Publications by authors named "Robert F Storey"

311 Publications

Current and novel biomarkers of thrombotic risk in COVID-19: a Consensus Statement from the International COVID-19 Thrombosis Biomarkers Colloquium.

Nat Rev Cardiol 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Heart, Lung and Vascular Institute, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predisposes patients to thrombotic and thromboembolic events, owing to excessive inflammation, endothelial cell activation and injury, platelet activation and hypercoagulability. Patients with COVID-19 have a prothrombotic or thrombophilic state, with elevations in the levels of several biomarkers of thrombosis, which are associated with disease severity and prognosis. Although some biomarkers of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, including high levels of fibrinogen and D-dimer, were recognized early during the pandemic, many new biomarkers of thrombotic risk in COVID-19 have emerged. In this Consensus Statement, we delineate the thrombotic signature of COVID-19 and present the latest biomarkers and platforms to assess the risk of thrombosis in these patients, including markers of platelet activation, platelet aggregation, endothelial cell activation or injury, coagulation and fibrinolysis as well as biomarkers of the newly recognized post-vaccine thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. We then make consensus recommendations for the clinical use of these biomarkers to inform prognosis, assess disease acuity, and predict thrombotic risk and in-hospital mortality. A thorough understanding of these biomarkers might aid risk stratification and prognostication, guide interventions and provide a platform for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41569-021-00665-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8757397PMC
January 2022

A randomised controlled trial to assess the antithrombotic effects of aspirin in type 1 diabetes: role of dosing and glycaemic control.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 12 17;20(1):238. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Background: The enhanced thrombotic milieu in diabetes contributes to increased risk of vascular events. Aspirin, a key antiplatelet agent, has inconsistent effects on outcomes in diabetes and the best dosing regimen remains unclear. This work investigated effects of aspirin dose and interaction with glycaemia on both the cellular and protein components of thrombosis.

Methods: A total of 48 participants with type 1 diabetes and 48 healthy controls were randomised to receive aspirin 75 or 300 mg once-daily (OD) in an open-label crossover study. Light transmittance aggregometry and fibrin clot studies were performed before and at the end of each treatment period.

Results: Aspirin demonstrated reduced inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation (PA) in participants with diabetes compared with controls, although the higher dose showed better efficacy. Higher aspirin dose facilitated clot lysis in controls but not individuals with diabetes. Collagen-induced PA correlated with glycaemic control, those in the top HbA1c tertile having a lesser inhibitory effect of aspirin. Threshold analysis suggested HbA1c levels of > 65 mmol/mol and > 70 mmol/mol were associated with poor aspirin response to 75 and 300 mg daily doses, respectively. Higher HbA1c was also associated with longer fibrin clot lysis time.

Conclusions: Patients with diabetes respond differently to the antiplatelet and profibrinolytic effects of aspirin compared with controls. In particular, those with elevated HbA1c have reduced inhibition of PA with aspirin. Our findings indicate that reducing glucose levels improves the anti-thrombotic action of aspirin in diabetes, which may have future clinical implications.

Trial Registration: EudraCT, 2008-007875-26, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search?query=2008-007875-26 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01427-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8684134PMC
December 2021

Early computed tomography coronary angiography in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: randomised controlled trial.

BMJ 2021 09 29;374:n2106. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Objectives: To establish if the use of early computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography improves one year clinical outcomes in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain and at intermediate risk of acute coronary syndrome and subsequent clinical events.

Design: Randomised controlled trial.

Setting: 37 hospitals in the UK.

Participants: Adults with suspected or a provisional diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and one or more of previous coronary heart disease, raised levels of cardiac troponin, or abnormal electrocardiogram.

Interventions: Early CT coronary angiography and standard of care compared with standard of care only.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoint was all cause death or subsequent type 1 or 4b myocardial infarction at one year.

