Publications by authors named "Robert Naclerio"

124 Publications

International Consensus Statement on Rhinology and Allergy: Rhinosinusitis.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020 Nov 24. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Capital Medical University.

Background: The 5 years since the publication of the first International Consensus Statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Rhinosinusitis (ICAR-RS) has witnessed foundational progress in our understanding and treatment of rhinologic disease. These advances are reflected within the more than 40 new topics covered within the ICAR-RS-2021 as well as updates to the original 140 topics. This executive summary consolidates the evidence-based findings of the document.

Methods: ICAR-RS presents over 180 topics in the forms of evidence-based reviews with recommendations (EBRRs), evidence-based reviews, and literature reviews. The highest grade structured recommendations of the EBRR sections are summarized in this executive summary.

Results: ICAR-RS-2021 covers 22 topics regarding the medical management of RS, which are grade A/B and are presented in the executive summary. Additionally, 4 topics regarding the surgical management of RS are grade A/B and are presented in the executive summary. Finally, a comprehensive evidence-based management algorithm is provided.

Conclusion: This ICAR-RS-2021 executive summary provides a compilation of the evidence-based recommendations for medical and surgical treatment of the most common forms of RS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22741DOI Listing
November 2020

Immunopathological features of air pollution and its impact on inflammatory airway diseases (IAD).

World Allergy Organ J 2020 Oct 5;13(10):100467. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

INSERM U 1168, VIMA: Ageing and Chronic Diseases Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, Villejuif, France.

Air pollution causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory airway diseases (IAD) such as allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Oxidative stress in patients with IAD can induce eosinophilic inflammation in the airways, augment atopic allergic sensitization, and increase susceptibility to infection. We reviewed emerging data depicting the involvement of oxidative stress in IAD patients. We evaluated biomarkers, outcome measures and immunopathological alterations across the airway mucosal barrier following exposure, particularly when accentuated by an infectious insult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7534666PMC
October 2020

The Treatment Paradigm of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps in the COVD-19 Era.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 Sep 24;8(8):2492-2494. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.06.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831784PMC
September 2020

ARIA digital anamorphosis: Digital transformation of health and care in airway diseases from research to practice.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Tari Haahtela Torsten Zuberbier Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Anna Bedbrook Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Marina Erhola Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Ltt Le Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Erik Melén Joaquim Mullol Marek Niedoszytko Mikaëla Odemyr Yoshitaka Okamoto Nikos G Papadopoulos Vincenzo Patella Oliver Pfaar Nhân Pham-Thi Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Mikhail Sofiev Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Ana Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Arzu Yorgancioglu Ioana Agache Cezmi A Akdis Rute Almeida Ignacio J Ansotegui Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagaña Eric D Bateman Annabelle Bédard Martin Bedolla-Barajas Sven Becker Kazi S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Michael Bewick Slawomir Bialek Nils E Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Matteo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Isabelle Bosse Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Rodolphe Bourret Koen Boussery Fluvio Braido Vitalis Briedis Andrew Briggs Christopher E Brightling Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Moises A Calderon Paulo Camargos Thierry Camuzat Luis Caraballo Ana-Maria Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Ekaterine Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Jaime Correia de Sousa David J Costa Anne-Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejan Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Giulia De Feo Govert De Vries Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Gerard Dray Ruta Dubakiene Stephen R Durham Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal Enrico Heffler Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Jean-Luc Fauquert Alessandro Fiocchi Antje Fink-Wagner Jean-François Fontaine José M Fuentes Perez Bilun Gemicioğlu Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Philippe Gevaert René Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam Yunuen R Huerta Villalobos Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Ewa Jassem Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Rostislav Kouznetsov Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Stefania La Grutta Lisa Leonardini Henrik Ljungberg Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Catarina Lopes-Pereira Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Bassam Mahboub Michaël Makris Joao Malva Patrick Manning Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Pedro Carreiro-Martins Mika Makela Eve Mathieu-Dupas Marcus Maurer Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Yann Micheli Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Dimitirios I Mitsias Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leyla Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Björn Nordlund Ettore Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robyn O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Valentina Orlando Solange Ouedraogo Julia Palamarchuk Isabella Pali-Schöll Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Gianni Passalacqua Jean-Louis Pépin Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Jim Phillips Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Fotis Psarros Benoit Pugin Francesca Puggioni Pablo Quinones-Delgado Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Frederico S Regateiro Sietze Reitsma Daniela Rivero-Yeverino Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Erendira Rodriguez-Zagal Christine Rolland Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Nelson Rosario Antonino Romano Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Joaquin Sastre Glenis K Scadding Sophie Scheire Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier Holger J Schünemann Faradiba Sarquis Serpa Mohamed Shamji Juan-Carlos Sisul Mikhail Sofiev Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova François Spertini Otto Spranger Cristiana Stellato Rafael Stelmach Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Mondher Toumi Omar Usmani Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Marilyn Urrutia Pereira Rianne van der Kleij Michiel Van Eerd Olivier Vandenplas Tuula Vasankari Antonio Vaz Carneiro Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan Shan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Allergy 2021 01 23;76(1):168-190. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Digital anamorphosis is used to define a distorted image of health and care that may be viewed correctly using digital tools and strategies. MASK digital anamorphosis represents the process used by MASK to develop the digital transformation of health and care in rhinitis. It strengthens the ARIA change management strategy in the prevention and management of airway disease. The MASK strategy is based on validated digital tools. Using the MASK digital tool and the CARAT online enhanced clinical framework, solutions for practical steps of digital enhancement of care are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14422DOI Listing
January 2021

