Publications by authors named "Rong Zheng"

235 Publications

A Hybrid SSA and SMA with Mutation Opposition-Based Learning for Constrained Engineering Problems.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 7;2021:6379469. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

School of Education and Music, Sanming University, Sanming 365004, China.

Based on Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA) and Slime Mould Algorithm (SMA), a novel hybrid optimization algorithm, named Hybrid Slime Mould Salp Swarm Algorithm (HSMSSA), is proposed to solve constrained engineering problems. SSA can obtain good results in solving some optimization problems. However, it is easy to suffer from local minima and lower density of population. SMA specializes in global exploration and good robustness, but its convergence rate is too slow to find satisfactory solutions efficiently. Thus, in this paper, considering the characteristics and advantages of both the above optimization algorithms, SMA is integrated into the leader position updating equations of SSA, which can share helpful information so that the proposed algorithm can utilize these two algorithms' advantages to enhance global optimization performance. Furthermore, Levy flight is utilized to enhance the exploration ability. It is worth noting that a novel strategy called mutation opposition-based learning is proposed to enhance the performance of the hybrid optimization algorithm on premature convergence avoidance, balance between exploration and exploitation phases, and finding satisfactory global optimum. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, HSMSSA is applied to 23 different benchmark functions of the unimodal and multimodal types. Additionally, five classical constrained engineering problems are utilized to evaluate the proposed technique's practicable abilities. The simulation results show that the HSMSSA method is more competitive and presents more engineering effectiveness for real-world constrained problems than SMA, SSA, and other comparative algorithms. In the end, we also provide some potential areas for future studies such as feature selection and multilevel threshold image segmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6379469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440113PMC
September 2021

The clinical value of platelet parameters combined with sFlt-1/PlGF in predicting preeclampsia.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jul;10(7):7619-7626

Clinical Epidemiology Research Office, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between platelet parameters and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1)/placenta growth factor (PlGF) in preeclampsia (PE) and establish a prediction model by analyzing commonly used biochemical markers.

Methods: A nested case-control study involving 270 pregnant women in their second trimester from the Beijing Jishuitan Hospital was conducted. They were divided into PE group and control group. The levels of PlGF, sFlt-1, sFlt-1/PlGF, and platelet parameters were recorded and compared at 20-24 gestational weeks. The correlation between platelet parameters and PlGF, sFlt-1, and sFlt-1/PLGF was then analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of various biomarkers in predicting PE.

Results: In PE group, the levels of mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), sFlt-1, and sFlt-1/PLGF were higher than in the control group, while the levels of platelet count (PC), PC/MPV, and PLGF in PE group were lower. Spearman correlation analysis showed that PC and PC/MPV were negatively correlated with sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PLGF, and positively correlated with PLGF, while further analysis found that PC/MPV had the largest area under the ROC curve with sensitivity of 83.7% and specificity of 86.2%. The area under curve (AUC) of sFlt-1, PLGF, and sFlt-1/PLGF for predicting PE were 0.731, 0.772, and 0.825, respectively. Their AUCs could be improved to 0.820, 0.838, and 0.873 when combined with PC/MPV.

Conclusions: The accuracy of sFlt-1/PlGF in predicting the risk of PE in the second trimester is significantly improved when combined with PC/MPV, which is expected to be an ideal tool for PE prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1244DOI Listing
July 2021

Construction and Validation of an Immune-Based Prognostic Model for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Based on Public Databases.

Front Genet 2021 14;12:702102. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) is a highly lethal and aggressive tumor with poor prognoses. The predictive capability of immune-related genes (IRGs) in PAAD has yet to be explored. We aimed to explore prognostic-related immune genes and develop a prediction model for indicating prognosis in PAAD.

Methods: The messenger (m)RNA expression profiles acquired from public databases were comprehensively integrated and differentially expressed genes were identified. Univariate analysis was utilized to identify IRGs that related to overall survival. Whereafter, a multigene signature in the Cancer Genome Atlas cohort was established based on the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analysis. Moreover, a transcription factors regulatory network was constructed to reveal potential molecular processes in PAAD. PAAD datasets downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were applied for the validations. Finally, correlation analysis between the prognostic model and immunocyte infiltration was investigated.

Results: Totally, 446 differentially expressed immune-related genes were screened in PAAD tissues and normal tissues, of which 43 IRGs were significantly related to the overall survival of PAAD patients. An immune-based prognostic model was developed, which contained eight IRGs. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression revealed that the risk score model was an independent prognostic indicator in PAAD (HR > 1, < 0.001). Besides, the sensitivity of the model was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Finally, immunocyte infiltration analysis revealed that the eight-gene signature possibly played a pivotal role in the status of the PAAD immune microenvironment.

Conclusion: A novel prognostic model based on immune genes may serve to characterize the immune microenvironment and provide a basis for PAAD immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.702102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318842PMC
July 2021

Dithienocoronene diimide (DTCDI)-derived triads for high-performance air-stable, solution-processed balanced ambipolar organic field-effect transistors.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Aug;23(30):16357-16365

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Advanced Energy Devices, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian 710119, China.

