Juvenile Division Circuit Court of Cook County, ART LLC, Chicago School of Professional Psychology
Psychologist, General Manager, Professor
Chiago, Illinois | United States
Main Specialties: Abdominal Radiology, Adult Reconstructive Orthopaedics, Advanced Heart Failure & Transplant Cardiology, Allergy & Immunology, Anesthesiology, Biochemical Genetics, Biology, Biotechnology, Blood Banking - Transfusion Medicine, Cardiothoracic Radiology, Cardiovascular Disease, Chemical Pathology, Chemistry, Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Child Abuse Pediatrics, Child Neurology, Clinical & Laboratory Immunology, Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Clinical Neurophysiology, Colon & Rectal Surgery, Congenital Cardiac Surgery, Craniofacial Surgery, Critical Care Medicine, Cytopathology, Dentistry, Dermatology, Dermatopathology, Emergency Medicine, Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology, Family Medicine, Family Practice, Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery, Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics, Forensic Pathology, Gastroenterology, Geriatric Medicine, Hand Surgery, Hematology, Hematology & Oncology, Hepatology, Infectious Disease, Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine-Pediatrics, Interventional Cardio
Additional Specialties: Forensic neuropsychology
Robert’s research resulted in US Presidential executive decisions freeing 6,800 federal nonviolent prisoners by commutation and pardon, US Supreme Court decision (Miller v Alabama, Graham v Florida) causing the re-sentencing of 2,500 juveniles with life sentences without parole, an Act of Congress on predictive analytics for military and veterans, and the recent Illinois bill signed by Governor Rauner reforming the prison system.. After Dr. Zagar gave Mayor Daley “Predicting and Preventing Homicide a Cost Effective Empirical Approach from Infancy to Adulthood,” the entire February 2009 issue of Psychological Reports, volume 104, 1-377, the University of Chicago opened a Crime Lab to coordinated city policy. Robert shared his research with Cook County President Preckwinkle 25 September 2011 resulting in a 56% reduction in Cook County prisoners. Dr. Zagar testified before the. U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security 24 July 2012 on how his predictive algorithm saved 324 lives and $2.089B from 2009 to present in Chicago resulting in over 130 million in USDOJ and Chicago Public Safety Funds. Over the past decade 640 lives have been saved and 147,243 high risk youth were served with what is now known as the Summer Plus Program. In 2018, 32,223 youth got jobs, mentors and anger management. After Drs. Garbarino and Zagar shared their 2016 paper with Pope Francis he ordered all pedophile moving bishops to be removed by canonical court hearing. In February 2019 the Vatican organized a conference for "The Protection of Minors in the Church." President Trump after reading Dr. Zagar's work began speaking about violence as a "mental health issue," obtaining the NRA endorsement and reforming the justice system the First Step Act, which will release 53,000 over the next decade. Dr. Zagar is a registered clinical and certified school psychologist on National Register of Health Care Psychology Providers, a probation officer of the “first” Juvenile Court (1899) if Cook County. As an economist, Robert designed Mitsubishi plant and Illinois Labor Unemployment Compensation Act Lawyer Rewrite Committee human resources selection, and Motorola work sharing programs. Robert taught at Northwestern, Illinois at Chicago, Argosy, Barry, DePaul, and Lewis Universities, Chicago, Illinois and Forest Schools of Professional Psychology, and Calumet College. For three decades Robert is an expert witness in competency, crime, custody, personal injury, presentencing, workman’s compensation, among others. Before his doctorate he performed 1,000 neuropsychological exams. Robert completed a doctorate from Northwestern University in research design and statistics (the best program in the world), a bachelor’s from University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, a master’s from Illinois Institute of Technology, and University of Illinois at Chicago, NIMH national service award fellowships in sleep disorders at Rush University Medical School, and prevention at University of Illinois Medical Center, 2 years of pre-medical sciences at DePaul, and 2 years basic medical sciences at Barry Universities. Robert served on the American Psychological Association Youth Violence Committee and on the international example of how to deal with pedophilia, the Chicago Archdiocese Committee for Clergy Abuse. He is the son of a U.S. Navy Seal who served behind enemy lines in China during WWII and US Navy Wave. Robert was born at Great Lakes Navy Base Hospital. His wife Agatha, an actress, banker and teacher, is from Poland. They are both members of the University Club of Chicago and Holy Name Cathedral parish.