Results: Between 23 March 2015 and 27 June 2019, 1748 participants (mean age 62 years (standard deviation 13), 64% men, mean global registry of acute coronary events (GRACE) score 115 (standard deviation 35)) were randomised to receive early CT coronary angiography (n=877) or standard of care only (n=871). Median time from randomisation to CT coronary angiography was 4.2 (interquartile range 1.6-21.6) hours. The primary endpoint occurred in 51 (5.8%) participants randomised to CT coronary angiography and 53 (6.1%) participants who received standard of care only (adjusted hazard ratio 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.62 to 1.35), P=0.65). Invasive coronary angiography was performed in 474 (54.0%) participants randomised to CT coronary angiography and 530 (60.8%) participants who received standard of care only (adjusted hazard ratio 0.81 (0.72 to 0.92), P=0.001). There were no overall differences in coronary revascularisation, use of drug treatment for acute coronary syndrome, or subsequent preventive treatments between the two groups. Early CT coronary angiography was associated with a slightly longer time in hospital (median increase 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.40) days from a median hospital stay of 2.0 to 2.2 days).

Conclusions: In intermediate risk patients with acute chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome, early CT coronary angiography did not alter overall coronary therapeutic interventions or one year clinical outcomes, but reduced rates of invasive angiography while modestly increasing length of hospital stay. These findings do not support the routine use of early CT coronary angiography in intermediate risk patients with acute chest pain and suspected acute coronary syndrome.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN19102565, NCT02284191.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n2106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479591PMC
September 2021

Glycosylated apolipoprotein J in cardiac ischaemia: molecular processing and circulating levels in patients with acute ischaemic events.

Eur Heart J 2022 Jan;43(2):153-163

Cardiovascular Program-ICCC-IR, Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau, c/Sant Antoni MaClaret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain.

Aim: Using proteomics, we previously found that serum levels of glycosylated (Glyc) forms of apolipoprotein J (ApoJ), a cytoprotective and anti-oxidant protein, decrease in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to investigate: (i) ApoJ-Glyc intracellular distribution and secretion during ischaemia; (ii) the early changes in circulating ApoJ-Glyc during AMI; and (iii) associations between ApoJ-Glyc and residual ischaemic risk post-AMI.

Methods And Results: Glycosylated apolipoprotein J was investigated in: (i) cells from different organ/tissue origin; (ii) a pig model of AMI; (iii) de novo AMI patients (n = 38) at admission within the first 6 h of chest pain onset and without troponin T elevation at presentation (early AMI); (iv) ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients (n = 212) who were followed up for 6 months; and (v) a control group without any overt cardiovascular disease (n = 144). Inducing simulated ischaemia in isolated cardiac cells resulted in an increased intracellular accumulation of non-glycosylated ApoJ forms. A significant decrease in ApoJ-Glyc circulating levels was seen 15 min after ischaemia onset in pigs. Glycosylated apolipoprotein J levels showed a 45% decrease in early AMI patients compared with non-ischaemic patients (P < 0.0001), discriminating the presence of the ischaemic event (area under the curve: 0.934; P < 0.0001). ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients with lower ApoJ-Glyc levels at admission showed a higher rate of recurrent ischaemic events and mortality after 6-month follow-up (P = 0.008).

Conclusions: These results indicate that ischaemia induces an intracellular accumulation of non-glycosylated ApoJ and a reduction in ApoJ-Glyc secretion. Glycosylated apolipoprotein J circulating levels are reduced very early after ischaemia onset. Its continuous decrease indicates a worsening in the evolution of the cardiac event, likely identifying patients with sustained ischaemia after AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab691DOI Listing
January 2022

Ticagrelor monotherapy in CKD: better safety at what price?

Eur Heart J 2021 12;42(45):4694-4696

Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab607DOI Listing
December 2021

Selatogrel and other P2Y12 inhibitors' putative off-target effects.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Cardiocentro Ticino Institute and Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Lugano, Switzerland University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Idorsia Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000001135DOI Listing
August 2021

Long-Term Ticagrelor in Patients With Prior Coronary Stenting in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 Trial.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 09 21;10(17):e020446. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

TIMI Study Group Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine Brigham and Women's HospitalHarvard Medical School Boston MA.