Developing ambipolar organic semiconducting materials is essential for use in complementary-like inverters and light-emitting transistors. In this study, three new dithienocoronenediimide (DTCDI)-derived triads, DTCDI-BT, DTCDI-BBT and DTCDI-BNT, were designed and synthesized, in which various sizes of terminal groups, i.e., thiophene (T), benzo[b]thiophene (BT) and naphtha[2,3-b]thiophene (NT) were substituted at the α-positions of the two thiophene rings of DTCDI, respectively. The DFT calculations reveal that the HOMO energy levels of the three triads when compared to that of the parent DTCDI-core (-5.99 eV) are significantly increased to -5.59, -5.59 and -5.45 eV for DTCDI-BT, DTCDI-BBT and DTCDI-BNT, respectively, whereas the LUMO energy levels (-3.07 eV ∼ -3.14 eV) are almost identical with that of the DTCDI-core (-3.10 eV). The results predict that the triads could possess ambipolar transport properties in organic field-effect transistor (OFET) applications. In fact, under an ambient atmosphere, solution-processed bottom-gate top-contact (BGTC) transistors exhibit ambipolar charge transport properties by tuning the HOMOs of the DTCDI-based triads so that they were suitable for hole injection, resulting in balanced maximum electron and hole mobilities of 1.66 × 10-3 and 1.02 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 for DTCDI-BT, 2.60 × 10-2 and 3.60 × 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1 for DTCDI-BBT, and 2.43 × 10-3 and 4.15 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 for DTCDI-BNT, respectively. This is the first time that the DTCDI building block has been used to develop ambipolar small molecular semiconductors, and achieved a device performance comparable to that of the DTCDI-based polymeric semiconductors. In addition, DTCDI-BBT-based complementary-like inverters were made, and the inverter devices operated well in both p-mode and n-mode under ambient conditions. The results show that the DTCDI is a promising π-electron-deficient building block which could be further used to develop ambipolar semiconducting materials for OFET devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp02703dDOI Listing
August 2021

5-HT recruits distinct neurocircuits to inhibit hunger-driven and non-hunger-driven feeding.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Obesity is primarily a consequence of consuming calories beyond energetic requirements, but underpinning drivers have not been fully defined. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurons in the dorsal Raphe nucleus (5-HT) regulate different types of feeding behavior, such as eating to cope with hunger or for pleasure. Here, we observed that activation of 5-HT to hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (5-HT → ARH) projections inhibits food intake driven by hunger via actions at ARH 5-HT and 5-HT receptors, whereas activation of 5-HT to ventral tegmental area (5-HT → VTA) projections inhibits non-hunger-driven feeding via actions at 5-HT receptors. Further, hunger-driven feeding gradually activates ARH-projecting 5-HT neurons via inhibiting their responsiveness to inhibitory GABAergic inputs; non-hunger-driven feeding activates VTA-projecting 5-HT neurons through reducing a potassium outward current. Thus, our results support a model whereby parallel circuits modulate feeding behavior either in response to hunger or to hunger-independent cues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01220-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Hypoxia-Overcoming Breast-Conserving Treatment by Magnetothermodynamic Implant for a Localized Free-Radical Burst Combined with Hyperthermia.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 22;13(30):35484-35493. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

For the purpose of improving the quality of life and minimizing the psychological morbidity of a mastectomy, breast-conserving treatment (BCT) has become the more preferable choice in breast cancer patients. Meanwhile, tumor hypoxia has been increasingly recognized as a major deleterious factor in cancer therapies. In the current study, a novel, effective, and noninvasive magnetothermodynamic strategy based on an oxygen-independent free-radical burst for hypoxia-overcoming BCT is proposed. Radical precursor (AIPH) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are coincorporated within the alginate (ALG) hydrogel, which is formed within the tumor tissue by leveraging the cross-linking effect induced by the local physiological Ca with ALG solution. Inductive heating is mediated by IONPs under AMF exposure, and consequently, regardless of the tumor hypoxia condition, a local free-radical burst is achieved by thermal decomposition of AIPH via AMF responsivity. The combination of magnetic hyperthermia and oxygen-irrelevant free-radical production effectively enhances the cytotoxic effect and also remarkably inhibits tumor proliferation. This study provides a valuable protocol for an hypoxia-overcoming strategy and also an alternative formulation candidate for noninvasive BCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09355DOI Listing
August 2021

Activation of the Hippocampal LXRβ Improves Sleep-Deprived Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, People's Republic of China, 710032.

Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to cognitive impairment due to neuroinflammation associated with impaired hippocampal neuronal plasticity and memory processes. Liver X receptors (LXRs), including LXRα and LXRβ isoforms, are crucial for synaptic plasticity and neuroinflammation. However, the potential roles of LXRs in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment induced by SD remain unclear. We revealed that SD resulted in LXRβ reduction in the hippocampus, which was associated with upregulated expression of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB p65, and knockdown of hippocampal LXRβ by shRNA (shLXRβ) led to cognitive impairment. GW3965, a dual agonist for both LXRα and LXRβ, ameliorated SD-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting microglia activation, suppressing HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway, and ultimately affecting the hippocampal expression of inflammatory cytokines in SD mice. LXRβ knockdown by shLXRβ abrogated the GW3965-mediated inhibition of the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway, therefore, abolishing the cognitive improvement. Moreover, inhibition of HMGB1 by glycyrrhizin (GLY) synergistic promoted GW3965-mediated anti-inflammation in activated microglia after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/ATP stimulation and facilitated the cognitive improvement after GW administration by activating LXRβ. All the data suggested that GW3965 ameliorated impaired cognition in SD mice by suppressing the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB p65 pathway followed LXRβ activation. This study correlates a deficit of LXRβ in cognitive dysfunction in SD associated with HMGB1 inflammatory pathway in hippocampus, and LXRs may serve as a potential therapeutic target for cognitive impairment with anti-inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02446-2DOI Listing
July 2021

A survey: which features are required for dynamic visual simultaneous localization and mapping?

Vis Comput Ind Biomed Art 2021 Jul 16;4(1):20. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Artificial Intelligence, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

In recent years, simultaneous localization and mapping in dynamic environments (dynamic SLAM) has attracted significant attention from both academia and industry. Some pioneering work on this technique has expanded the potential of robotic applications. Compared to standard SLAM under the static world assumption, dynamic SLAM divides features into static and dynamic categories and leverages each type of feature properly. Therefore, dynamic SLAM can provide more robust localization for intelligent robots that operate in complex dynamic environments. Additionally, to meet the demands of some high-level tasks, dynamic SLAM can be integrated with multiple object tracking. This article presents a survey on dynamic SLAM from the perspective of feature choices. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of different visual features is provided in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42492-021-00086-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285453PMC
July 2021

Identification of amino acid response element of SLC38A9 as an ATF4-binding site in porcine skeletal muscle cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Sep 8;569:167-173. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Agricultural Ministry Key Laboratory of Swine Breeding and Genetics & Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding, and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Amino acids can affect protein synthesis by activating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway. Amino acid transporters SLC38A9 on the lysosomal membrane not only transport amino acids, but also can sense amino acids and activate mTORC1 signaling pathway. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) can promote the expression of amino acid transporters by binding with amino acid response element (AARE). In this study, two AAREs were found in the SLC38A9 promoter region of pig, and both of them bound to ATF4. The AARE in the first intron was located in the core promoter region of SLC38A9. ATF4 regulated mRNA expression level of SLC38A9 in porcine skeletal muscle cells. In the absence of amino acids, the expression of ATF4 decreased and the expression of SLC38A9 increased. After leucine addition, the expression levels of ATF4 and SLC38A9 increased. It suggested that in the absence of amino acids, the expression of SLC38A9 was increased via binding of ATF4 to AARE binding factors in SLC38A9 promoter fragment; after the addition of leucine, ATF4 was activated, resulting in the increase of SLC38A9 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.06.083DOI Listing
September 2021

The Effect of Functional Fiber on Microbiota Composition in Different Intestinal Segments of Obese Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 18;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

The gastrointestinal tract is a heterogeneous ecosystem with distinct, stratified environments, which leads to different microbial composition in different intestinal segments. The regional heterogeneity of intestinal microbiota complicates the relationship between diet and microbiota. Few studies have focused on the effects of different diets on microbiota in different intestinal segments. This study aimed to investigate the effects of functional fiber on the microbial composition in multiple intestinal segments from a high-fat diet compared with a normal chow diet. We found that the response of microbiota from different intestinal segments to diet was related to the intestinal physiologic function and the physicochemical properties of dietary nutrients. A high-fat diet drove changes in the microbial composition in the hindgut, possibly by affecting the digestive environment of the foregut, and increased the regional heterogeneity of the whole intestinal microbiota. The supplementation of functional fiber promoted the microbial transfer and colonization from the anterior to the posterior intestinal segments, and increased the regional similarity of intestinal microbiota accordingly, particularly within the hindgut. The gut fermentation of the functional fiber, which mainly occurred in the hindgut, resulted in a significant change in the microbial composition and metabolism in the cecum and colon, with richer carbohydrate metabolism-related bacteria, including Mucispirillum, Prevotella, Anaerostipes, Oscillospira, Ruminococcus, Bacteroides, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus (Lachnospiraceae), and Allobaculum, and higher production of acetate and butyrate. We concluded that multiple regulatory mechanisms of diets which affect microbiota composition exist, including microbial metabolism, microbial migration, and the regulation of the intestinal environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234870PMC
June 2021

Carbon nanotubes interpenetrating MOFs-derived Co-Ni-S composite spheres with interconnected architecture for high performance hybrid supercapacitor.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Nov 6;602:627-635. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China. Electronic address:

Recently, carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based interconnected architectures exhibit promising prospects in supercapacitors due to their flexibility and high electrical conductivity. Herein, a three-dimensional (3D) interconnected network structure combined with conductive carbon nanotubes interpenetrating MOFs-derived Co-Ni-S composite spheres (Co-Ni-S/CNTs) was synthesized. Such 3D interconnected architecture significantly leads to a favorable electronic structure, fast charge-transfer capacity, and more pseudocapacitive. The Co-Ni-S/CNTs-based hybrid electrode exhibits an extraordinary specific capacitance of 540.6C g at 1 A g and competitive rate performance (capacity retention rate of 69.9% when the current density increases to 10 times). Subsequently, a hybrid supercapacitor is assembled using Co-Ni-S/CNTs as the positive electrode and commercial activated carbon as negative electrode. The device delivers a high energy density of 63.5 W h kg at 800 W kg and keeps 83.0% initial capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. The encouraging performances demonstrate the significant contribution of the 3D interconnected architecture for the future energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.06.027DOI Listing
November 2021

Three-Dimensional Arterial Pulse Signal Acquisition in Time Domain Using Flexible Pressure-Sensor Dense Arrays.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 17;12(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China.

In this study, we developed a radial artery pulse acquisition system based on finger-worn dense pressure sensor arrays to enable three-dimensional pulse signals acquisition. The finger-worn dense pressure-sensor arrays were fabricated by packaging 18 ultra-small MEMS pressure sensors (0.4 mm × 0.4 mm × 0.2 mm each) with a pitch of 0.65 mm on flexible printed circuit boards. Pulse signals are measured and recorded simultaneously when traditional Chinese medicine practitioners wear the arrays on the fingers while palpating the radial pulse. Given that the pitches are much smaller than the diameter of the human radial artery, three-dimensional pulse envelope images can be measured with the system, as can the width and the dynamic width of the pulse signals. Furthermore, the array has an effective span of 11.6 mm-3-5 times the diameter of the radial artery-which enables easy and accurate positioning of the sensor array on the radial artery. This study also outlines proposed methods for measuring the pulse width and dynamic pulse width. The dynamic pulse widths of three volunteers were measured, and the dynamic pulse width measurements were consistent with those obtained by color Doppler ultrasound. The pulse wave velocity can also be measured with the system by measuring the pulse transit time between the pulse signals at the brachial and radial arteries using the finger-worn sensor arrays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12050569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156466PMC
May 2021

Glucocorticoid Receptor Alpha Targets SLC2A4 to Regulate Protein Synthesis and Breakdown in Porcine Skeletal Muscle Cells.

Biomolecules 2021 05 12;11(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

In the presence of stress, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity can be enhanced to promote the secretion of a large amount of glucocorticoids (GCs), which play an important role in the anabolism and catabolism of skeletal muscle. When the endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids are deficient or excessive, the body will produce stress-related resistance and change the protein metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effect of GC receptor GRα on protein breakdown and synthesis in porcine skeletal muscle cells (PSCs). Overexpression of GRα was shown to increase the expression of protein degradation-related genes, while knockdown of GRα decreased the expression of these genes. Additionally, we found a relationship between GRα and solute carrier family 2 member 4 (SLC2A4), SLC2A4 expression level increases when stress occurs, suggesting that increasing SLC2A4 expression can partially alleviate stress-induced damage, and we found that there is a combination between them via luciferase reporter assays, which still needs to be confirmed in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11050721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151344PMC
May 2021

Partial Deficiency of Zfp217 Resists High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Increasing Energy Metabolism in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 20;22(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Obesity-induced adipose tissue dysfunction and disorders of glycolipid metabolism have become a worldwide research priority. Zfp217 plays a crucial role in adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, but about its functions in animal models are not yet clear. To explore the role of Zfp217 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, global Zfp217 heterozygous knockout (Zfp217) mice were constructed. Zfp217 mice and Zfp217 mice fed a normal chow diet (NC) did not differ significantly in weight gain, percent body fat mass, glucose tolerance, or insulin sensitivity. When challenged with HFD, Zfp217 mice had less weight gain than Zfp217 mice. Histological observations revealed that Zfp217 mice fed a high-fat diet had much smaller white adipocytes in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Zfp217 mice had improved metabolic profiles, including improved glucose tolerance, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased energy expenditure compared to the Zfp217 mice under HFD. We found that adipogenesis-related genes were increased and metabolic thermogenesis-related genes were decreased in the iWAT of HFD-fed Zfp217 mice compared to Zfp217 mice. In addition, adipogenesis was markedly reduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Zfp217-deleted mice. Together, these data indicate that Zfp217 is a regulator of energy metabolism and it is likely to provide novel insight into treatment for obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161011PMC
May 2021

Dextran hydrogels via disulfide-containing Schiff base formation: Synthesis, stimuli-sensitive degradation and release behaviors.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 16;265:118085. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, 727 South Jingming Road, Kunming, 650500, China.