International expert consensus on the management of allergic rhinitis (AR) aggravated by air pollutants: Impact of air pollution on patients with AR: Current knowledge and future strategies.

World Allergy Organ J 2020 Mar 3;13(3):100106. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, Eye and Ear University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon.

Allergic rhinitis affects the quality of life of millions of people worldwide. Air pollution not only causes morbidity, but nearly 3 million people per year die from unhealthy indoor air exposure. Furthermore, allergic rhinitis and air pollution interact. This report summarizes the discussion of an International Expert Consensus on the management of allergic rhinitis aggravated by air pollution. The report begins with a review of indoor and outdoor air pollutants followed by epidemiologic evidence showing the impact of air pollution and climate change on the upper airway and allergic rhinitis. Mechanisms, particularly oxidative stress, potentially explaining the interactions between air pollution and allergic rhinitis are discussed. Treatment for the management of allergic rhinitis aggravated by air pollution primarily involves treating allergic rhinitis by guidelines and reducing exposure to pollutants. Fexofenadine a non-sedating oral antihistamine improves AR symptoms aggravated by air pollution. However, more efficacy studies on other pharmacological therapy of coexisting AR and air pollution are currently lacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132263PMC
March 2020

Sinonasal Disease: An Underappreciated Entity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 05 12;8(5):1567-1568. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Fla.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.01.064DOI Listing
May 2020

Therapeutic Potential of Dupilumab in the Treatment of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps: Evidence to Date.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2020 23;16:31-37. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) is one of the most severe forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. CRSwNP is characterized by nasal and facial congestion, loss of sense of smell, rhinorrhea, and post-nasal drip. Treatments have been ineffective at controlling disease recurrence, despite multiple courses of medical and surgical therapies. Oral glucocorticoid therapy is often used to control exacerbations leaving the patient exposed to steroid-induced adverse effects. Thus, there is a clear unmet need for new treatments to achieve better control of the disease. Advances in understanding Type 2 inflammatory processes that occur in about 80% of the Western world patients with CRSwNP have resulted in new avenues for disease control. Biologics in the form of monoclonal antibodies, which target Type 2 inflammation, have helped control the severest forms of atopic dermatitis and asthma. Treatment regimes for CRSwNP now include biologics. In July 2019, dupilumab was the first monoclonal antibody to gain FDA approval for the treatment of CRSwNP. In this review, we summarize the proof of concept clinical trials and Phase 3 trials leading to approval of dupilumab, an anti-IL4 alpha receptor antagonist that blocks the actions of both IL4 and IL13. These studies show that dupilumab is a proven treatment option to control disease. Collective studies demonstrate a high safety profile. Questions arise as to the best use of dupilumab in the context of current treatment paradigms, and for which sub-population of the varied heterogeneous endotypes of CRSwNP patients. Recognizing the high cost of biologics forces the need for cost-effectiveness analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S210648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6986240PMC
January 2020