Primary Affiliation: Juvenile Division Circuit Court of Cook County, ART LLC, Chicago School of Professional Psychology - Chiago, Illinois , United States
Review of European Studies; Vol. 10, No. 4; 2018
Review of European Research
Can the WRAT-4 Math Computation Subtest Predict Final Grade In College-level Science Robert John Zagar, Ph.D., M.P.H., Juvenile Division, Circuit Court of Cook County Joseph W. Kovach, Psy.D., Calumet College of St. Joseph Ahmed Lakhani, Ph.D., Calumet College of St. Joseph Tracy Stone, M.S., Calumet College of St. Joseph Ishup Singh, B.A., Calumet College of St. Joseph Mariana Portela, B.S., Calumet College of St. Joseph Bernie Berroa, B.A., Calumet College of St. Joseph Abstract Seventy-one, freshman through senior undergraduate college students 28 males and 43 females, M age =22.34 yr., SD = 4.20 in 5 different science classes were administered the Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition (WRAT-4) Math Computation Subtest. Predictive validity coefficients were calculated relative to the criterion of the final class grade. The validity coefficient for the pre-course WRAT score was statistically significant. The WRAT-4 Math subtest can be used by instructors to examine performance on specific items to judge the appropriateness of a student’s placement in either entry-level or advanced science courses. However, high school grades are also a good predictor of completing the college curriculum and should be used along with math computation skills scores. Also motivation to complete college level science courses and socioeconomic status may be covariates in predicting college science final grade and eventual graduation from college. Key Words: Math computation, prediction, college science course final grade Discovering the factors related to why students drop out of college science courses is an important goal nationwide. With the current shortage of engineers and scientists, college science dropout is a costly liability requiring recruiting foreign trained engineers and scientists. Given the high failure rate of foreign trained engineers and scientists, preparing more native born engineers and scientists is a high priority. Students have increased lifetime earnings potential upon graduation from college, with improved standard of living and increased productivity and efficiency. Retaining more science student has been studied intensively, but with little improvement in graduation rates. Given that student engagement and interest is the single most important factor in staying in college science courses (Tinto, 2006), and that college math is one of the more difficult endeavors in the college (Parker, 2004), proficiency in algebra and math, staying in a science college curriculum, and graduation seem to be linked (Madison, Linde, Decker, Rigsby, Dingman, and Stegman, 2015; Renaissance, 2017; 2018). The United States teaches more math and science than other countries globally and rich American students perform equally compared to other nation’s students (Brown and Brown, 2007). Attitude towards math and math test performance predict college math course success (Chen, Bai, Battista, Qin, Chen, Evans and Menon, 2018). Math skills and math course grades predict college science course success (Irman, Nasor, and Hayati, 2012; Hudson and Rottman, 1981). High school and college math and science grades plus ability tests predict college science course success (Malo, 1976; Nordstrom, 1990; Creech and Sweeder, 2012; Pembridge and Verleger, 2013; Flurry, 2015; Hodara and Lewis, 2017; Schaffhauser, 2017). Socioeconomic status, namely sufficient funds to complete college determine graduation. If reliable and valid objective information concerning math achievement predictive of success in college science courses were available, progress could be made toward correct placement and better retention of college engineering and science students. This will not only benefit the college science student, but also assist college admission committees' selections of those best suited for science careers in curricula where math is crucial and college science faculty for planning purposes. Historically, some colleges admit by qualified open admission those applicants who do not have course prerequisites. The goal of this paper is to determine whether a math computation achievement test could predict college science course grade confirming prior research. Methods Participants: Data were gathered from a convenience sample of 71 undergraduate science students (28 men, 43 women) with a M age= 22.34 (S.D. =4.20) years old at Calumet College of Saint Joseph. The sample was made of 17 African American students, 37 White American, 16 Hispanic American, and 1 Asian American student. All research participants were admitted to college through conventional qualified open admissions processes. See Table 1. TABLE 1 Demographic Characteristics of 71 College Science Students % n Male 39 28 Female 61 43 Race African American 24 17 Asian American White American 1 52 1 37 Hispanic American 23 16 Age, M age yr.S.D.age yr. 22.34 4.20 Measures: The Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT– 4) Math Computation Subtest (Wilkinson and Robertson, 2004). Test-retest reliability was .87 for the