Publications by authors named "Rong-Biao Pi"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Protective effects of lipoic acid-niacin dimers against blue light-induced oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelium cells.

Int J Ophthalmol 2019 18;12(8):1262-1271. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, General Hospital of Southern Theatre Command of PLA, Guangzhou 510010, Guangdong Province, China.

Aim: To evaluate the protective effects of lipoic acid-niacin (N2L) dimers against blue light (BL)-induced oxidative damage to human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cells

Methods: hRPE cells were divided into a control group (CG), a BL group, an N2L plus BL irradiation group, an α-lipoic acid (ALA) plus BL group, an ALA-only group, and an N2L-only group. hRPE cellular viability was detected by performing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide assays, and apoptosis was evaluated by annexin-V-PE/7-AAD staining followed by flow cytometry. Ultrastructural changes in subcellular organelles were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Reactive oxygen species formation was assayed by flow cytometry. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related proteins BCL-2 associated X protein (BAX), B-cell leukmia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), and caspase-3 were quantified by Western blot analysis.

Results: BL exposure with a light density of 4±0.5 mW/cm exceeding 6h caused hRPE toxicity, whereas treatment with a high dose of N2L (100 mol/L) or ALA (150 mol/L) maintained cell viability at control levels. BL exposure caused vacuole-like degeneration, mitochondrial swelling, and reduced microvillus formation; however, a high dose of N2L or ALA maintained the ultrastructure of hRPE cells and their organelles. High doses of N2L and ALA also protected hRPE cells from BL-induced apoptosis, which was confirmed by Western blot analysis: BCL-2 expression significantly increased, while BAX and caspase-3 expression slightly decreased compared to the CG.

Conclusion: High-dose N2L treatment (>100 mol/L) can reduce oxidative damage in degenerating hRPE cells exposed to BL with an efficacy similar to ALA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2019.08.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6694045PMC
August 2019

Synthesis and evaluation of multifunctional ferulic and caffeic acid dimers for Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Prod Res 2017 Mar 17;31(6):734-737. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

b Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Sun Yat-Sen University , Guangzhou , China.

In this study, a series of novel ferulic and caffeic acid dimers was designed and synthesised, and their multifunctional properties against Alzheimer's disease (AD) were evaluated. Results showed that our multifunctional strategy was great supported by enhancing the inhibition of Aβ self-induced aggregation. Moreover, 7b also had potent protective effects against glutamate-induced cell death without significant cell toxicity in mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells and 10c effectively scavenged diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radicals. Collectively, these data strongly encourage further optimisation of 7b as a new hit to develop multifunctional agents for the treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2016.1219862DOI Listing
March 2017

Gartanin Protects Neurons against Glutamate-Induced Cell Death in HT22 Cells: Independence of Nrf-2 but Involvement of HO-1 and AMPK.

Neurochem Res 2016 Sep 9;41(9):2267-77. Epub 2016 May 9.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Oxidative stress mediates the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Gartanin, a natural xanthone of mangosteen, possesses multipharmacological activities. Herein, the neuroprotection capacity of gartanin against glutamate-induced damage in HT22 cells and its possible mechanism(s) were investigated for the first time. Glutamate resulted in cell death in a dose-dependent manner and supplementation of 1-10 µM gartanin prevented the detrimental effects of glutamate on cell survival. Additional investigations on the underlying mechanisms suggested that gartanin could effectively reduce glutamate-induced intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization. We further found that gartanin induced HO-1 expression independent of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2). Subsequent studies revealed that the inhibitory effects of gartanin on glutamate-induced apoptosis were partially blocked by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of HO-1. Finally, the protein expression of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream signal molecules, Sirtuin activator (SIRT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), increased after gartanin treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest gartanin is a potential neuroprotective agent against glutamate-induced oxidative injury partially through increasing Nrf-2-independed HO-1 and AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-1941-xDOI Listing
September 2016

Natural Xanthones from Garcinia mangostana with Multifunctional Activities for the Therapy of Alzheimer's Disease.