Background Coronary stent type and risk of stent thrombosis remain important factors affecting recommended duration of dual antiplatelet therapy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of long-term ticagrelor in patients with prior coronary stenting enrolled in the PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54) trial. Methods and Results Patients in PEGASUS-TIMI 54 had a myocardial infarction 1 to 3 year prior and were randomized 1:1:1 to ticagrelor 60 or 90 mg BID or placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (major adverse cardiovascular events). Stent thrombosis was prospectively adjudicated (Academic Research Consortium definition). Baseline characteristics were compared by most recent stent type (bare metal versus drug-eluting stent and first- versus later-generation drug-eluting stent). Treatment arms were compared using Cox proportional hazards models. Of 21 162 patients randomized, 80% (n=16 891) had prior coronary stenting. Following randomization, myocardial infarction was the most frequent ischemic event in patients with prior stenting in the placebo arm, occurring in 5.2% of patients (Type 1: 4.1%), followed by cardiovascular death (2.3%), stroke (1.7%), and stent thrombosis (0.9%). Ticagrelor reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (7.0% versus 8.0%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-96) regardless of stent type (bare metal stent versus drug-eluting stent: p=0.767; first versus later generation: p=0.940). The rate of any stent thrombosis was numerically lower with ticagrelor (0.7% versus 0.9%; HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.05) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding was increased (HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.90-3.68). Conclusions Long-term ticagrelor reduces major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with prior myocardial infarction and coronary stenting regardless of stent type, with the benefit driven predominantly by reduction in de novo events. Nonfatal major bleeding is increased with ticagrelor. Registration Information clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01225562.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8649257PMC
September 2021

Aspirin dosing for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: should we be more ADAPTABLE?

Cardiovasc Res 2021 08;117(10):e123-e125

Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab251DOI Listing
August 2021

Extended dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor 60 mg in patients with prior myocardial infarction: The design of ALETHEIA, a multi-country observational study.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Oct 8;44(10):1333-1343. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine, CPC Clinical Research/CPC Community Health, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Introduction: Clinical guidelines recommend extended treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with ticagrelor 60 mg (twice daily) beyond 12 months in high-risk patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) who have previously tolerated DAPT and are not at heightened bleeding risk. However, evidence on patterns of use and associated clinical outcomes in routine clinical practice is limited.

Methods: ALETHEIA is an observational, multi-country study, designed to describe characteristics, treatment persistence, and bleeding and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in post-MI patients who initiate ticagrelor 60 mg in routine clinical practice (NCT04568083). The study will include electronic health data in the United States (US; Medicare, commercial claims) and Europe (Sweden, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany). Characteristics will be described among patients with and without ticagrelor 60 mg ≥1 year post-MI. Assuming an a priori threshold of 5000 person-years on-treatment is met, to ensure sufficient precision, clinical outcomes (bleeding and CV events) among patients treated with ticagrelor 60 mg will be assessed. Risk factors for clinical outcomes and treatment discontinuation will be assessed in patients with ticagrelor 60 mg and meta-analysis used to combine estimates across databases. Cohort selection will initiate from the ticagrelor 60 mg US and European approval dates and end February 2020. An estimated total of 7250 patients prescribed ticagrelor 60 mg are expected to be included.

Discussion: An increased understanding of patterns of ticagrelor 60 mg use and associated clinical outcomes among high-risk patients with a prior MI is needed. The a priori specified stepwise approach adapted in this observational study is expected to generate useful evidence for clinical decision-making and treatment optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495086PMC
October 2021

Ticagrelor: clinical development and future potential.

Rev Cardiovasc Med 2021 Jun;22(2):373-394

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, S10 2RX Sheffield, UK.

Platelets participate centrally in atherothrombosis, resulting in vessel occlusion and ischaemia. Consequently, optimisation of antiplatelet regimens has the potential to further reduce the residual burden of morbidity and mortality associated with atherosclerosis. Ticagrelor is a potent oral platelet P2Y receptor antagonist that (1) inhibits a central amplification pathway of platelet activation directly as well as via an active metabolite, (2) has a rapid onset and offset of antiplatelet action that remains consistent in the circulation during twice-daily administration and is amenable to reversal, (3) has inverse agonist properties, and (4) demonstrates pleiotropic effects that contribute to anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory properties. These advantageous characteristics of ticagrelor have translated to beneficial clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes or ischaemic stroke, during prolonged maintenance therapy in specific high-risk populations, and following percutaneous coronary intervention but not definitively following coronary artery bypass graft surgery or in peripheral artery disease patients. Novel innovative strategies aim to reduce the risk of bleeding during dual antiplatelet therapy via shortening the duration of treatment and replacing the standard-of-care with ticagrelor monotherapy. In cases where aspirin is an essential component in secondary prevention, dose modification when combined with ticagrelor may hypothetically provide desirable clinical outcomes following appropriate clinical assessment as predicted by pharmacological studies. Overall, the future management of acute coronary syndromes could potentially involve the dichotomisation of antithrombotic therapies, whereby only those with high-risk of ischaemia, without a high-risk of bleeding, receive ticagrelor plus very-low-dose aspirin, while ticagrelor monotherapy is administered to the remaining majority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm2202044DOI Listing
June 2021

Differential effect of clopidogrel and ticagrelor on leukocyte count in relation to patient characteristics, biomarkers and genotype: a PLATO substudy.