two alternate forms used. The WRAT–4 assesses basic academic skills necessary for effective learning, communication, and thinking, including performing basic math calculations. The WRAT–4 contains subtests of Letter and Word Recognition, Sentence Comprehension, Spelling, and Math Computation; only the latter was administered in this study. Math Computation evaluates the person’s performing basic arithmetic skills through counting, identifying numbers, solving simple oral problems, and calculating written math problems in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, decimals, and algebra. It is based on a representative national sample of over 3,000 persons, aged 5 to 94 years, selected according to a stratified national sampling procedure with proportionate allocation controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, geographical region, and educational attainment as an index of socioeconomic status. The WRAT–4 has scaled scores, percentiles, stanines, normal curve equivalents, Rasch ability scaled scores, age-based, and grade-based norms, increasing the usefulness of the tests in Grades K-12. The age-based norms start at five years and extend to a maximum age of 94 years. With easy administration and scoring, a significant amount of information is gained from a relatively brief investment of testing time. The alternate forms can be used interchangeably with comparable results or combined into a single examination. Administration time for five to seven-year-olds is 15 to 20 minutes, and for 8 years and older, 30 to 45 minutes. The WRAT–4 allows for collecting initial data, screening large groups, diagnosis of specific learning disorders, evaluating cognitive disorders, pre- and post-testing, assessing academic progress, and determining minimal proficiency for educational and/ or vocational settings. For the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest, Cronbach's α = .87. Concurrent validity with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Second Edition (WIAT–II) has been reported as r = .92 (p < .01; Wechsler, 2001). Grades: Raw test scores on the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest were obtained. At the end of the semester, final grades were calculated by the course instructor and submitted, in accordance with the course syllabus and college catalogue. Procedures: The WRAT–4 Math Computation subtest was administered soon after the course began. Participants' science course grades were compared with the results of the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtests. Scores from the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest met the assumptions of multiple regression analysis, namely, being normally distributed with statistically significant (p < .01) homogeneity of variance. The math computation scores were subjected to simple regression analysis, with the final numerical course grade as the criterion. Results As shown in Table 2, correlations and beta coefficients are consistent with the fact that the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest was a statistically significant predictor of success in these college science courses. WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest scores accounted for a statistically significant (p < .01) proportion of the criterion variance (8.3%). The mean pre-course WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest raw score for the group of students who passed was 43.26 (SD = 5.29), and for those who failed 30.14 (SD = 3.76) (t = 3.62, p < .01). TABLE 2 Coefficients for Variable Entered Hierarchically Into Regression Analysis to Predict Final College Science Grade Standardized Unstandardized Correlation Model Coefficients Coefficients t p B SE β Model 1 (Constant) 59.03 7.89 7.49 .01 WRAT-4 Math 0.66 0.18 .42 3.62 .01 Note In Model 1, the WRAT–4 Math Computation score was used as a predictor or independent variable. The dependent variable (to be predicted) was the final college science grade. Discussion The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest is a valid predictor of passing a college level science course. However, given that overall high school grades have a correlation coefficient of .37 with college grades (Zwick and Sklar, 2005), as compared with the .42 found in this study, continued use of the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest as a screening test for students taking different college level science courses seems warranted if used along with high school grades. Since the university already uses an objective test at admission for verbal and math achievement, perhaps adding another test may be redundant. Although the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest only takes 10 to 15 minutes to administer in the science course and its cost is minimal, its overall simple prediction of a pass/fail outcome is as good as high school grades, which both explain approximately 40% of the variance in completing college level science classes successfully (Zwick and Sklar, 2005). Since the WRAT–4 Math Computation Subtest material is similar to what is learned in high school curricula, the individual's ability to perform basic math skills through counting, identifying numbers, solving simple oral problems, and