Neurochem Res 2016 Jul 2;41(7):1806-17. Epub 2016 Apr 2.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Natural xanthones have diversity pharmacological activities. Here, a series of xanthones isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana Linn, named α-Mangostin, 8-Deoxygartanin, Gartanin, Garciniafuran, Garcinone C, Garcinone D, and γ-Mangostin were investigated. Biological screening performed in vitro and in Escherichia coli cells indicated that most of the xanthones exhibited significant inhibition of self-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and also β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1, acted as potential antioxidants and biometal chelators. Among these compounds, α-Mangostin, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin showed better antioxidant properties to scavenge Diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical than Trolox, and potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death partly by up-regulating HO-1 protein level and then scavenging reactive oxygen species. Moreover, Gartanin, Garcinone C and γ-Mangostin could be able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. These findings suggest that the natural xanthones have multifunctional activities against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and could be promising compounds for the therapy of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-1896-yDOI Listing
July 2016

MEF2D Mediates the Neuroprotective Effect of Methylene Blue Against Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in HT22 Hippocampal Cells.

Mol Neurobiol 2017 04 3;54(3):2209-2222. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Methylene blue (MB) can ameliorate behavioral, neurochemical, and neuropathological impairments in animal models of acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2D) is known to promote neuronal survival in several models, and several survival and death signals converge on MEF2D and regulate its activity. Here, we investigated the role of MEF2D in the neuroprotective effect of MB against glutamate-induced toxicity in HT22 neuronal cells. Our results showed that MB, event at less than 100 nM, improved the viability of HT22 cells exposed to 2 mM glutamate. MB attenuated the mitochondrial impairment and quenches the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by glutamate. Surprisingly, MB at 50-200 nM did not affect the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, an important endogenous anti-oxidative system. Further study showed that MB increased the transcription and translation of MEF2D. In addition, MB upregulated the expression of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 6 (ND6) in a MEF2D-dependent manner. Knockdown of MEF2D abolished both MB-medicated increase of ND6 and MB-induced neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity. Moreover, we showed that MB promoted Akt function activity, suppressed GSK-3β activity, and increased MEF2D level in hippocampus of mice and HT22 cells. These findings for the first time demonstrate that MB protects HT22 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cell death partially via the regulation of MEF2D-associated survival pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-016-9818-1DOI Listing
April 2017

Fasudil hydrochloride, a potent ROCK inhibitor, inhibits corneal neovascularization after alkali burns in mice.

Mol Vis 2015 12;21:688-98. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University, The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology,Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of fasudil hydrochloride (fasudil) on and in alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV) in mice.

Methods: To observe the effect of fasudil, mice with alkali-burned corneas were treated with either fasudil eye drops or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) four times per day for 14 consecutive days. After injury, CNV and corneal epithelial defects were measured. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) was measured. The infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and the mRNA expressions of CNV-related genes were analyzed on day 14.

Results: The incidence of CNV was significantly lower after treatment with 100 μM and 300 μM fasudil than with PBS, especially with 100 μM fasudil. Meanwhile, the incidences of corneal epithelial defects was lower (n=15, all p<0.01). After treatment with 100 μM fasudil, the intensity of DHE fluorescence was reduced in the corneal epithelium and stroma than with PBS treatment (n=5, all p<0.01), and the number of filtrated PMNs decreased. There were significant differences between the expressions of VEGF, TNF-a, MMP-8, and MMP-9 in the 100 μM fasudil group and the PBS group (n=8, all p<0.05). The production of HO-1 protein in the 100 μM fasudil group was 1.52±0.34 times more than in the PBS group (n=5 sample, p<0.05).

