. Here we present a comprehensive mitogenomic study of primates. We assembled 87 mammalian mitochondrial genomes, including 62 primate species representing all the families of the order. We newly sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes, including eight Old World monkeys and three strepsirrhines. Phylogenetic analyses support a strong topology, confirming the monophyly for all the major primate clades. In contrast to previous mitogenomic studies, the positions of tarsiers and colugos relative to strepsirrhines and anthropoids are well resolved. In order to improve our understanding of how fossil calibrations affect age estimates within primates, we explore the effect of seventeen fossil calibrations across primates and other mammalian groups and we select a subset of calibrations to date our mitogenomic tree. The divergence date estimates of the Strepsirrhine/Haplorhine split support an origin of crown primates in the Late Cretaceous, at around 74Ma. This result supports a short-fuse model of primate origins, whereby relatively little time passed between the origin of the order and the diversification of its major clades. It also suggests that the early primate fossil record is likely poorly sampled. [CopyrightInformation] => Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Pozzi [ForeName] => Luca [Initials] => L [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, Center for the Study of Human Origins, New York University, New York, NY, United States; New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, United States; Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Unit, German Primate Center, Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: lpozzi@dpz.eu. ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Hodgson [ForeName] => Jason A [Initials] => JA [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, Center for the Study of Human Origins, New York University, New York, NY, United States; New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, United States; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address: j.hodgson@imperial.ac.uk. ) ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Burrell [ForeName] => Andrew S [Initials] => AS [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, Center for the Study of Human Origins, New York University, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address: andrew.burrell@nyu.edu. ) ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Sterner [ForeName] => Kirstin N [Initials] => KN [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States. Electronic address: ksterner@uoregon.edu. ) ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Raaum [ForeName] => Ryan L [Initials] => RL [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, United States; Department of Anthropology, Lehman College & The Graduate Center, City University of New York, Bronx, NY, United States. 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Electronic address: todd.disotell@nyu.edu. ) ) ) ) [Language] => eng [GrantList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Grant] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => R01 GM060760 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => R24 GM065580 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => R24-GM65580 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) ) ) [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Array ( [0] => Journal Article [1] => Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ) ) [ArticleDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [DateType] => Electronic ) [Year] => 2014 [Month] => 02 [Day] => 28 ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => United States [MedlineTA] => Mol Phylogenet Evol [NlmUniqueID] => 9304400 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We used regression models designed to identify transcripts that followed significant linear or curvilinear functions of age and used population genetics techniques to examine the evolution of these genes. [2] => We identified 40 transcripts with significant age-related trajectories in expression. Ten genes have documented roles in nervous system development and energy metabolism, others are novel candidates in brain development. Sixteen transcripts showed similar patterns of expression, characterized by decreasing expression during childhood. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that the regulatory regions of three genes have evidence of adaptive evolution in recent human evolution. [3] => These findings provide evidence that a subset of genes expressed in the human cerebral cortex broadly mirror developmental patterns of cortical glucose consumption. 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[Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 526-38 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1002/ajpa.22220 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Studies of the impact of post-marital residence patterns on the distribution of genetic variation within populations have returned conflicting results. These studies have generally examined genetic diversity within and between groups with different post-marriage residence patterns. Here, we directly examine Y chromosome microsatellite variation in individuals carrying a chromosome in the same Y haplogroup. We analyze Y chromosome data from two samples of Yemeni males: a sample representing the entire country and a sample from a large highland village. Our results support a normative patrilocality in highland Yemeni tribal populations, but also suggest that patrilocality is violated often enough to break down the expected correlation of genetic and geographic distance. We propose that a great deal of variation in male dispersal distance distributions is subsumed under the "patrilocal" label and that few human societies are likely to realize the idealized male dispersal distribution expected under strict patrilocality. In addition, we found almost no specific correspondence between social kinship and genetic patriline at the level of the clan (large, extended patrilineal kinship group) within a large, highland Yemeni village. We discuss ethnographic accounts that offer several cultural practices that explain exceptions to patrilocality and means by which social kinship and genetic patriline may become disentangled. [CopyrightInformation] => Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Raaum [ForeName] => Ryan L [Initials] => RL [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, Lehman College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468, USA. ryan.raaum@lehman.cuny.edu ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Al-Meeri [ForeName] => Ali [Initials] => A ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Mulligan [ForeName] => Connie J [Initials] => CJ ) ) ) [Language] => eng [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Array ( [0] => Journal Article [1] => Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't [2] => Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. ) ) [ArticleDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [DateType] => Electronic ) [Year] => 2013 [Month] => 01 [Day] => 28 ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => United States [MedlineTA] => Am J Phys Anthropol [NlmUniqueID] => 0400654 [ISSNLinking] => 0002-9483 ) [CitationSubset] => IM [MeshHeadingList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MeshHeading] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Anthropology, Physical ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Chromosomes, Human, Y ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Emigration and Immigration ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Family Characteristics ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Genetics, Population [QualifierName] => methods ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Haplotypes ) [6] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Humans ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Male ) [8] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Microsatellite Repeats ) [9] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Population Groups [QualifierName] => genetics ) [10] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Yemen ) ) ) ) [PubmedData] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [History] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubMedPubDate] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => received ) [Year] => 2012 [Month] => 07 [Day] => 30 ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => accepted ) [Year] => 2012 [Month] => 12 [Day] => 05 ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => entrez ) [Year] => 2013 [Month] => 1 [Day] => 30 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => pubmed ) [Year] => 2013 [Month] => 1 [Day] => 30 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => medline ) [Year] => 2013 [Month] => 5 [Day] => 15 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) ) ) [PublicationStatus] => ppublish [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => Array ( [0] => 23359210 [1] => 10.1002/ajpa.22220 ) ) ) ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => MEDLINE [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 22666384 [DateCompleted] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2012 [Month] => 10 [Day] => 29 ) [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2018 [Month] => 11 [Day] => 13 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Print-Electronic ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 1932-6203 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 7 [Issue] => 5 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2012 ) ) [Title] => PloS one [ISOAbbreviation] => PLoS One ) [ArticleTitle] => Dynamic gene expression in the human cerebral cortex distinguishes children from adults. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => e37714 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1371/journal.pone.0037714 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => In comparison with other primate species, humans have an extended juvenile period during which the brain is more plastic. In the current study we sought to examine gene expression in the cerebral cortex during development in the context of this adaptive plasticity. We introduce an approach designed to discriminate genes with variable as opposed to uniform patterns of gene expression and found that greater inter-individual variance is observed among children than among adults. For the 337 transcripts that show this pattern, we found a significant overrepresentation of genes annotated to the immune system process (pFDR ~/= 0). Moreover, genes known to be important in neuronal function, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are included among the genes more variably expressed in childhood. We propose that the developmental period of heightened childhood neuronal plasticity is characterized by more dynamic patterns of gene expression in the cerebral cortex compared to adulthood when the brain is less plastic. That an overabundance of these genes are annotated to the immune system suggests that the functions of these genes can be thought of not only in the context of antigen processing and presentation, but also in the context of nervous system development. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Sterner [ForeName] => Kirstin N [Initials] => KN [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Center for Molecular Medicine & Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, United States of America. ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Weckle [ForeName] => Amy [Initials] => A ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Chugani [ForeName] => Harry T [Initials] => HT ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( 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=> Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 144 [Issue] => 1 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2011 [Month] => Jan ) ) [Title] => American journal of physical anthropology [ISOAbbreviation] => Am J Phys Anthropol ) [ArticleTitle] => Mitochondrial DNA reveals distinct evolutionary histories for Jewish populations in Yemen and Ethiopia. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 1-10 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1002/ajpa.21360 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Southern Arabia and the Horn of Africa are important geographic centers for the study of human population history because a great deal of migration has characterized these regions since the first emergence of humans out of Africa. Analysis of Jewish groups provides a unique opportunity to investigate more recent population histories in this area. Mitochondrial DNA is used to investigate the maternal evolutionary history and can be combined with historical and linguistic data to test various population histories. In this study, we assay mitochondrial control region DNA sequence and diagnostic coding variants in Yemenite (n = 45) and Ethiopian (n = 41) Jewish populations, as well as in neighboring non-Jewish Yemeni (n = 50) and Ethiopian (previously published Semitic speakers) populations. We investigate their population histories through a comparison of haplogroup distributions and phylogenetic networks. A high frequency of