calculating written math problems in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, fractions, decimals, and algebra, is of qualitative value for instructors, who can examine the test booklets to see if individual college students can perform such problems. Thus, the instructor can act as a safeguard by assigning additional practice on specific types of problems, or offering tutoring to individual students, or explaining to students the value of moving to a lower level class. Perhaps also math and science college instructors might wish to use Khan academy to supplement skills already learned in high school or early college classes since the 10 to 20 minute youtube.com vignettes are easy to understand and students can repeat the lessons online as many times as needed to understand the basic concepts since some pupils are quick learners and others require repetition. The major limitation of this study was the small, non-random sample. The findings here may not generalize to all American science college students. Predicting college success is challenging, but some of the problems associated with admitting unprepared students may be ameliorated by allowing instructors to use additional testing and to advise specific students to obtain tutoring or take preparatory classes or watch Khan Academy youtube.com vignettes tailored to their level of success as shown on objective math tests.References Brown, A.S. & Brown, L.L. (2007). What Are Science & Math Test Scores Really Telling U.S.? The Best of Tau Beta Pi, winter, 13-17. Retrieved at: https://www.tbp.org/pubs/Features/W07Brown.pdf Chen, L., Bai, S.R., Battista, C., Qin, S., Chen, T., Evans, T.M., & Menon, V. (2018). Positive attitude towards math supports early academic success: behavioral evidence and neurocognitive mechanisms, Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.1177/0956797617735528 Creech L.R, & Sweeder R.D. (2012). Analysis of student performance in large-enrollment life science courses. CBE Life Science Education, 11, 386–391 Hodara, M., & Lewis, K. (2017) How well does high school grade point average predict college performance by student urbanicity and timing of college entry? Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education (February). Retrieved at: https://edexcellence.net/articles/do-grades-or-test-scores-better-predict-new-students%E2%80%99-success-in-credit-bearing-college Hudson, H. T. and Rottman, R.M. (1981). Correlation between performance in physics and prior mathematics knowledge, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 18, 291-294. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrarywiley.com/doi/10.1002/tea.3660180403/abstract Imran, A., Nasor, M., & Hayati, F. (2012). Relating Grades of Math and Science Courses with Students’ Performance in a Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Program – A Gender Inclusive Case Study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 3989-3992. Madison, B.L, Linde, C.S., Decker, B.R., Rigsby, E.M., Dingman, S.W., & Stegman, S.E. (2015). A Study of Placement and Grade Prediction in First College Mathematics Courses, PRIMUS, 25:2, 131-157, DOI: 10.1080/10511970.2014.921653 Malo, D.D. (1976). Relationships between course performance and student backgrounds I in an introductory soil science course. Journal of Agronomic Education, 6, 20-24/ Nordstrom, B. H. (1989). Predicting Performance in Freshman Chemistry, (p. 15). Parker, M. (2004) Placement, retention, and success: a longitudinal study of mathematics and retention. Journal of General Education, 54, 22-40. Pembridge, J.J. & Verleger, M.A. (2013). First-Year Math and Physics Courses and their Role in Predicting Academic Success in Subsequent Courses, 120nd American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, Georgia. Retrieved at: file:///C:/ /Downloads/Pembridge_Verleger_ASEE_2013%20(1).pdf Renaissance. (2017). Trends in student outcome measures: The role of individualized math practice. Wisconsin Rapids, WI: Author. Renaissance. (2018). Math milestones: The critical role of math achievement in student success. Author. Retrieved at: https://www.renaissance.com/2018/03/22/blog-math-milestones-critical-role-math-achievement-student-success/ Schaffhauser, D. (2017). GPA Versus Exam Scores: What's Better in Predicting College Success? The Journal. March, 9. Retrieved at: https://thejournal.com/articles/2017/03/09/gpa-versus-exam-scores.aspx Tinto, V. (2006) Research and practice of student retention: what's next? Journal of College Student Retention, 8, 1-19. Wechsler, D. (2001) Wechsler Individual Achievement Test manual. New York: Psychological Corp. Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2004) Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition (WRAT–4) professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Zwick, R., & Sklar, J. C. (2005) Predicting college grade and degree completion using high school grades and SAT scores. American Educational Research Journal, 42, 439-464. TABLE 3 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Final College Science Grade Model R R 2 Adjusted R 2 SE of Estimate Change R 2 Change Statistics F Change df 1 df 2 p 1 .37 .175 .162 7.60 .175
Review of European Studies, 2016, Volume 8, 1, 1-46.