Platelets 2021 Jun 2:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Inflammation plays a key role in cardiovascular disease by contributing to atherothrombosis. The PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study (NCT00391872) compared ticagrelor to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and demonstrated fewer cardiovascular events with ticagrelor but lower white blood cell counts (WBC) with clopidogrel. In this further analysis of the PLATO biomarker substudy, we assessed associations between WBC and clinical characteristics, biomarker levels, and polymorphisms.On-treatment mean (SD) WBC in the clopidogrel group was mildly reduced at each stage of follow-up compared with either the ticagrelor group (1 month: 7.27 (2.1) and 7.67 (2.23) x10/L for clopidogrel and ticagrelor, respectively; < .001) or following cessation of clopidogrel (7.23 (1.97) x10/L, at 6 months vs 7.56 (2.28) x10/L after treatment cessation; < .001). This occurred independently of baseline biomarkers and genotype (where known). Adjusting for clinical characteristics and other biomarkers, no significant interaction was detected between clinical risk factors and the observed effect of clopidogrel on WBC.Clopidogrel weakly suppresses WBC, independent of clinical characteristics, baseline inflammatory biomarker levels, and genotype. Further work is required to determine the mechanism for this effect and whether it contributes to clopidogrel's efficacy as well as therapeutic interaction with anti-inflammatory drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2021.1934667DOI Listing
June 2021

International COVID-19 thrombosis biomarkers colloquium: COVID-19 diagnostic tests.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Nov 22;52(4):992-998. Epub 2021 May 22.

Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-021-02465-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140326PMC
November 2021

Platelets and the Endothelium: Active Participants in Severe COVID-19 Infection.

JACC Basic Transl Sci 2021 Mar 22;6(3):219-221. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2021.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987542PMC
March 2021

Antithrombotic therapy in diabetes: which, when, and for how long?

Eur Heart J 2021 06;42(23):2235-2259

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK.

Cardiovascular disease remains the main cause of mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) and also results in significant morbidity. Premature and more aggressive atherosclerotic disease, coupled with an enhanced thrombotic environment, contributes to the high vascular risk in individuals with DM. This prothrombotic milieu is due to increased platelet activity together with impaired fibrinolysis secondary to quantitative and qualitative changes in coagulation factors. However, management strategies to reduce thrombosis risk remain largely similar in individuals with and without DM. The current review covers the latest in the field of antithrombotic management in DM. The role of primary vascular prevention is discussed together with options for secondary prevention following an ischaemic event in different clinical scenarios including coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral artery diseases. Antiplatelet therapy combinations as well as combination of antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents are examined in both the acute phase and long term, including management of individuals with sinus rhythm and those with atrial fibrillation. The difficulties in tailoring therapy according to the variable atherothrombotic risk in different individuals are emphasized, in addition to the varying risk within an individual secondary to DM duration, presence of complications and predisposition to bleeding events. This review provides the reader with an up-to-date guide for antithrombotic management of individuals with DM and highlights gaps in knowledge that represent areas for future research, aiming to improve clinical outcome in this high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203081PMC
June 2021

Ticagrelor versus prasugrel for PCI-managed myocardial infarction: the battle of the giants continues.

Authors:
Robert F Storey

Heart 2021 07 19;107(14):1111-1112. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318872DOI Listing
July 2021

Prevention of stroke in patients with chronic coronary syndromes or peripheral arterial disease.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2020 Nov 6;22(Suppl M):M26-M34. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK.