sub-Saharan African L haplogroups was found in both Jewish populations, indicating a significant African maternal contribution unlike other Jewish Diaspora populations. However, no identical haplotypes were shared between the Yemenite and Ethiopian Jewish populations, suggesting very little gene flow between the populations and potentially distinct maternal population histories. These new data are also used to investigate alternate population histories in the context of historical and linguistic data. Specifically, Yemenite Jewish mitochondrial diversity reflects potential descent from ancient Israeli exiles and shared African and Middle Eastern ancestry with little evidence for large-scale conversion of local Yemeni. In contrast, the Ethiopian Jewish population appears to be a subset of the larger Ethiopian population suggesting descent primarily through conversion of local women. [CopyrightInformation] => Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Non [ForeName] => Amy L [Initials] => AL [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. anon@ufl.edu ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Al-Meeri [ForeName] => Ali [Initials] => A ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Raaum [ForeName] => Ryan L [Initials] => RL ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Sanchez [ForeName] => Luisa F [Initials] => LF ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Mulligan [ForeName] => Connie J [Initials] => CJ ) ) ) [Language] => eng [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Journal Article ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => United States [MedlineTA] => Am J Phys Anthropol [NlmUniqueID] => 0400654 [ISSNLinking] => 0002-9483 ) [ChemicalList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Chemical] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [RegistryNumber] => 0 [NameOfSubstance] => DNA, Mitochondrial ) ) [CitationSubset] => IM [MeshHeadingList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MeshHeading] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Base Sequence ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Biological Evolution ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => DNA, Mitochondrial [QualifierName] => genetics ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Emigration and Immigration ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Ethiopia [QualifierName] => ethnology ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Female ) [6] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Genetic Variation ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Genetics, Population ) [8] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Haplotypes ) [9] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Humans ) [10] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Israel ) [11] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Jews [QualifierName] => genetics ) [12] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Male ) [13] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Mutation ) [14] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Phylogeny ) [15] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Sequence Analysis, DNA ) [16] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Yemen [QualifierName] => ethnology ) ) ) ) [PubmedData] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [History] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubMedPubDate] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => entrez ) [Year] => 2010 [Month] => 7 [Day] => 13 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => pubmed ) [Year] => 2010 [Month] => 7 [Day] => 14 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => medline ) [Year] => 2011 [Month] => 3 [Day] => 4 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) ) ) [PublicationStatus] => ppublish [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => Array ( [0] => 20623605 [1] => 10.1002/ajpa.21360 ) ) ) ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => MEDLINE [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 20569219 [DateCompleted] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2010 [Month] => 09 [Day] => 23 ) [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2010 [Month] => 06 [Day] => 23 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Print ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 1940-9818 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 48 [Issue] => 6 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2010 [Month] => Jun ) ) [Title] => BioTechniques [ISOAbbreviation] => Biotechniques ) [ArticleTitle] => Efficient population assignment and outlier detection in human populations using biallelic markers chosen by principal component-based rankings. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 449-54 ) [ELocationID] => 10.2144/000113426 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Whole-genome studies of genetic variation are now performed routinely and have accelerated the identification of disease-associated allelic variants, positive selection, recombination, and structural variation. However, these studies are sensitive to the presence of outlier data from individuals of different ancestry than the rest of the sample. Currently, the most common method of excluding outlier individuals is to collect a population sample and exclude outliers after genome-wide data have been collected. Here we show that a small collection of 20-27 polymorphic Alu insertions, selected using a principal component-based method with genetic ancestry estimates, may be used to easily assign Africans, East Asians, and Europeans to their population of origin. In addition, we show that samples from a geographically and genetically intermediate population (in our study, samples from India) can be identified within the original sample of Africans, East Asians, and Europeans. Finally, we show that outlier individuals from neighboring geographic regions (in our study, Yemen and sub-Saharan Africa) can be identified. These results will be of value in preselection of samples for more in-depth analysis as well as customized identification of maximally informative polymorphic markers for regional studies. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Raaum [ForeName] => Ryan L [Initials] => RL [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, Lehman College, The City University of New York, The Bronx, NY, USA. ryan.raaum@lehman.cuny.edu ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Wang [ForeName] => Alex B [Initials] => AB ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Al-Meeri [ForeName] => Ali M [Initials] => AM ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Mulligan [ForeName] => Connie J [Initials] => CJ ) ) ) [Language] => eng [GrantList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Grant] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Agency] => Howard Hughes Medical Institute [Country] => United States ) ) [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Array ( [0] => Journal Article [1] => Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't [2] => Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. ) ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => England [MedlineTA] => Biotechniques [NlmUniqueID] => 8306785 [ISSNLinking] => 0736-6205 ) [ChemicalList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Chemical] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [RegistryNumber] => 0 [NameOfSubstance] => Genetic Markers ) ) [CitationSubset] => IM [MeshHeadingList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MeshHeading] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Africa ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Africa South of the Sahara ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Algorithms ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Alleles ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Alu Elements [QualifierName] => genetics ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Europe ) [6] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Far East ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Genetic Markers ) [8] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Genetic Variation [QualifierName] => genetics ) [9] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Genetics, Population [QualifierName] => methods ) [10] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Humans ) [11] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => India ) [12] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Mutagenesis, Insertional ) [13] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Polymorphism, Genetic ) [14] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Principal Component Analysis ) [15] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Software ) [16] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Yemen ) ) ) ) [PubmedData] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [History] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubMedPubDate] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => entrez ) [Year] => 2010 [Month] => 6 [Day] => 24 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => pubmed ) [Year] => 2010 [Month] => 6 [Day] => 24 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => medline ) [Year] => 2010 [Month] => 9 [Day] => 24 [Hour] => 6 [Minute] => 0 ) ) ) [PublicationStatus] => ppublish [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => Array ( [0] => 20569219 [1] => 000113426 [2] => 10.2144/000113426 ) ) ) ) [8] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => MEDLINE [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 19321426 [DateCompleted] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2009 [Month] => 05 [Day] => 06 ) [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2018 [Month] => 11 [Day] => 13 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Print-Electronic ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 1091-6490 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 106 [Issue] => 14 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2009 [Month] => Apr [Day] => 07 ) ) [Title] => Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America [ISOAbbreviation] => Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ) [ArticleTitle] => Successive radiations, not stasis, in the South American primate fauna. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 5534-9 ) [ELocationID] => 10.1073/pnas.0810346106 [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => The earliest Neotropical primate fossils complete enough for taxonomic assessment, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus, date to approximately 20 Ma. These have been interpreted as either closely related to extant forms or as extinct stem lineages. The former hypothesis of morphological stasis requires most living platyrrhine genera to have diverged before 20 Ma. To test this hypothesis, we collected new complete mitochondrial genomes from Aotus lemurinus, Saimiri sciureus, Saguinus oedipus, Ateles belzebuth, and Callicebus donacophilus. We combined these with published sequences from Cebus albifrons and other primates to infer the mitochondrial phylogeny. We found support for a cebid/atelid clade to the exclusion of the pitheciids. Then, using Bayesian methods and well-supported fossil calibration constraints, we estimated that the platyrrhine most recent common ancestor (MRCA) dates to 19.5 Ma, with all major lineages diverging by 14.3 Ma. Next, we estimated catarrhine divergence dates on the basis of platyrrhine divergence scenarios and found that only a platyrrhine MRCA less than 21 Ma is concordant with the catarrhine fossil record. Finally, we calculated that 33% more change in the rate of evolution is required for platyrrhine divergences consistent with the morphologic stasis hypothesis than for a more recent radiation. We conclude that Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus are likely too old to be crown platyrrhines, suggesting they were part of an extinct early radiation. We note that the crown platyrrhine radiation was concomitant with the radiation of 2 South American xenarthran lineages and follows a global temperature peak and tectonic activity in the Andes. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Hodgson [ForeName] => Jason A [Initials] => JA [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Sterner [ForeName] => Kirstin N [Initials] => KN ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Matthews [ForeName] => Luke J [Initials] => LJ ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Burrell [ForeName] => Andrew S [Initials] => AS ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Jani [ForeName] => Rachana A [Initials] => RA ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Raaum [ForeName] => Ryan L [Initials] => RL ) [6] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Stewart [ForeName] => Caro-Beth [Initials] => CB ) [7] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Disotell [ForeName] => Todd R [Initials] => TR ) ) ) [Language] => eng [DataBankList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [DataBank] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DataBankName] => GENBANK [AccessionNumberList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AccessionNumber] => Array ( [0] => FJ785421 [1] => FJ785422 [2] => FJ785423 [3] => FJ785424 [4] => FJ785425 [5] => FJ785426 ) ) ) ) [GrantList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Grant] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => R01 GM060760 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => R24 GM065580 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => R01-GM060760 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => R24-GM65580 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) ) ) [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Array ( [0] => Journal Article [1] => Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ) ) [ArticleDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [DateType] => Electronic ) [Year] => 2009 [Month] => 03 [Day] => 24 ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => United States [MedlineTA] => Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 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=> 15737586 ) ) ) ) ) ) [9] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => MEDLINE [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 17498298 [DateCompleted] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2007 [Month] => 06 [Day] => 06 ) [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2018 [Month] => 12 [Day] => 27 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Electronic ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 1471-2156 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Internet ) [Volume] => 8 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2007 [Month] => May [Day] => 11 ) ) [Title] => BMC genetics [ISOAbbreviation] => BMC Genet ) [ArticleTitle] => Demographic changes and marker properties affect detection of human population differentiation. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 21 ) [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Array ( [0] => Differentiating genetically between populations is valuable for admixture and population stratification detection and in understanding population history. This is easy to achieve for major continental populations, but not for closely related populations. It has been claimed that a large marker panel is necessary to reliably distinguish populations within a continent. We investigated whether empirical genetic differentiation could be accomplished efficiently among three Asian populations (Hmong, Thai, and Chinese) using a small set of highly variable markers (15 tetranucleotide and 17 dinucleotide repeats). [1] => Hmong could be differentiated from Thai and Chinese based on multi-locus genotypes, but Thai and Chinese were indistinguishable from each other. We found significant evidence for a recent population bottleneck followed by expansion in the Hmong that was not present in the Thai or Chinese. Tetranucleotide repeats were less useful than dinucleotide repeat markers in distinguishing between major continental populations (Asian, European, and African) while both successfully distinguished Hmong from Thai and Chinese. [2] => Demographic history contributes significantly to robust detection of intracontinental population structure. Populations having experienced a rapid size reduction may be reliably distinguished as a result of a genetic drift -driven redistribution of population allele frequencies. Tetranucleotide markers, which differ from dinucleotide markers in mutation mechanism and rate, are similar in information content to dinucleotide markers in this situation. These factors should be considered when identifying populations suitable for gene mapping studies and when interpreting interpopulation relationships based on microsatellite markers. ) ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Listman [ForeName] => Jennifer B [Initials] => JB [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Dept Anthropology, New York Univ, NY, USA. jenny.listman@nyu.edu ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Malison [ForeName] => Robert T [Initials] => RT ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Sughondhabirom [ForeName] => Atapol [Initials] => A ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Yang [ForeName] => Bao-Zhu [Initials] => BZ ) [4] => 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[Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 1-7 ) [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => To obtain a more complete understanding of the evolutionary history of the leaf-eating monkeys we have examined the mitochondrial genome sequence of two African and six Asian colobines. Although taxonomists have proposed grouping the "odd-nosed" colobines (proboscis monkey, douc langur, and the snub-nosed monkey) together, phylogenetic support for such a clade has not been tested using molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods support a monophyletic clade of odd-nosed colobines consisting of Nasalis, Pygathrix, and Rhinopithecus, with tentative support for Nasalis occupying a basal position within this clade. The African and Asian colobine lineages are inferred to have diverged by 10.8 million years ago (mya or Ma). Within the Asian colobines the odd-nosed clade began to diversify by 6.7 Ma. These results augment our understanding of colobine evolution, particularly the nature and timing of the colobine expansion into Asia. This phylogenetic information will aid those developing conservation strategies for these highly endangered, diverse, and unique primates. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Sterner [ForeName] => Kirstin N [Initials] => KN [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => Department of Anthropology, New York University, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY, USA. ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Raaum [ForeName] => Ryan L [Initials] => RL ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Zhang [ForeName] => Ya-Ping [Initials] => YP ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Stewart [ForeName] => Caro-Beth [Initials] => CB ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Disotell [ForeName] => Todd R [Initials] => TR ) ) ) [Language] => eng [GrantList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Grant] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => R01 GM60760 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) ) [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Array ( [0] => Journal Article [1] => Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ) ) [ArticleDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [DateType] => Electronic ) [Year] => 2006 [Month] => 02 [Day] => 24 ) ) [MedlineJournalInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Country] => United States [MedlineTA] => Mol Phylogenet Evol [NlmUniqueID] => 9304400 [ISSNLinking] => 