Review of European Research
Mayor Daley Task Force with $78M U.S. Justice Department Culture of Calm grant from 2009-2012 provided jobs mentors anger management to 4,850 at-risk adolescents. This was continued by the $50M Chicago Public Safety Fund in 2013 providing 20K teens saving an estimated 193 lives and $1.4B. I testified about these before the U.S. House of Representatives Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, & Homeland Security 24 July 2012.
In Chicago and the rest of Cook County, this challenge was addressed by Mayor Daley with the $78 million US Justice Department “Culture of Calm” program from 2009 to 2012 after I initiated a task force with K. G. Busch, MD. This projected provided jobs, mentors, and anger management targeted to 4,850 at-risk adolescents.This effort continued with the $50 million Chicago Public Safety Fund in 2013, which provided employment, mentoring, and anger cognitive-skills training targeted to 20,000 at-risk adolescent students. This evidence-based targeting of algorithmically identified students saved 193 lives and $1.4 billion according to a publicly and privately backed empirical assessment. To target jobs to at-risk teens or adults who are violence-prone, individuals’ risks must be actuarially appraised. I provided published regression-based checklists and sensitive, specific, and inexpensive Internet testing to screen and assess fitness within schools, universities, and workplaces to ensure medical care and treatment.
Monitor on Psychology
In Chicago and Cook County with the $78M U.S. Justice Department Culture of Calm program from 2009-2012 and in 2013 with the $50M Chicago Public Safety Fund, afterschool and summer jobs, mentoring, and anger management targeted to 5K and then 20K saved 193 lives and $1.4B. In order to target employment to at-risk poor adults who commit most violence individuals risk for violence must be appraised.
Annals of Forensic Research and Anlaysis
There is now hope for policy decision makers to use actuarial data, either with a regression equation or statistical test, and divert at-risk with empirical evidence-based interventions from a career of delinquency and crime thereby lowering abuse and violence in the community, saving lives, reducing crime rates, and the costs of building more prions and paying for more criminal court expenses.
Comprehensive Psychology 2013 Volume 2 Article 6
In past research, the best treatments of anger management training, jobs, and mentors have been shown to divert 25% to 37% of at-risk youth from court. Within Midwestern urban high schools located in crime-ridden areas, youth were given these treatments after fi rst being identifi ed as at-risk using a predictive regression equation comprising carefully chosen and relevant demographics, behaviors, and test scores. This regression of data from the perpetrators of 500 shootings replicated previous results from 4 other samples ( N s = 71, 30, 26, and 127) of those who had used fi rearms in homicides with matched control groups. Youth (who were expelled, academically failing, maladaptive, low in SES, previously arrested, suspended, truant, or underachieving) included 250 students in 6 high schools during 2009; 1,700 pupils in 38 high schools during 2010; 1,700 more in 38 high schools during 2011; and 1,200 others in 32 high schools during 2012. After treatment, homicides decreased by 32%, shootings by 46%, and assaults by 77%. This saved approximately 104 lives and $492 million dollars, with a Return on Investment ( ROI) = 6.42.