Stroke is a common and devastating condition caused by atherothrombosis, thromboembolism, or haemorrhage. Patients with chronic coronary syndromes (CCS) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at increased risk of stroke because of shared pathophysiological mechanisms and risk-factor profiles. A range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies can help to reduce stroke risk in these groups. Antithrombotic therapy reduces the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, including ischaemic stroke, but increases the incidence of haemorrhagic stroke. Nevertheless, the net clinical benefits mean antithrombotic therapy is recommended in those with CCS or symptomatic PAD. Whilst single antiplatelet therapy is recommended as chronic treatment, dual antiplatelet therapy should be considered for those with CCS with prior myocardial infarction at high ischaemic but low bleeding risk. Similarly, dual antithrombotic therapy with aspirin and very-low-dose rivaroxaban is an alternative in CCS, as well as in symptomatic PAD. Full-dose anticoagulation should always be considered in those with CCS/PAD and atrial fibrillation. Unless ischaemic risk is particularly high, antiplatelet therapy should not generally be added to full-dose anticoagulation. Optimization of blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein levels, glycaemic control, and lifestyle characteristics may also reduce stroke risk. Overall, a multifaceted approach is essential to best prevent stroke in patients with CCS/PAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suaa165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916419PMC
November 2020

Biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a joint position paper of the Association for Acute CardioVascular Care and the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 May;10(3):343-355

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Blvd. 161, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

The formation of a thrombus in an epicardial artery may result in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Despite major advances in acute treatment using network approaches to allocate patients to timely reperfusion and optimal antithrombotic treatment, patients remain at high risk for thrombotic complications. Ongoing activation of the coagulation system as well as thrombin-mediated platelet activation may both play a crucial role in this context. Whether measurement of circulating biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis could be useful for risk stratification in secondary prevention is currently not fully understood. In addition, measurement of such biomarkers could be helpful to identify thrombus formation as the leading mechanism for AMI. The introduction of biomarkers of myocardial injury such as high-sensitivity cardiac troponins made rule-out of AMI even more precise. However, elevated markers of myocardial injury cannot provide proof of a type 1 AMI, let alone thrombus formation. The combined measurement of markers of myocardial injury with biomarkers reflecting ongoing thrombus formation might be helpful for the fast and correct diagnosis of an atherothrombotic type 1 AMI. This position paper gives an overview of the current knowledge and possible role of biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis for the diagnosis of AMI, risk stratification, and individualized treatment strategies in patients with AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuaa025DOI Listing
May 2021

Predictors, Type, and Impact of Bleeding on the Net Clinical Benefit of Long-Term Ticagrelor in Stable Patients With Prior Myocardial Infarction.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 02 9;10(4):e017008. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

University of ColoradoSchool of Medicine Aurora CO.

Background Ticagrelor reduces ischemic risk but increases bleeding in patients with prior myocardial infarction. Identification of patients at lower bleeding risk is important in selecting patients who are likely to derive more favorable outcomes versus risk from this strategy. Methods and Results PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 54) randomized 21 162 patients with prior myocardial infarction in a 1:1:1 fashion to ticagrelor 60 mg or 90 mg twice daily or placebo, with ticagrelor 60 mg approved for long-term use. TIMI major or minor bleeding was the primary end point for this analysis. Causes of bleeding were categorized by site and etiology, and independent predictors were identified. At 3 years, ticagrelor 60 mg increased the rate of TIMI major or minor bleeding by 2.0% versus placebo (1.4% placebo versus 3.4% ticagrelor). The bleeding excess was driven primarily by spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeds. A history of spontaneous bleeding requiring hospitalization and the presence of anemia were independent predictors of bleeding but not of ischemic risk. Patients with at least 1 risk predictor had 3-fold higher rates of bleeding with ticagrelor 60 mg versus those who had neither (absolute risk increase, 4.4% versus 1.5%; =0.01). Patients with neither predictor had a more favorable benefit profile with ticagrelor 60 mg versus placebo including lower mortality (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.96; interaction = 0.03). Conclusions In patients with prior myocardial infarction, bleeding with ticagrelor 60 mg twice daily is predominantly spontaneous gastrointestinal. A history of spontaneous bleeding requiring hospitalization or the presence of anemia identifies patients at higher risk of bleeding, and the absence of either identifies patients likely to have a more favorable net benefit with ticagrelor. Registration URL https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01225562.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955333PMC
February 2021

Apixaban or Vitamin K Antagonists and Aspirin or Placebo According to Kidney Function in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation After Acute Coronary Syndrome or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights From the AUGUSTUS Trial.

Circulation 2021 03 19;143(12):1215-1223. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (J.H.A., Z.L., D.M.W., C.B.G., R.D.L.).