Clinical Research Needs for the Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps in the New Era of Biologics: A National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Workshop.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 05 4;8(5):1532-1549.e1. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. Electronic address:

The development of biologics targeting various aspects of type 2 inflammation for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) will provide clinicians with powerful tools to help treat these patients. However, other therapies are also available, and positioning of biologics in a management algorithm will require comparative trials. In November 2019, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop to consider potential future trial designs. Workshop participants represented a wide spectrum of clinical specialties, including otolaryngology, allergy, and pulmonary medicine, as well as expertise in CRSwNP pathophysiology and in trial methodology and statistics. The workshop discussed the current state of knowledge in CRSwNP and considered the advantages and disadvantages of various clinical trial or observational study designs and various clinical outcomes. The output from this workshop, which is presented in this report, will hopefully provide investigators with adequate information and ideas to design future studies and answer critical clinical questions. It will also help clinicians understand the current state of the management of CRSwNP and its gaps and be more able to interpret the new information to come.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.02.023DOI Listing
May 2020

A Pragmatic Approach Towards Sinonasal Diseases.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 05 17;8(5):1556-1558. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md. Electronic address:

Sinonasal disease in its multiple forms affects billions of people worldwide. Although physicians train to precisely diagnose a patient and then treat appropriately, the sheer number of people afflicted with sinonasal disease precludes this approach. We argue that patients should first be treated with an intranasal corticosteroid for 2 weeks. Based on their perceived response, they should be triaged. Those who respond well can be instructed on how to continue to manage their disease. Those who do not would be referred to allergists or otolaryngologists for diagnosis and treatment. We believe this pragmatic approach is safe, provided first-line physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners recognize some warning symptoms and signs of serious, but infrequently occurring, sinonasal diseases that would not lend themselves to this proposed approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.02.003DOI Listing
May 2020

Persistence of Sinonasal Disease Despite Mepolizumab.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 05 4;8(5):1550-1555. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md.

The treatment paradigm for the management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) is currently undergoing a rapid evolution with the development of monoclonal antibody therapies targeted at type 2 inflammatory pathways. The use of these biologic therapies in asthmatic patients, and more recently, patients with CRSwNP has produced promising results, especially for patients with severe disease. Many questions regarding the appropriate timing of these medications, whether or not these new treatment strategies should be used as a monotherapy or in conjunction with traditional therapies such as sinus surgery, the role of appropriate phenotyping, and identification of biomarkers, remain unanswered. We herein present a case of a patient with severe eosinophilic asthma and comorbid CRSwNP who failed to achieve control of his respiratory symptomology and ultimately progressed to sinus surgery despite treatment with an anti-interleukin 5 monoclonal antibody therapy (mepolizumab). Consideration is given to the mechanistic underpinnings of the reported patient's failure. This case highlights the need for further understanding of the optimal usage of these novel therapeutics in the management of CRSwNP and in the need to better understand the pathophysiology of CRSwNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.01.049DOI Listing
May 2020

In Reference to Is Topical Epinephrine Safe for Hemostasis in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery?

Laryngoscope 2020 10 3;130(10):E523. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28537DOI Listing
October 2020

Dupilumab reduces opacification across all sinuses and related symptoms in patients with CRSwNP.

Rhinology 2020 Feb;58(1):10-17

Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) is associated with substantial sinus opacification. In a phase 2a study (NCT01920893), dupilumab, a fully human anti-IL-4Rα monoclonal antibody, improved outcomes in CRSwNP refractory to intranasal corticosteroids. We evaluated dupilumab’s effect on sinus opacification in relation to effects on nasal polyp burden, symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with CRSwNP.

Methodology: 16-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 60 adults with CRSwNP. Patients received weekly subcutaneous dupilumab 300-mg or placebo and daily mometasone furoate nasal spray. Sinus opacification was assessed using standard and Zinreich-modified Lundâ€"Mackay (zLMK) scoring. Correlation was assessed between zLMK score and CRSwNP endpoints, including nasal polyp score (NPS), SNOT-22, daily symptom scores, and UPSIT smell-test score.