Innovative Teaching, 2013
From 121 freshman through graduate college students (68 men, 53 women; M age=23.3 yr., SD=7.8) in 10 different math classes, predictive validity coefficients were calculated for the Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition (WRAT-4) Math Computation Test, at first (pre-course) and last (post-course) class relative to criterion of final grade. Validity coefficient of .29 for pre-course was statistically significant, while multiple correlation of .31, associated with pre- and post course, was not significantly larger than that afforded by WRAT-4 pre-course scores alone. Relative to dichotomous criterion of pass versus fail, stepwise discriminant analysis yielded parallel results. Even though WRAT-4 Math Computation Test accounted for 8.3% of the variance, high school grade accounting for 40% of variance in staying in college might be a better predictor along with admission placement tests. The qualitative value of the WRAT-4 Math Computation was appropriateness of either entry or advanced level math course.
Monitor on Psychology
Youth homicide results from combined measurable risk. Using Shao's bootstrapped logistic regression there are 14 predictors for violent youth (AUC=.91) and 11 risks for adults (AUC=.99)
Psychol Rep 2010 Dec;107(3):983-1009
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Proceedings of the Sixth European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry, 2009, 278-281
Proceedings of the Sixth European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry
Rationale of using objective personality and probation parole decision making tests is preferred to clinical judgment in forensic and industrial settings.
Psychological Reports 2009 104 1-377
A special issue of a peer reviewed scientific journal was created because Zagar & colleagues studies on violence & homicide among abused infants, children, youth, & homicidal or sex offending youth & adults required full commentary from authors & coauthors. Implications for psychology, physiology, economics, criminology are of interest to business, human resources, police, military, nuclear power, and airlines. The focus is on reducing violence, saving lives and reducing costs related to the criminal justice system, incarceration, & pain & suffering of victims. The 14 articles are written as a book with how to find a killer, what works to prevent murder, & how much homicide costs. Practical applications for screening & fitness for duty are covered.
Syllabus and Proceedings of the American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting
3 groups of 1001 each, teen murderers, nonviolent delinquents, & controls matched by age, gender, race & SES were examined for criminally violent relatives, physical abuse, gang membership, alcohol-drug abuse, weapons, prior arrests, neurologic disorders, truancy, & school problems. Bayesian probabilities, odds, logistic regression & discriminant analyses were done. Murderers often had only 1 parent, violent relatives, physical abuse, gang membership, alcohol-drug abuse, doubling their chance of killing. Adding weapons, arrests, neurologic disease, truancy, school problems tripled to quadrupled their chances. With more risks, odds rise. True positive rates for killers was 100% while false positive was 95%. Murderers had the most risks, while nonviolent delinquents most and controls the least. Early onset killers had lower IQ, multiple arrests compared with late onset murderers. A developmental, neurologic, economic and psychosocial vulnerability model is proposed.
Praeger Westport Connecticut London
101 adolescent murderers were matched with 101 nonviolent delinquents & examined; 10 statistical tests resulted in similar results. Killers had more injuries from physical abuse, retardation, allergy, hyperactivity, visual loss, epilepsy, jaundice, headaches, insomnia& syncope than controls. Murders had criminally violent families, physically abusive parents, gang membership, alcohol & substance abuse, weapon access, prior arrests, neurological disorders including retardation, truancy, suspension, expulsion & school underachievement. Poor socialization and risk combined to limit access to family networks and labor markets. Earlier interventions are cheaper & more effective.
International Society for Adolescent Psychiatry Third National Convention
101 juvenile murderers were matched with 101 nonviolent delinquents on age, race, sex & SES & examined. Using discriminant analyses, t-tests & nonparametric tests homicidal teens had more criminally violent families, weapon possession, gang membership, prior arrests, conduct disorder, truancy, suspension, expulsion, alcohol & substance abuse, severe learning difficulties, mental retardation, epilepsy, medical disorders, hyperactivity, & underachievement.
Homicidal adolescents had more criminal families, gang membership, alcohol abuse, learning difficulty, retardation, & epilepsy than nonviolent delinquent controls when 101 were compared using discriminant analyses, t-tests & nonparametric tests.