Conclusions: 100 μM fasudil eye drops administered four times daily can significantly inhibit alkali burn-induced CNV and promote the healing of corneal epithelial defects in mice. These effects are attributed to a decrease in inflammatory cell infiltration, reduction of ROS, and upregulation of HO-1 protein after fasudil treatment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463969PMC
April 2016

Effect of tacrine-3-caffeic acid, a novel multifunctional anti-Alzheimer's dimer, against oxidative-stress-induced cell death in HT22 hippocampal neurons: involvement of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2014 Sep 12;20(9):840-50. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aims: Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study was designed to uncover the cellular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of tacrine-3-caffeic acid (T3CA), a novel promising multifunctional anti-Alzheimer's dimer, against OS-induced neuronal death.

Methods And Results: T3CA protected HT22 cells against high-concentration-glutamate-induced cell death in time- and concentration-dependent manners and potently attenuated glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as mitochondrial membrane-potential (ΔΨ) disruption. Besides, T3CA significantly induced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and increased its transcriptional activity, which were demonstrated by Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter gene assay. Further studies showed that T3CA potently up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an endogenous antioxidative enzyme and a downstream effector of Nrf2, at both mRNA and protein levels. The neuroprotective effects of T3CA were partially reversed by brusatol, which reduced protein level of Nrf2, or by inhibiting HO-1 with siRNA or ZnPP-IX, a specific inhibitor of HO-1.

Conclusions: Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate that T3CA protects neurons against OS-induced cell death partially through Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway, which further supports that T3CA might be a promising novel therapeutic agent for OS-associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.12286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6493203PMC
September 2014

Neuroprotective polyhydroxypregnane glycosides from Cynanchum otophyllum.

Steroids 2013 Oct 4;78(10):1015-20. Epub 2013 Jul 4.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China.

Five new polyhydroxypregnane glycosides, namely cynanotosides A-E (1-5), together with two known analogues, deacetylmetaplexigenin (6) and cynotophylloside H (7), were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum otophyllum. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods and acid hydrolysis. The neuroprotective effects of compounds 1-7 against glutamate-, hydrogen peroxide-, and homocysteic acid (HCA)-induced cell death were tested by MTT assay in a hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22. Compounds 1, 2, and 7 exhibited protective activity against HCA-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner ranging from 1 to 30μM, which may explain the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) use of this plant for the treatment of epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2013.06.007DOI Listing
October 2013

Acrolein induces Alzheimer's disease-like pathologies in vitro and in vivo.

Toxicol Lett 2013 Mar 4;217(3):184-91. Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

The pathologic mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been fully uncovered. Acrolein, a ubiquitous dietary pollutant and by-product of oxidative stress, can induce cytotoxicity in neurons, which might play an important role in the etiology of AD. Here, we examined the effects of Acrolein on the AD pathologies in vitro and in vivo. We found Acrolein induced HT22 cells death in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Interestingly, Acrolein increased proteins' levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-secretase (BACE-1) and the amyloid β-peptide transporter receptor for advanced glycation end products, and decreased A-disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 levels. In vivo, chronic oral exposure to Acrolein (2.5 mg/kg/day by intragastric gavage for 8 weeks) induced mild cognitive declination and pyknosis/atrophy of hippocampal neurons. The activity of superoxide dismutase was down-regulated while the level of malondialdehyde was up-regulated in rat brain. Moreover, Acrolein resulted in activation of astrocytes, up-regulation of BACE-1 in cortex and down-regulation of ADAM-10 in hippocampus and cortex. Taken together, our findings suggest that exposure to Acrolein induces AD-like pathology in vitro and in vivo. Scavenging Acrolein might be beneficial for the therapy of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.12.023DOI Listing
March 2013

Edaravone protects HT22 neurons from H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2013 Mar 18;19(3):163-9. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Department of Neurology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Aims: Oxidative stress is frequently implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effects and their underlying mechanism(s) of edaravone upon hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal neuronal model.

Methods: HT22 cells were treated with H2O2 in the presence of various concentrations of edaravone or in its absence. A CCK-8 assay, Hoechst 33342 staining, and flow cytometry were used to detect cytotoxicity and apoptosis. In addition, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, p-ERK 1/2, p-JNK, and p-P38 proteins in HT22 cells were examined.