Results: Baseline characteristics were similar across treatment groups. Mean plus/minus SD baseline LMK scores of 18.7 plus/minus 5.5 (placebo) and 18.6 plus/minus 5.0 (dupilumab) indicated severe disease with extensive opacification involving all sinuses. Baseline LMK and LMK scores correlated with NPS severity and loss of sense of smell (daily symptoms; SNOT-22 smell/taste; loss of sense of smell [UPSIT]). At Week 16, dupilumab-treated patients had significantly improved sinus opacification measured by LMK in all individual sinuses vs placebo. Dupilumab also showed similar efficacy with zLMK, with only small differences from LMK, and correlated with SNOT22 smell/taste. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, injection-site reactions, and headache.

Conclusions: In patients with CRSwNP, baseline LMK showed extensive sinus opacification and correlated with symptoms, HRQoL, and hyposmia. Dupilumab treatment reduces opacification across all sinuses and related symptoms in patients with CRSwNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4193/Rhin18.282DOI Listing
February 2020

Next-generation ARIA care pathways for rhinitis and asthma: a model for multimorbid chronic diseases.

Authors:
J Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Alkis Togias Marina Erhola Peter W Hellings Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Sven Becker Martin Bedolla-Barajas Michael Bewick Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Louis P Boulet Jean Marc Bourrez Guy Brusselle Niels Chavannes Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Mina Gaga Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene L T T Le Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Enrica Menditto Joaquin Mullol Yashitaka Okamoto Nikos Papadopoulos Nhân Pham-Thi Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Nicolas Roche Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Tuula Vasankari Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Cezmi A Akdis Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagana Eric Bateman Anna Bedbrook K S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Slawomir Bialek Nils Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Jacques Bouchard Vitalis Briedis Christofer E Brightling Jan Brozek Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Giorgo W Canonica Victoria Cardona Ana M Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Eka Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Elaine Colgan Jaime Correia de Sousa Anne Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejand Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Antoni Dedeu Giulia De Feo Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Marc Dykewickz Ruta Dubakiene Motohiro Ebisawa Yaya El-Gamal Esben Eller Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Antjie Fink-Wagner Alessandro Fiocchi Jean F Fontaine Bilun Gemicioğlu Peter Schmid-Grendelmeir Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam John O'B Hourihane Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Maddalena Illario Juan C Ivancevich Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Mussa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Lisa Leonardini Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Gert Marien Bassam Mahboub Joao Malva Patrick Manning Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Eve Mathieu-Dupas Poalo M Matricardi Eric Melén Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralf Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leila Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Enrico Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robin O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle Onorato Solange Ouedraogo Isabella Pali-Schöll Susanna Palkonen Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Jean-Louis Pépin Ana-Maria Pereira Oliver Pfaar Ema Paulino Jim Phillips Robert Picard Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Benoit Pugin Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Sietze Reitsma Xavier Rodo Antonino Romano Nelson Rosario Menahenm Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Juan-Carlos Sisul Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova Otto Spranger Cristina Stellato Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Ana Todo-Bom Peter V Tomazic Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Rianne van der Kleij Olivier Vandenplas Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Y Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heahter J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan S Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Clin Transl Allergy 2019 9;9:44. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

260University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Background: In all societies, the burden and cost of allergic and chronic respiratory diseases are increasing rapidly. Most economies are struggling to deliver modern health care effectively. There is a need to support the transformation of the health care system into integrated care with organizational health literacy.

Main Body: As an example for chronic disease care, MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK), a new project of the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative, and POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis, EIT Health), in collaboration with professional and patient organizations in the field of allergy and airway diseases, are proposing real-life ICPs centred around the patient with rhinitis, and using mHealth to monitor environmental exposure. Three aspects of care pathways are being developed: (i) Patient participation, health literacy and self-care through technology-assisted "patient activation", (ii) Implementation of care pathways by pharmacists and (iii) Next-generation guidelines assessing the recommendations of GRADE guidelines in rhinitis and asthma using real-world evidence (RWE) obtained through mobile technology. The EU and global political agendas are of great importance in supporting the digital transformation of health and care, and MASK has been recognized by DG Santé as a Good Practice in the field of digitally-enabled, integrated, person-centred care.