Dextran hydrogels (Dex-SS) containing both disulfide and Schiff base bonds were developed via facile method based on the dextran oxidation and subsequent formation of Schiff base linkages between polyaldehyde dextran and cystamine, denoted as the disulfide-containing Schiff base reactions. Results of rheology, swelling and C CP/MAS NMR study indicated that cross-linking degree of Dex-SS hydrogels depended strongly on the molar ratio of -CHO/-NH. Acidic and reductive (GSH) environment sensitive degradation behaviors of Dex-SS hydrogels were then evidenced by SEM, rheology study and Ellman's assay. Moreover, doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the hydrogel matrix and pH/GSH-responsive release behaviors were demonstrated. Cytocompatibility of Dex-SS hydrogel and effective cell uptake of released DOX was finally proved by transwell assay with HepG2 cells. Take advantages of the abundance of vicinal hydroxyl on a variety of polysaccharides, the disulfide-containing Schiff base reactions is considered as versatile method to develop stimuli-sensitive hydrogels for local drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118085DOI Listing
August 2021

Is food insecurity a barrier to dental student success?

J Dent Educ 2021 Sep 27;85(9):1518-1524. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Dows Institute, College of Dentistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

Purpose: The prevalence of food insecurity among undergraduate students is higher than the national average and associated with adverse academic outcomes. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of food insecurity, food access behaviors, and associations between food security status and well-being in a dental student population.

Methods: All dental students (N = 328) enrolled in the College of Dentistry at the University of Iowa in the fall 2019 semester were invited to participate. The survey was designed to query demographic variables, food security status (i.e., the United States Department of Agriculture's 10-item Adult Food Security Module), and food- or hunger-related well-being (i.e., sleep, academic performance, and stress). The survey was administered using the Qualtrics survey platform. Following the initial invitation, students were sent two reminders and allowed 3 weeks for completion.

Results: The survey response rate was 24.7%. Forty-seven percent of respondents were food insecure. Food insecure students were more likely to attend collegiate programming (e.g., lunch and learns) for the primary purpose of obtaining free food than their food secure peers (p <0.001). In addition, food insecure students were more likely to report experiencing food- or hunger-related sleep (p = 0.001), study or academic performance (p <0.001), or stress difficulties than their food secure peers (p <0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of food insecurity in dental students was relatively high and associated with adverse food- and/or hunger-related well-being outcomes. Food insecurity might be a barrier to dental student success, compromising their immediate health and ability to learn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jdd.12623DOI Listing
September 2021

Protection of apigenin against acrylonitrile-induced sperm and testis injury in rats: involvement of activation of ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling pathway.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2021 Mar 11;10(2):159-168. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

This study aims to clarify if apigenin (AP) could play a pivotal role in attenuating acrylonitrile (ACN)-induced sperm and testis injury by inhibiting ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: a control group (corn oil), an ACN group (ACN 46 mg kg), an ACN + AP1 group (ACN + AP 117 mg kg), an ACN + AP2 group (ACN + AP 234 mg kg) and an ACN + AP3 group (ACN + AP 351 mg kg). The ACN + AP groups were given ACN by gavage after a pretreatment with different dosages of AP for 30 min, whereas the rats in the control group received an equivalent volume of corn oil. The gavage was conducted for 6 days per week in 4 weeks. The results showed that AP reduced sperm deformity rate and DNA fragment index and attenuated the testicular injury induced by ACN. AP could also alleviate oxidative stress, downregulate ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling pathway and eventually inhibit mitochondria-mediated testicular apoptosis. In brief, AP could dampen oxidative stress thereby inhibiting testicular apoptosis mediated by ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling pathway, alleviating ACN-induced sperm and testis injury and exerting a protective effect on male reproductive system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxres/tfab017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045582PMC
March 2021

Update on the Mechanisms of Tubular Cell Injury in Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 30;8:661076. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Nephrology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Increasing evidence supports a role of proximal tubular (PT) injury in the progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), in patients with or without proteinuria. Research on the mechanisms of the PT injury in DKD could help us to identify potential new biomarkers and drug targets for DKD. A high glucose transport state and mismatched local hypoxia in the PT of diabetes patients may be the initiating factors causing PT injury. Other mechanism such as mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, ER stress, and deficiency of autophagy interact with each other leading to more PT injury by forming a vicious circle. PT injury eventually leads to the development of tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis in DKD. Many downstream signaling pathways have been demonstrated to mediate these diseased processes. This review focuses mostly on the novel mechanisms of proximal renal tubular injury in DKD and we believe such review could help us to better understand the pathogenesis of DKD and identify potential new therapies for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.661076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042139PMC
March 2021

Electrical Resistance of Stainless Steel/Polyester Blended Knitted Fabrics for Application to Measure Sweat Quantity.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

The Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The HongKong Polytechnic University, Hongkong, China.