1055-7903 ) [ChemicalList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Chemical] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [RegistryNumber] => 0 [NameOfSubstance] => DNA, Mitochondrial ) ) [CitationSubset] => IM [MeshHeadingList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MeshHeading] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Animals ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Colobinae [QualifierName] => Array ( [0] => classification [1] => genetics ) ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => DNA, Mitochondrial [QualifierName] => genetics ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Humans ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [DescriptorName] => Phylogeny ) ) ) ) [PubmedData] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [History] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PubMedPubDate] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => received ) [Year] => 2005 [Month] => 10 [Day] => 11 ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => revised ) [Year] => 2006 [Month] => 01 [Day] => 10 ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => accepted ) [Year] => 2006 [Month] => 01 [Day] => 12 ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => pubmed ) [Year] => 2006 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 28 [Hour] => 9 [Minute] => 0 ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => medline ) [Year] => 2006 [Month] => 8 [Day] => 17 [Hour] => 9 [Minute] => 0 ) [5] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubStatus] => entrez ) [Year] => 2006 [Month] => 2 [Day] => 28 [Hour] => 9 [Minute] => 0 ) ) ) [PublicationStatus] => ppublish [ArticleIdList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ArticleId] => Array ( [0] => 16500120 [1] => S1055-7903(06)00026-1 [2] => 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.01.017 ) ) ) ) [11] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlineCitation] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [Status] => MEDLINE [Owner] => NLM ) [PMID] => 15737392 [DateCompleted] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2005 [Month] => 07 [Day] => 05 ) [DateRevised] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2008 [Month] => 11 [Day] => 21 ) [Article] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [PubModel] => Print-Electronic ) [Journal] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [ISSN] => 0047-2484 [JournalIssue] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CitedMedium] => Print ) [Volume] => 48 [Issue] => 3 [PubDate] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Year] => 2005 [Month] => Mar ) ) [Title] => Journal of human evolution [ISOAbbreviation] => J Hum Evol ) [ArticleTitle] => Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes: concordance with fossil and nuclear DNA evidence. [Pagination] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [MedlinePgn] => 237-57 ) [Abstract] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [AbstractText] => Accurate divergence date estimates improve scenarios of primate evolutionary history and aid in interpretation of the natural history of disease-causing agents. While molecule-based estimates of divergence dates of taxa within the superfamily Hominoidea (apes and humans) are common in the literature, few such estimates are available for the Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys), the sister taxon of the hominoids in the primate infraorder Catarrhini. To help fill this gap, we have sequenced the entire mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a representative of three cercopithecoid tribes, Cercopithecini (Chlorocebus aethiops), Colobini (Colobus guereza), and Presbytini (Trachypithecus obscurus), and analyzed these new data together with other catarrhine mtDNA genomes available in public databases. Molecular divergence date estimates are dependent on calibration points gleaned from the paleontological record. We defined criteria for the selection of good calibration points and identified three points meeting these criteria: Homo-Pan, 6.0 Ma; Pongo-hominines, 14.0 Ma; hominoid/cercopithecoid, 23.0 Ma. Because a uniform molecular clock does not fit the catarrhine mtDNA data, we estimated divergence dates using a penalized likelihood and a Bayesian method, both of which take into account the effects of rate differences on lineages, phylogenetic tree structure, and multiple calibration points. The penalized likelihood method applied to the coding regions of the mtDNA genome yielded the following divergence date estimates, with approximate 95% confidence intervals: cercopithecine-colobine, 16.2 (14.4-17.9) Ma; colobin-presbytin, 10.9 (9.6-12.3) Ma; cercopithecin-papionin, 11.6 (10.3-12.9) Ma; and Macaca-Papio, 9.8 (8.6-10.9) Ma. Within the hominoids, the following dates were inferred: hylobatid-hominid, 16.8 (15.0-18.5) Ma; Gorilla-Homo+Pan, 8.1 (7.1-9.0) Ma; Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus-P. p. abelii, 4.1 (3.5-4.7) Ma; and Pan troglodytes-P. paniscus, 2.4 (2.0-2.7) Ma. These dates were similar to those found using penalized likelihood on other subsets of the data, but slightly younger than several of the Bayesian estimates. ) [AuthorList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Author] => Array ( [0] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Raaum [ForeName] => Ryan L [Initials] => RL [AffiliationInfo] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [Affiliation] => New York University, Department of Anthropology, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, USA. rlr215@nyu.edu ) ) [1] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Sterner [ForeName] => Kirstin N [Initials] => KN ) [2] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Noviello [ForeName] => Colleen M [Initials] => CM ) [3] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Stewart [ForeName] => Caro-Beth [Initials] => CB ) [4] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [ValidYN] => Y ) [LastName] => Disotell [ForeName] => Todd R [Initials] => TR ) ) ) [Language] => eng [GrantList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [@attributes] => Array ( [CompleteYN] => Y ) [Grant] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [GrantID] => GM065580 [Acronym] => GM [Agency] => NIGMS NIH HHS [Country] => United States ) ) [PublicationTypeList] => SimpleXMLElement Object ( [PublicationType] => Array ( [0] => Comparative Study [1] => Journal Article [2] => Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural [3] => Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S. 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Publications by authors named "Ryan L Raaum"