Conclusion: In 20 years, ARIA has considerably evolved from the first multimorbidity guideline in respiratory diseases to the digital transformation of health and care with a strong political involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-019-0279-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734297PMC
September 2019

Dupilumab improves health-related quality of life in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis.

Allergy 2020 01 23;75(1):148-157. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) negatively affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a previously reported randomized clinical trial (NCT01920893), addition of dupilumab to mometasone furoate in patients with CRSwNP refractory to intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) significantly improved endoscopic, radiographic, and clinical endpoints and patient-reported outcomes. The objective of this analysis was to examine the impact of dupilumab treatment on HRQoL and productivity using secondary outcome data from this trial.

Methods: Following a 4-week mometasone furoate nasal spray run-in, patients were randomized to commence subcutaneous dupilumab (600 mg loading dose, then 300 mg once weekly for 15 weeks [n = 30], or matched placebo [n = 30]). Outcomes included scores on the CRS disease severity visual analog scale (VAS), 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), 5-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D) general health status VAS, and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) for HRQoL and nasal polyp-related healthcare resource use questionnaires.

Results: Following 16 weeks of treatment, the proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe CRSwNP (VAS > 3-10) decreased from 86.2% to 21.4% with dupilumab and 88.0% to 84.2% with placebo. Dupilumab (vs placebo) resulted in significantly greater improvement in HRQoL, based on SNOT-22, SF-36, and EQ-5D VAS scores. The dupilumab group had a significantly lower adjusted annualized mean number of sick leave days (0.09, vs 4.18 with placebo, P = .015) and significantly greater improvement (vs placebo) in the SNOT-22 item "reduced productivity."

Conclusions: In adults with CRSwNP refractory to treatment with INCS alone, the addition of dupilumab reduced disease severity, significantly improved HRQoL, and improved productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13984DOI Listing
January 2020

ARIA pharmacy 2018 "Allergic rhinitis care pathways for community pharmacy": AIRWAYS ICPs initiative (European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, DG CONNECT and DG Santé) POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis) GARD Demonstration project.

Authors:
Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Elisio Costa Enrica Menditto Olga Lourenço Ettore Novellino Slawomir Bialek Vitalis Briedis Roland Buonaiuto Henry Chrystyn Biljana Cvetkovski Stefania Di Capua Vicky Kritikos Alpana Mair Valentina Orlando Ema Paulino Johanna Salimäki Rojin Söderlund Rachel Tan Dennis M Williams Piotr Wroczynski Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Anna Bedbrook Claus Bachert Mike Bewick Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Jan L Brozek Giorgio Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Warner Carr Thomas B Casale Niels H Chavannes Jaime Correia de Sousa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Giuseppe De Carlo Pascal Demoly Philippe Devillier Mark S Dykewicz Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal João Fonseca Wytske J Fokkens Maria Antonieta Guzmán Tari Haahtela Peter W Hellings Maddalena Illario Juan Carlos Ivancevich Jocelyne Just Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Thomas Keil Ludger Klimek Marek L Kowalski Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Lan T T Le Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Bassam Mahboub Dieter Maier Joao Malva Patrick J Manning Mário Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Joaquim Mullol Lars Münter Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Leyla Namazova-Baranova Kristof Nekam Tshipukane Dieudonné Nyembue Kimi Okubo Robyn E O'Hehir Ken Ohta Yoshitaka Okamoto Gabrielle L Onorato Susanna Palkonen Petr Panzner Nikolaos G Papadopoulos Hae-Sim Park Ruby Pawankar Oliver Pfaar Jim Phillips Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Paul C Potter Emmanuel P Prokopakis Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Bolesław Samolinski Mario Sanchez-Borges Holger J Schunemann Aziz Sheikh Juan Carlos Sisul David Somekh Cristiana Stellato Teresa To Ana Maria Todo-Bom Peter Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Antonio Valero Arunas Valiulis Errka Valovirta Maria Teresa Ventura Martin Wagenmann Dana Wallace Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Mihaela Zidarn Torsten Zuberbier Jean Bousquet

Allergy 2019 07 30;74(7):1219-1236. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

MACVIA-France, Fondation Partenariale FMC VIA-LR, Montpellier, France.