Background: In the AUGUSTUS trial (An Open-Label, 2×2 Factorial, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety of Apixaban Versus Vitamin K Antagonist and Aspirin Versus Aspirin Placebo in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Acute Coronary Syndrome or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention), apixaban resulted in less bleeding and fewer hospitalizations than vitamin K antagonists, and aspirin caused more bleeding than placebo in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention treated with a P2Y inhibitor. We evaluated the risk-benefit balance of antithrombotic therapy according to kidney function.

Methods: In 4456 patients, the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) formula was used to calculate baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The effect of apixaban versus vitamin K antagonists and aspirin versus placebo was assessed across kidney function categories by using Cox models. The primary outcome was International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Secondary outcomes included death or hospitalization and ischemic events (death, stroke, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis [definite or probable], or urgent revascularization). Creatinine clearance <30 mL/min was an exclusion criterion in the AUGUSTUS trial.

Results: Overall, 30%, 52%, and 19% had an eGFR of >80, >50 to 80, and 30 to 50 mL·min·1.73 m, respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, a total of 543 primary outcomes of bleeding, 1125 death or hospitalizations, and 282 ischemic events occurred. Compared with vitamin K antagonists, patients assigned apixaban had lower rates for all 3 outcomes across most eGFR categories without significant interaction. The absolute risk reduction with apixaban was most pronounced in those with an eGFR of 30 to 50 mL·min·1.73 m for bleeding events with rates of 13.1% versus 21.3% (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.41-0.84). Patients assigned aspirin had a higher risk of bleeding in all eGFR categories with an even greater increase among those with eGFR >80 mL·min·1.73 m: 16.6% versus 5.6% (hazard ratio, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.19-4.74; for interaction=0.007). The risk of death or hospitalization and ischemic events were comparable to aspirin and placebo across eGFR categories with hazard ratios ranging from 0.97 (95% CI, 0.76-1.23) to 1.28 (95% CI, 1.02-1.59) and from 0.75 (95% CI, 0.48-1.17) to 1.34 (95% CI, 0.81-2.22), respectively.

Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of apixaban was consistent irrespective of kidney function, compared with warfarin, and in accordance with the overall trial results. The risk of bleeding with aspirin was consistently higher across all kidney function categories. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02415400.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.051020DOI Listing
March 2021

Genetic Risk Score to Identify Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Cardiometabolic Disease.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 02 12;14(1):e003006. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

TIMI Study Group, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (N.A.M., G.E.M.M., Y.G., F.K.K., R.P.G., B.M.S., E.B., M.S.S., C.T.R.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and has a known genetic contribution. We tested the performance of a genetic risk score for its ability to predict VTE in 3 cohorts of patients with cardiometabolic disease.

Methods: We included patients from the FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Patients With Elevated Risk), PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin), and SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus) trials (history of a major atherosclerotic cardiovascular event, myocardial infarction, and diabetes, respectively) who consented for genetic testing and were not on baseline anticoagulation. We calculated a VTE genetic risk score based on 297 single nucleotide polymorphisms with established genome-wide significance. Patients were divided into tertiles of genetic risk. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios for VTE across genetic risk groups. The polygenic risk score was compared with available clinical risk factors (age, obesity, smoking, history of heart failure, and diabetes) and common monogenic mutations.

Results: A total of 29 663 patients were included in the analysis with a median follow-up of 2.4 years, of whom 174 had a VTE event. There was a significantly increased gradient of risk across VTE genetic risk tertiles (-trend <0.0001). After adjustment for clinical risk factors, patients in the intermediate and high genetic risk groups had a 1.88-fold (95% CI, 1.23-2.89; =0.004) and 2.70-fold (95% CI, 1.81-4.06; <0.0001) higher risk of VTE compared with patients with low genetic risk. In a continuous model adjusted for clinical risk factors, each standard deviation increase in the genetic risk score was associated with a 47% (95% CI, 29-68) increased risk of VTE (<0.0001).

Conclusions: In a broad spectrum of patients with cardiometabolic disease, a polygenic risk score is a strong, independent predictor of VTE after accounting for available clinical risk factors, identifying 1/3 of patients who have a risk of VTE comparable to that seen with established monogenic thrombophilia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887088PMC
February 2021

Recovery of platelet reactivity following cessation of either aspirin or ticagrelor in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention: a GLOBAL LEADERS substudy.