12Publications

Ecomorphological analysis of bovid mandibles from Laetoli Tanzania using 3D geometric morphometrics: Implications for hominin paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

J Hum Evol 2018 01 21;114:20-34. Epub 2017 Oct 21.

Department of Anthropology, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA; Department of Anthropology, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York, USA; New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York, NY, USA.

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January 2018

Early back-to-Africa migration into the Horn of Africa.

PLoS Genet 2014 Jun 12;10(6):e1004393. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Department of Anthropology, Lehman College and The Graduate Center, The City University of New York, Bronx, New York, New York, United States of America; The New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology (NYCEP), New York, New York, United States of America.

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June 2014

Primate phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Jun 28;75:165-83. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Department of Anthropology, Center for the Study of Human Origins, New York University, New York, NY, United States; New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, United States. Electronic address:

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June 2014

Culture modifies expectations of kinship and sex-biased dispersal patterns: a case study of patrilineality and patrilocality in tribal Yemen.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2013 Apr 28;150(4):526-38. Epub 2013 Jan 28.

Department of Anthropology, Lehman College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468, USA.

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April 2013

Mitochondrial DNA reveals distinct evolutionary histories for Jewish populations in Yemen and Ethiopia.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2011 Jan;144(1):1-10

Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

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January 2011

Efficient population assignment and outlier detection in human populations using biallelic markers chosen by principal component-based rankings.

Biotechniques 2010 Jun;48(6):449-54

Department of Anthropology, Lehman College, The City University of New York, The Bronx, NY, USA.

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June 2010

Successive radiations, not stasis, in the South American primate fauna.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Apr 24;106(14):5534-9. Epub 2009 Mar 24.

Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

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April 2009

Mitochondrial data support an odd-nosed colobine clade.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2006 Jul 24;40(1):1-7. Epub 2006 Feb 24.

Department of Anthropology, New York University, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY, USA.

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July 2006

Catarrhine primate divergence dates estimated from complete mitochondrial genomes: concordance with fossil and nuclear DNA evidence.

J Hum Evol 2005 Mar 20;48(3):237-57. Epub 2005 Jan 20.

New York University, Department of Anthropology, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, USA.

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March 2005