Pharmacists are trusted health care professionals. Many patients use over-the-counter (OTC) medications and are seen by pharmacists who are the initial point of contact for allergic rhinitis management in most countries. The role of pharmacists in integrated care pathways (ICPs) for allergic diseases is important. This paper builds on existing studies and provides tools intended to help pharmacists provide optimal advice/interventions/strategies to patients with rhinitis. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)-pharmacy ICP includes a diagnostic questionnaire specifically focusing attention on key symptoms and markers of the disease, a systematic Diagnosis Guide (including differential diagnoses), and a simple flowchart with proposed treatment for rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. Key prompts for referral within the ICP are included. The use of technology is critical to enhance the management of allergic rhinitis. However, the ARIA-pharmacy ICP should be adapted to local healthcare environments/situations as regional (national) differences exist in pharmacy care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13701DOI Listing
July 2019

Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) Phase 4 (2018): Change management in allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity using mobile technology.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Peter W Hellings Ioana Agache Flore Amat Isabella Annesi-Maesano Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Eric D Bateman Anna Bedbrook Kazi Bennoor Mickael Bewick Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Jan Brozek Luisa Brussino Giorgio W Canonica Victoria Cardona Thomas Casale Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Lorenzo Cecchi Jaime Correia de Sousa Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Giuseppe De Carlo Giulia De Feo Pascal Demoly Philippe Devillier Mark S Dykewicz Yehia El-Gamal Esben E Eller Joao A Fonseca Jean-François Fontaine Wytske J Fokkens Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Jocelyne Just Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Omer Kalayci Thomas Keil Ludger Klimek Marek L Kowalski Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Lan T T Le Karin Lodrup Carlsen Olga Lourenço Bassam Mahboub Alpana Mair Enrica Menditto Branislava Milenkovic Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Joaquim Mullol Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Leyla Namazova-Baranova Ettore Novellino Robyn E O'Hehir Ken Ohta Yoshitaka Okamoto Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Susanna Palkonen Petr Panzner Nikos G Papadopoulos Hae-Sim Park Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Oliver Pfaar Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Paul Potter Emmanuel P Prokopakis Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Boleslaw Samolinski Mario Sanchez-Borges Holger J Schunemann Aziz Sheikh Juan-Carlos Sisul Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Talant Sooronbaev Cristiana Stellato Teresa To Ana-Maria Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Antonio Valero Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Dana Wallace Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Arzu Yorgancioglu Luo Zhang Nanshan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn Torsten Zuberbier

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 03 29;143(3):864-879. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Comprehensive Allergy Center Charité, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, and Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN), Berlin, Germany.

Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) has evolved from a guideline by using the best approach to integrated care pathways using mobile technology in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma multimorbidity. The proposed next phase of ARIA is change management, with the aim of providing an active and healthy life to patients with rhinitis and to those with asthma multimorbidity across the lifecycle irrespective of their sex or socioeconomic status to reduce health and social inequities incurred by the disease. ARIA has followed the 8-step model of Kotter to assess and implement the effect of rhinitis on asthma multimorbidity and to propose multimorbid guidelines. A second change management strategy is proposed by ARIA Phase 4 to increase self-medication and shared decision making in rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. An innovation of ARIA has been the development and validation of information technology evidence-based tools (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network [MASK]) that can inform patient decisions on the basis of a self-care plan proposed by the health care professional.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.08.049DOI Listing
March 2019

Uncharted Waters: Challenges in the Era of Biologic Therapies for Nasal Polyposis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 01 11;7(1):68-70. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Section of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. Electronic address:

Several new, promising, targeted therapies for nasal polyposis are being tested in large-scale clinical trials. These agents target pathways thought to be involved in the disease, including IgE, IL-5, IL-4/IL-13, and others. Designing these trials poses significant challenges: who and when to enroll is not completely clear, optimal dosing is not known, outcome measures are insufficiently robust, there are no validated biomarkers, trial regimens may not comport with how clinicians might use these drugs once approved, and cost-benefit ratios have not been assessed. Thus, there is a need to consider such questions, as trials of these novel treatments continue and these biologics become available. Despite these uncertainties about trial design, there remains a great deal of excitement in the field as we approach the dawn of a new era of therapeutic options for nasal polyposis. In this rostrum, we enumerate these issues and call for a conference that will allow stakeholders in the field to confront them as we enter this new era of opportunity to advance the treatment of nasal polyposis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.07.017DOI Listing
January 2019

Nasal Polyps and Biomarkers.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2017 Nov - Dec;5(6):1589-1590

Section of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2017.05.007DOI Listing
May 2019

Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Nasal Polyps.

Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2017 05 2;37(2):357-367. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 1400 Locust Street, Suite 2100, Building D, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA. Electronic address:

Biologics are novel therapeutic medications developed for the targeted therapy for a variety of inflammatory conditions. The biologics currently investigated for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps modulate specific inflammatory pathways involved in the pathogenesis of disease. Investigations have focused on the most severe form of the disease, namely, CRS with nasal polyps. It is hoped that specific targeted therapies using these biologics can significantly modulate the immune system, offering both disease control and symptomatic relief. This review summarizes those therapies that have been used to treat nasal polyps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2017.01.008DOI Listing
May 2017

Choice of Analgesics After Adenotonsillectomy: Are We Between a Rock and a Hard Place?

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016 11;142(11):1041-1042

Section of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Chicago School of Medicine and the Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2016.3216DOI Listing
November 2016

Allergy and asthma medication use in home-dwelling U.S. older adults.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2017 02 3;7(2):192-198. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Department of Surgery, Section of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Background: Little is known about the use of allergy and asthma medications in older adults. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of use of these medications in older adults and evaluate predictors of their use.

Methods: Cross-sectional study using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling, U.S. adults 57 to 85 years (n = 2976) collected in 2005-2006. We determined prevalence of medication use and used logistic regression to evaluate sociodemographic and health factors associated with their use.

Results: Overall prevalence of allergy medication usage was 8.4% (most commonly antihistamines), and prevalence of asthma medication usage was 8.0% (most commonly bronchodilators). Allergy medication use was significantly associated with history of asthma (odds ratio [OR] 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52 to 3.69), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 2.35; 95% CI, 1.58 to 3.51), or nasal surgery (OR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.86). Older age was associated with decreased allergy medication use (per decade, OR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.98). Although increased education was associated with increased overall allergy medication use, it was associated with decreased use of allergy medications generally contraindicated in the elderly. In contrast, the only significant predictors of asthma medication use were history of asthma (OR 19.66; 95% CI, 3.18 to 121.70) or COPD (OR 4.25; 95% CI, 0.88 to 20.44).

Conclusion: Allergy and asthma medication use is prevalent among older adults and driven mostly by history of asthma or COPD. Additional sociodemographic factors predict allergy (but not asthma) medication use. Further studies are needed to evaluate efficacy of these drugs in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.21856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057748PMC
February 2017

A clinical trial of a microcrystalline cellulose topical nasal spray on the acute response to allergen challenge.

Am J Rhinol Allergy 2016 Jul;30(4):269-73

Section of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Allergic rhinitis is a common disorder that leads to a negative impact on quality of life. Multiple options are available for treatment of the symptoms, but preventing the reaction should be an effective strategy.

Objective: We tested a nasal spray that contained microcrystalline cellulose designed to limit airborne allergens from penetrating the nasal mucosa (nasal blocker) and, therefore, prevent the initiation of the allergic reaction.

Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover clinical trial with 20 subjects who had a history of seasonal grass and/or ragweed allergy symptoms. Each subject underwent two separate nasal challenges with antigen (provocations) after application of the investigational product or placebo to both nostrils. The allergen was delivered into one nostril at a time and was administered at 2-hour intervals (identified as challenge 1 and challenge 2). We assessed peak nasal inspiratory flow and total nasal symptoms as well as the number of sneezes recorded at both 15-minute and 1-hour intervals after challenge 1 and, later, challenge 2. After a washout period, the subjects returned to undergo the alternate therapy.