Journal of Clinical Psychology
Medical, family & scholastic conditions were evaluated among 1962 delinquents using multivariate & univariate analyses of variance with post hoc tests. Findings supported a developmental bio-psychosocial model of delinquency. Orphaned or 1 parent delinquents with nervous system or neonatal conditions, retardation or hyperactivity committed assault.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
J Health Hum Resour Adm 1986 ;8(4):393-410
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Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1983 Aug;64(8):364-7
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Psychology in the Schools
43 behaviorally disturbed, learning disabled & minimally brain damaged children with a mean age of 10 years 4 months were selected from 4 suburban special education classes and given equivalent forms of Stroop Color Word Test, Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test, Porteus Mazes & Wechsler Digit Span Test. Data collection was counterbalanced so that half were tested morning then afternoon while another half afternoon then morning. Behavior observations were recorded for 8 30 second trials during morning & following afternoon. Repeated measures multivariate & univariate analyses of variance were followed by correlational analyses. Problem solving was more efficient in morning while disruptive behavior occurred more frequently in afternoon. Students are more aroused in mornings and their attention improved increasing mental efficiency. All pupils showed more interference, off task, noncompliance & minor motor movement in afternoons. (This was mentioned in Phi Delta Kappa in 1983.)
Journal of Occupational Psychology
Journal of Neurological and Orthopaedic Surgery
Psychological testing including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was performed on 54 hospitalized patients with diagnosis of chronic intractable or low back pain & were divided into 4 groups: functional low back pain, organic low back pain, mixed low back pain & organic pain at other sites than low back. Groups were compared on MMPI scales including low back (Lb) and Pichot's DOR to ascertain important differences. No significant differences existed among pain groups. Extreme caution in use of MMPI scales with low back pain patients is suggested.
Educational and Psychological Measurement
From 570 female nursing students in a 3 year hospital based diploma program predictive validity coefficients were determined for ACT composite score, 10 subscales of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule & 3 scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Lie, Faking, Psychopathic Deviate) relative to criterion measure of grade point average through graduation or withdrawal. Validity coefficient of .35 for the ACT was statistically significant (p<.01). Multiple correlation coefficient of .377 was not significantly higher than zero ordered coefficient afforded by the ACT alone. Stepwise discriminant yielded parallel results of multiple regression analyses. Personality scales hold little promise as predictive variables of academic success in a 3 year diploma nursing program relative to which criterion measures such as GPA confound academic & patient care activities.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1981 Mar-Apr;6(2):185-8
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Dissertation Abstracts International
43 behaviorally disturbed, learning disabled & minimally brain damaged children with a mean age of 10 years 4 months were selected from 4 suburban special education classes and given equivalent forms of Stroop Color Word Test, Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test, Porteus Mazes & Wechsler Digit Span Test. Data collection was counterbalanced so that half were tested morning then afternoon while another half afternoon then morning. Behavior observations were recorded for 8 30 second trials during morning & following afternoon. Problem solving was more efficient in morning while disruptive behavior occurred more frequently in afternoon. Students are more aroused in mornings and their attention improved increasing mental efficiency. (This was mentioned in Phi Delta Kappa in 1983.)
Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Transcutaneous electrical neuro-stimulation (TENS) was applied to 15 nonsurgical low back paint patients with functional pain with 40% having significant relief (50% or better). However, TENS did not last longer than 2 months. TENS was applied to 24 postsurgical chronic intractable low back pain of psychosomatic origin with similar results.
Journal of Psychology
Memory is one of the central intellectual functions characteristic of human behavior. Factor analytic studies of the Wechsler Memory Scale were contradictory due to the confounding effects of subject age & sex. Principal component analyses with oblique rotations resulted in a 2 factor structure in 16 independent and random samples of male & females from 13-39, 40-59, 60-88
Journal of Clinical Psychology
Factor linear & hierarchical cluster nonlinear analyses were compared on a battery of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence & Memory Scale, Graham Kendal Memory for Designs & Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Tests with results discussed in the theory of verbal & performance ability & working memory.
Journal of Forensic Research