Skin wetness and body water loss are important indexes to reflect the heat strain of the human body. According to ISO 7933 2004, the skin wetness and sweat rate are calculated by the evaporative heat flow and the maximum evaporative heat flow in the skin surface, etc. This work proposes the soft textile-based sensor, which was knitted by stainless steel/polyester blended yarn on the flat knitting machine. It investigated the relationship between electrical resistance in the weft/warp directions and different water absorption ratio (0-70%), different sample size (2 cm × 2 cm, 2 cm × 4 cm, 2 cm × 6 cm and 2 cm × 8 cm). The hydrophilic treatment effectively improved the water absorption ratio increasing from 40% to 70%. The weft and warp direction exhibited different electrical behaviors when under dry and wet conditions. It suggested the weft direction of knitted fabrics was recommended for detecting the electrical resistance due to its stable sensitivity and linearity performance. It could be used as a flexible sensor integrated into a garment for measuring the skin wetness and sweat rate in the future instead of traditional measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13071015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037120PMC
March 2021

Population Aging, Health Investment and Economic Growth: Based on a Cross-Country Panel Data Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 12;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of International Trade and Economics, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China.

With the economic development of various countries and the deepening of population aging, health plays an increasingly important role in the macro-economy. How to meet the growing health needs as well as promote the economy has captured the attention of the world. Therefore, whether health investment can promote economic growth is an important theoretical and practical issue. An extended Mankiw-Romer-Weil model (MRW) with human health capital and population aging is employed to examine the impact on economic growth from population aging and health investment. On the basis of the theoretical model, this paper uses the LSDV and TSLS methods to carry out an empirical study based on cross-country panel data during the period 2000-2016. The empirical results show that health investment plays a significant role in promoting economic growth, and there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between population aging and economic growth. The impacts on economic growth from health investment and population aging can weaken each other. In addition, this paper also finds that health investment structure and the proportion of government health investment to total government spending can affect economic growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918705PMC
February 2021

Phytoremediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil: Impacts on Morphological Traits, Proline Content and Stomata Parameters of Sweet Sorghum Seedlings.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Mar 4;106(3):528-535. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

School of Life Sciences, Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Phytoremediation is a green, simple, eco-friendly, sustainable, and cost-effective remediation technology to remove and degrade contaminants from soil. In this study, a germination experiment and a pot experiment were performed in greenhouse to evaluate cadmium toxicity and phytoremediation capacity. The results showed that there was the highest membership function value of cadmium (MFVC) in KFJT-3 than that of KFJT-CK and KFJT-1, the value being 0.473, 0.456 and 0.413, respectively. Furthermore, the highest biomass was discovered in KFJT-3 compared to the other genotypes under 50 mg/kg cadmium stress. Physiological analysis showed that proline content significantly increased in KFJT-3, the value being 31.88%. In addition, Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and Translocation factor (TF) value were 3.80 and 1.02 for KFJT-3, respectively. In conclusion, BAF and TF values showed that the cadmium tolerance of KFJT-1 and KFJT-3 could be higher than that of KFJT-CK, which could be the genotype for phytoremediation of cadmium contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03125-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of the surgeries for the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament-related cervical spondylosis: A PRISMA-compliant network meta-analysis and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(9):e24900

Research Base of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China.

Objective: We designed and performed a network meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes among the 5 surgeries-anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), anterior controllable antedisplacement fusion (ACAF), laminoplasty (LP), laminectomy (LC), and posterior decompression with instrumented fusion (PDF)-for patients with cervical spondylosis related to the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL).

Methods: Databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Web of Science (firstly available-2019) were selected for literature search. We performed a network meta-analysis with the included studies. A Newcastle-Ottawa scale was employed to assess the study quality of the included studies.

Results: Total 23 studies with 1516 patients were included in our analysis. We found that ACCF achieved the most improvement in the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scores and excellent and good recovery rate, ACAF achieved the best improvement of the improvement rate and lordosis. LP got the best operative time and blood loss.

Conclusions: Our results suggested that both anterior (ACCF and ACAF) and posterior (LP, LC, and PDF) procedures have their strengths and weaknesses. Clinicians need to select the most appropriate surgery with a comprehensive consideration of the clinical condition of each patient with OPLL-related cervical spondylosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939206PMC
March 2021

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, an active ingredient of Traditional Chinese Medicines, inhibits the 3CLpro activity of SARS-CoV-2.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 4;176:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China; Hunan Key Laboratory of Animal Models for Human Diseases, Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics & Center for Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent responsible for the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The main protease of SARS-CoV-2, 3CLpro, is an attractive target for antiviral inhibitors due to its indispensable role in viral replication and gene expression of viral proteins. The search of compounds that can effectively inhibit the crucial activity of 3CLpro, which results to interference of the virus life cycle, is now widely pursued. Here, we report that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), is a potent inhibitor of 3CLpro with half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.874 ± 0.005 μM. In the study, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 123 cases of COVID-19 patients, and found three effective Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) prescriptions. Multiple strategies were performed to screen potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro from the active ingredients of TCMs, including network pharmacology, molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assay and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based inhibition assay. The SPR assay showed good interaction between EGCG and 3CLpro with KD ~6.17 μM, suggesting a relatively high affinity of EGCG with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Our results provide critical insights into the mechanism of action of EGCG as a potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859723PMC
April 2021

Modulation of gastrointestinal bacterial in chronic atrophic gastritis model rats by Chinese and west medicine intervention.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Feb 2;20(1):31. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second People's Hospital affiliated to Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, 350003, China.

Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is well-known related with multiple pathogenic factors and normally therapies comprised by western or Chinese medicines. The present study was designed to identify the bacterial community characterized by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and determine the modulate affection of bacterial composition response western and Chinese medicine Qinghuayin (QHY) as well as antibiotic on model rats. The result shown the overall structure alteration of bacterial appeared under medicine intervened, antibiotic caused a marked depletion in bacterial diversity and richness. The enrichments of Firmicutes (85.1-90.7%) in antibiotic-free converts into Bacteroidetes (30.7-34.6%) in antibiotic-added model rat were demonstrated. Firmicutes as the most dominant phylum in antibiotic-free treatments and significantly decreased till 21.9-68.5% in antibiotic-added treatments. Especially QHY-treated rats showed highest RA of Firmicutes (90.7%) and the amelioration of CAG using QHY attributed by beneficial bacterial enrichment, especially Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. In addition, alpha and beta diversity analysis also demonstrated the clear dispersion and aggregation that revealed the alteration and steady of bacterial community structures. In summary, QHY has potential application value in the treatment of CAG, which attributed to close relation with the modulatory of internal bacterial communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01525-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852297PMC
February 2021

Towards Robust Multiple Blind Source Localization Using Source Separation and Beamforming.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 13;21(2). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore.

Multiple blind sound source localization is the key technology for a myriad of applications such as robotic navigation and indoor localization. However, existing solutions can only locate a few sound sources simultaneously due to the limitation imposed by the number of microphones in an array. To this end, this paper proposes a novel multiple blind sound source localization algorithms using Source seParation and BeamForming (SPBF). Our algorithm overcomes the limitations of existing solutions and can locate more blind sources than the number of microphones in an array. Specifically, we propose a novel microphone layout, enabling salient multiple source separation while still preserving their arrival time information. After then, we perform source localization via beamforming using each demixed source. Such a design allows minimizing mutual interference from different sound sources, thereby enabling finer AoA estimation. To further enhance localization performance, we design a new spectral weighting function that can enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio, allowing a relatively narrow beam and thus finer angle of arrival estimation. Simulation experiments under typical indoor situations demonstrate a maximum of only 4∘ even under up to 14 sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21020532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828441PMC
January 2021

Clinical predictors of pathological good response in locally advanced rectal cancer.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jan 13;16(1):10. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, No.29 Xinquan Road, Gulou District, Fuzhou, 350001, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical predictors of pathological good response (PGR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) to clarify the indications for local excision.

Methods And Materials: A total of 173 patients with LARC (cT3-4/N +) who were treated with nCRT followed by surgery were enrolled in our retrospective study. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the different tumor responses of surgical pathology. Stage ypT0-1N0 was defined as the group with PGR, and stage ypT2-4N0/ypTanyN + was the defined as the pathological poor response (PPR) group, and the potential predictors were compared.

Results: Of 173 patients, PGR was achieved in 57 patients (32.95%). The distance from the inferior margin of the tumor to the anal verge, cT classification, pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and the interval from the end of radiation to surgery were correlated with pathological response. In the multivariate analysis, the distance from anal verge < 5 cm (OR = 0.443, p = 0.019), pretreatment CEA < 5 ng/mL (OR = 0.412, p = 0.015) and the interval from the end of radiation to surgery ≥ 84 days (OR = 2.652, p = 0.005) were independent predictors of PGR.

Conclusions: The distance from the inferior margin of the tumor to the anal verge, pretreatment CEA and the interval from the end of radiation to surgery were significant predictors of PGR in LARC. A prospective study is needed to further validate these results in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-020-01741-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805032PMC
January 2021

Sensor Fusion-Based Approach to Eliminating Moving Objects for SLAM in Dynamic Environments.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 1;21(1). Epub 2021 Jan 1.

National Key Laboratory of Microwave Imaging Technology, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China.