Results: Exogenous H2O2 decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner and was associated with increased apoptosis and ROS production. Moreover, H2O2 significantly activated and upregulated the expression of p-ERK 1/2, p-JNK, and p-P38, while edaravon protected HT22 cells against H2O2-induced injury by inhibiting the production of ROS and activating the MAPK signaling pathway.

Conclusions: Our results provide the first evidence that edaravone can protect H2O2-induced cell injury in HT22 neurons via its antioxidant action. These findings suggest that edaravone may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in which oxidative stress has been principally implicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.12044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6493402PMC
March 2013

Minocycline inhibits alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in mice.

PLoS One 2012 25;7(7):e41858. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

The State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of minocycline on alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). A total of 105 mice treated with alkali burns were randomly divided into three groups to receive intraperitoneal injections of either phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or minocycline twice a day (60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The area of CNV and corneal epithelial defects was measured on day 4, 7, 10, and14 after alkali burns. On day 14, a histopathological examination was performed to assess morphological change and the infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). The mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGFRs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), interleukin-1α, 1β, 6 (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6) were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins was determined by gelatin zymography. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze the protein levels of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, IL-1β and IL-6. Minocycline at a dose of 60 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg significantly enhanced the recovery of the corneal epithelial defects more than PBS did. There were significant decreases of corneal neovascularization in the group of high-dosage minocycline compared with the control group at all checkpoints. On day 14, the infiltrated PMNs was reduced, and the mRNA expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, bFGF, IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-9, -13 as well as the protein expression of VEGFR2, MMP-2, -9, IL-1β, IL-6 in the corneas were down-regulated with the use of 60 mg/kg minocycline twice a day. Our results showed that the intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (60 mg/kg b.i.d.) can significantly inhibit alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in mice, possibly by accelerating corneal wound healing and by reducing the production of angiogenic factors, inflammatory cytokines and MMPs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0041858PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3405025PMC
April 2013

Nmnat2 protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy via activation of SIRT6.

FEBS Lett 2012 Mar 20;586(6):866-74. Epub 2012 Feb 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The discovery of sirtuins (SIRT), a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylases, has indicated that intracellular NAD level is crucial for the hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (Nmnat) is a central enzyme in NAD biosynthesis. Here we revealed that Nmnat2 protein expression and enzyme activity were down-regulated during cardiac hypertrophy. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, overexpression of Nmnat2 but not its catalytically inactive mutant blocked angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy, which was dependent on activation of SIRT6 through maintaining the intracellular NAD level. Our results suggested that modulation of Nmnat2 activity may be beneficial in cardiac hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2012.02.014DOI Listing
March 2012

Sirtuin 6 protects cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy in vitro via inhibition of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity.

Br J Pharmacol 2013 Jan;168(1):117-28

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background And Purpose: Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is involved in regulation of glucose and fat metabolism. However, its possible contribution to cardiac dysfunction remains to be determined. In the present study, the effect of SIRT6 on cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (AngII) and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated.

Experimental Approach: The expression and deacetylase activity of SIRT6 were measured in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by AngII. After SIRT6 overexpression by transfection, or depletion by RNA interference in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, cellular hypertrophy was monitored by measuring cell surface area and the mRNA levels of hypertrophic biomarkers. Further, the interaction between SIRT6 and the transcription factor NF-κB was investigated by co-immunoprecipitation, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and luciferase reporter gene assay. The expression and deacetylase activity of SIRT6 were measured in vivo, using the abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) model of cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

Key Results: In AngII-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes and also in AAC-induced hypertrophic hearts, the expression of SIRT6 protein was upregulated, while its deacetylase activity was decreased. Overexpression of wild-type SIRT6 but not its catalytically inactive mutant, attenuated AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We further demonstrated a physical interaction between SIRT6 and NF-κB catalytic subunit p65, whose transcriptional activity could be repressed by SIRT6 overexpression.