Results: There was a significant overall decrease in peak nasal inspiratory flow after both treatments (investigational product, p = 0.005; placebo, p = 0.001), but, when the average of the change from baseline in peak nasal inspiratory flow was compared with the baseline, the results showed no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.31). Similar results were obtained for total nasal symptoms.

Conclusion: The investigational product did not prove to be significantly better than placebo in treating seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/ajra.2016.30.4314DOI Listing
July 2016

Other Phenotypes and Treatment of Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2016 Jul-Aug;4(4):613-20

Department of Surgery, Section of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Ill; Department of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Ill.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is difficult to define, partly because the disease recognized by clinicians is both heterogeneous and the endpoint of different pathophysiologic, genetic, and environmental interactions. For this article, we define CRS as symptoms lasting more than 3 months combined with an imaging study showing inflammation in the sinuses. This article comments on some factors that are believed to influence the expression of CRS. These factors include anatomic abnormalities, immotile cilia, age, allergic sensitization, immune deficiency, dental infections, gastrointestinal reflux, smoking, biofilm, and the microbiome. Other factors are discussed in other sections. The article concludes with an overview of treatment. In brief, nasal steroids and large volume nasal irrigations are the first line of treatment for this inflammatory disease. Antibiotics are used when infections are thought to contribute. Oral steroids are frequently used in severe disease. Endoscopy and sinus computed tomography scans are used when surgery is contemplated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2016.03.016DOI Listing
October 2017

MACVIA clinical decision algorithm in adolescents and adults with allergic rhinitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016 08 23;138(2):367-374.e2. Epub 2016 Apr 23.

Allergy-Centre-Charité at the Department of Dermatology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, and Secretary General of the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN), Berlin, Germany.

The selection of pharmacotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) depends on several factors, including age, prominent symptoms, symptom severity, control of AR, patient preferences, and cost. Allergen exposure and the resulting symptoms vary, and treatment adjustment is required. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) might be beneficial for the assessment of disease control. CDSSs should be based on the best evidence and algorithms to aid patients and health care professionals to jointly determine treatment and its step-up or step-down strategy depending on AR control. Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif en Languedoc-Roussillon (MACVIA-LR [fighting chronic diseases for active and healthy ageing]), one of the reference sites of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, has initiated an allergy sentinel network (the MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel Network). A CDSS is currently being developed to optimize AR control. An algorithm developed by consensus is presented in this article. This algorithm should be confirmed by appropriate trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.03.025DOI Listing
August 2016

Radiologic Findings in Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2016 Jul-Aug;4(4):749-50. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2016.03.011DOI Listing
August 2018

A Rapidly Enlarging Forehead Mass in a Young Retinoblastoma Survivor.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016 06;142(6):597-8

Section of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2015.3704DOI Listing
June 2016

International Consensus Statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Rhinosinusitis.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2016 Feb;6 Suppl 1:S22-209

University of Pennsylvania.

Background: The body of knowledge regarding rhinosinusitis(RS) continues to expand, with rapid growth in number of publications, yet substantial variability in the quality of those presentations. In an effort to both consolidate and critically appraise this information, rhinologic experts from around the world have produced the International Consensus Statement on Allergy and Rhinology: Rhinosinusitis (ICAR:RS).

Methods: Evidence-based reviews with recommendations(EBRRs) were developed for scores of topics, using previously reported methodology. Where existing evidence was insufficient for an EBRR, an evidence-based review (EBR)was produced. The sections were then synthesized and the entire manuscript was then reviewed by all authors for consensus.

Results: The resulting ICAR:RS document addresses multiple topics in RS, including acute RS (ARS), chronic RS (CRS)with and without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP), recurrent acute RS (RARS), acute exacerbation of CRS (AECRS), and pediatric RS.

Conclusion: As a critical review of the RS literature, ICAR:RS provides a thorough review of pathophysiology and evidence-based recommendations for medical and surgical treatment. It also demonstrates the significant gaps in our understanding of the pathophysiology and optimal management of RS. Too often the foundation upon which these recommendations are based is comprised of lower level evidence. It is our hope that this summary of the evidence in RS will point out where additional research efforts may be directed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.21695DOI Listing
February 2016