Accurate localization and reliable mapping is essential for autonomous navigation of robots. As one of the core technologies for autonomous navigation, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) has attracted widespread attention in recent decades. Based on vision or LiDAR sensors, great efforts have been devoted to achieving real-time SLAM that can support a robot's state estimation. However, most of the mature SLAM methods generally work under the assumption that the environment is static, while in dynamic environments they will yield degenerate performance or even fail. In this paper, first we quantitatively evaluate the performance of the state-of-the-art LiDAR-based SLAMs taking into account different pattens of moving objects in the environment. Through semi-physical simulation, we observed that the shape, size, and distribution of moving objects all can impact the performance of SLAM significantly, and obtained instructive investigation results by quantitative comparison between LOAM and LeGO-LOAM. Secondly, based on the above investigation, a novel approach named EMO to eliminating the moving objects for SLAM fusing LiDAR and mmW-radar is proposed, towards improving the accuracy and robustness of state estimation. The method fully uses the advantages of different characteristics of two sensors to realize the fusion of sensor information with two different resolutions. The moving objects can be efficiently detected based on Doppler effect by radar, accurately segmented and localized by LiDAR, then filtered out from the point clouds through data association and accurate synchronized in time and space. Finally, the point clouds representing the static environment are used as the input of SLAM. The proposed approach is evaluated through experiments using both semi-physical simulation and real-world datasets. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method at improving SLAM performance in accuracy (decrease by 30% at least in absolute position error) and robustness in dynamic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21010230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795064PMC
January 2021

DNA-Gold Nanozyme-Modified Paper Device for Enhanced Colorimetric Detection of Mercury Ions.

Biosensors (Basel) 2020 Dec 18;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

In this work, a paper device consisted of a patterned paper chip, wicking pads, and a base was fabricated. On the paper chip, DNA-gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) were deposited and Hg ions could be adsorbed by the DNA-AuNPs. The formed DNA-AuNP/Hg nanozyme could catalyze the tetramethylbenzidine (TMB)-HO chromogenic reaction. Due to the wicking pads, a larger volume of Hg sample could be applied to the paper device for Hg detection and therefore the color response could be enhanced. The paper device achieved a cut-off value of 50 nM by the naked eye for Hg under optimized conditions. Moreover, quantitative measurements could be implemented by using a desktop scanner and extracting grayscale values. A linear range of 50-2000 nM Hg was obtained with a detection limit of 10 nM. In addition, the paper device could be applied in the detection of environmental water samples with high recoveries ranging from 85.7% to 105.6%. The paper-device-based colorimetric detection was low-cost, simple, and demonstrated high potential in real-sample applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios10120211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766257PMC
December 2020

Formulation of traditional Chinese medicine and its application on intestinal flora of constipated rats.

Microb Cell Fact 2020 Nov 18;19(1):212. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second People's Hospital affiliated to Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, 353003, China.

In this study, the self-extracted constipation treatment of traditional Chinese medicine extracts was applied to constipated rats. To explore the mechanism and role of the Chinese medicine for the treatment of constipation, the 16S rRNA sequencing and qRT-PCR technology were used to analyze the intestinal flora. We found that the relative abundance of Firmicutes with constipation was significantly higher accounted for 86.7%, while the gut microbiota was significantly changed after taking a certain dose of Chinese medicine, greatly increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus accounted for 23.1%, enhanced the symbiotic relationships of Lactobacillus with other intestinal flora. The total copies of intestinal bacteria in the constipated rats decreased after taking the traditional Chinese medicine. Finally, this study results provides a theoretical basis for the treatment and understand the mechanism and effect of traditional Chinese medicine on rate constipation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-020-01473-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672833PMC
November 2020

Chemotherapy-based split stereotactic body radiation therapy for borderline resectable and locally advanced pancreatic cancer: study protocol of a prospective, single-arm phase II trial.

BMJ Open 2020 11 5;10(11):e039900. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China

Introduction: The question of how to administer adequate chemotherapy to synchronise stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment strategy to maximise the benefits of neoadjuvant therapy for the improved prognosis of patients with borderline resectable (BRPC) and locally advanced (LAPC) pancreatic cancer is a challenging and debatable issue. No studies have yet evaluated the efficacy of split-course SBRT as the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimen. We aimed to study whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus split-course SBRT results in better outcomes in BRPC and LAPC patients.

Methods And Analysis: Treatment-naïve patients with radiographically confirmed BRPC or LAPC, supporting biopsy results and no severe comorbidities will be enrolled. They will be treated with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine (nab-P+Gem) chemotherapy plus split-course SBRT, followed by an investigator's choice of continuation of treatment with nab-P+Gem or surgery. nab-P+Gem chemotherapy will commence on day 1 for each of six cycles: nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m intravenous infusion over approximately 30-45 min, followed by gemcitabine 1000 mg/m intravenous infusion over about 30 min on days 1 and 15 of each 28-day cycle. During the first and second cycles of chemotherapy, SBRT will be given as a single irradiation of 10 Gy four times (days 2 and 16 of each 28-day cycle). The primary endpoint is progression-free survival; while the secondary outcomes are the time to treatment failure, disease control rate, overall response rate, overall survival, R0 resection rate and incidence of adverse effects.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Xiehe Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University (No. 2019YF015-01). Results from our study will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality.

Trial Registration Number: NCT04289792.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-039900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646341PMC
November 2020
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