Conclusions And Implications: Our findings suggest that SIRT6 suppressed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro via inhibition of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and that this effect was dependent on its deacetylase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01903.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570008PMC
January 2013

The orally combined neuroprotective effects of sodium ferulate and borneol against transient global ischaemia in C57 BL/6J mice.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2010 Jul;62(7):915-23

Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the possible modification of the neuroprotective effect of sodium ferulate, when orally co-administered with borneol, in transient global cerebral ischaemia-induced functional, histological and cellular alterations in mice.

Methods: The bilateral common carotid artery occlusion was conducted in C57 BL/6J mice for 25 min. The mice were then subjected to a water maze test over an extended recovery period, followed by an assessment of neuronal loss in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (haematoxylin and eosin staining). The blood-brain barrier permeability (Evans blue tracing), brain oedema and oxidative stress were assayed and histological sections were also immunostained for gliofibrillar acid protein (GFAP) expression.

Key Findings: The ischaemia reperfused mice were associated with long-lasting spatial learning deficits in the absence of other behavioural impairments and with neurodegeneration in the hippocampal CA1 region. However, the histological injuries were significantly attenuated by oral co-administration of sodium ferulate and borneol. Furthermore, combined treatment with sodium ferulate and borneol resulted in a significant reduction in brain oedema, GFAP-positive cells, malonaldialdehyde levels and blood-brain barrier permeability, but an increase in superoxide dismutase activity.

Conclusions: Borneol may have benefits for the neuroprotective effect of sodium ferulate against injury induced in the brain by ischaemia/reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/jpp.62.05.0013DOI Listing
July 2010

Alterations in mRNA expression of BACE1, cathepsin B, and glutaminyl cyclase in mice ischemic brain.

Neuroreport 2009 Oct;20(16):1456-60

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, East of Waihuan Road, City of Universities, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The relationship between cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease has been evaluated extensively. However, the association between cerebral ischemia and the deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) remains to be clarified. Here, we used mice bilateral common carotid artery ligation model to investigate the alterations in mRNA expression of Abeta precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1(BACE1), cathepsin B, and glutaminyl cyclase after transient global cerebral ischemia. The reverse-transcriptase PCR assay showed that the expressions of these three Abeta-metabolism-related genes were upregulated in brain with different manner. It indicates that all these three Abeta-metabolism-related genes may participate in the acute and chronic Abeta generation after transient cerebral ischemia, and will be helpful to understand the mechanisms underlying the linkage of brain ischemia and Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0b013e328332024aDOI Listing
October 2009

Reduced expression of GSTM2 and increased oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

Mol Cell Biochem 2008 Feb 16;309(1-2):99-107. Epub 2007 Nov 16.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Laboratory, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan II Road, GuangZhou 510080, PR China.

Human essential hypertension is a complex polygenic trait with underlying genetic components that remain unknown. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterized experimental model for essential hypertension. By comparative proteomics, we previously identified glutathione S-transferase, mu 2 (GSTM2), a protein involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species, which had a significant reduction in left ventricles of 16-week-old SHR compared with WKY rats. In parallel, Western blotting and RT-PCR showed a similar reduction of GSTM2 in left ventricles and aortas of 4-, 8-, and 16-week-old SHR, which is before the onset of hypertension. This suggests that differential expression is not attributable to long-term changes in blood pressure. Meanwhile, the activities of GSTM2 were significantly decreased in different ages old SHR. Conversely, there was an enhanced generation of superoxide anion and activation of NADPH oxidase in SHR, which was accompanied by an increase in the protein expression of p47phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase. These data suggest that it maybe a reduction in antioxidant defenses, evident by a reduced expression and activity of GSTM2, in the left ventricles and aortas of SHR that leads to increased levels of superoxide anion and activation of NADPH oxidase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-007-9647-7DOI Listing
February 2008