Platelets 2020 Dec 26:1-6. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Cardiology, Golden Jubilee National Hospital, Glasgow, UK.

Cessation of one component of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been associated with increased risk of ischemic events but it is uncertain whether discontinuation of aspirin is preferable to discontinuation of the oral P2Y inhibitor. The GLOBAL LEADERS study compared two antiplatelet strategies following PCI, cessation of aspirin at 1 month with continued ticagrelor monotherapy for 23 months versus standard DAPT for 12 months followed by aspirin monotherapy for a further 12 months. We assessed recovery of platelet reactivity after withdrawal of either aspirin or ticagrelor at 1 month and 12 months, respectively, in this study. Platelet aggregation (PA) was assessed before cessation of DAPT ('baseline') and after 2, 7, and 14 days post-cessation using Multiplate whole-blood aggregometry with collagen, thrombin-receptor-activating peptide (TRAP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA) as agonists. Following cessation of aspirin at 1 month, there was marked recovery of PA induced by AA (baseline [mean ± SD]: 11.1 ± 7.4 U vs. 14 days: 64.9 ± 19.6 U, < .0001) and collagen (37.4 ± 22.9 U vs. 79.8 ± 13.8 U, < .0001), whereas PA induced by ADP (18.6 ± 6.6 vs. 69.1 ± 20.5, < .0001) and collagen (34.4 ± 18.7 U vs. 43.0 ± 21.0, = .0018) recovered following cessation of ticagrelor at 12 months. There were no significant changes in TRAP-induced PA in either group. In conclusion, cessation of either component of DAPT leads to substantial increase in platelet reactivity with differential effects on different pathways of platelet activation when aspirin or the P2Y inhibitor is stopped. Further work is required to determine which patients receive net benefit from long-term continuation of DAPT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2020.1863937DOI Listing
December 2020

A Proteomics-Based Assessment of Inflammation Signatures in Endotoxemia.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 24;20:100021. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

King's College London British Heart Foundation Centre, School of Cardiovascular Medicine and Sciences, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

We have previously shown that multimers of plasma pentraxin-3 (PTX3) were predictive of survival in patients with sepsis. To characterize the release kinetics and cellular source of plasma protein changes in sepsis, serial samples were obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 10; three time points) injected with low-dose endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and analyzed using data-independent acquisition MS. The human plasma proteome response was compared with an LPS-induced endotoxemia model in mice. Proteomic analysis of human plasma revealed a rapid neutrophil degranulation signature, followed by a rise in acute phase proteins. Changes in circulating PTX3 correlated with increases in neutrophil-derived proteins following LPS injection. Time course analysis of the plasma proteome in mice showed a time-dependent increase in multimeric PTX3, alongside increases in neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) upon LPS treatment. The mechanisms of oxidation-induced multimerization of PTX3 were explored in two genetic mouse models: MPO global knock-out (KO) mice and LysM Cre Nox2 KO mice, in which NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) is only deficient in myeloid cells. Nox2 is the enzyme responsible for the oxidative burst in neutrophils. Increases in plasma multimeric PTX3 were not significantly different between wildtype and MPO or LysM Cre Nox2 KO mice. Thus, PTX3 may already be stored and released in a multimeric form. Through in vivo neutrophil depletion and multiplexed vascular proteomics, PTX3 multimer deposition within the aorta was confirmed to be neutrophil dependent. Proteomic analysis of aortas from LPS-injected mice returned PTX3 as the most upregulated protein, where multimeric PTX3 was deposited as early as 2 h post-LPS along with other neutrophil-derived proteins. In conclusion, the rise in multimeric PTX3 upon LPS injection correlates with neutrophil-related protein changes in plasma and aortas. MPO and myeloid Nox2 are not required for the multimerization of PTX3; instead, neutrophil extravasation is responsible for the LPS-induced deposition of multimeric PTX3 in the aorta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/mcp.RA120.002305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7950208PMC
February 2021

The cardiac complications of COVID-19: many publications, multiple uncertainties.

Vasc Biol 2020 20;2(1):R105-R114. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Since the first description of COVID-19 in December 2019, more than 63,000 publications have described its virology, clinical course, management, treatment and prevention. Most physicians are now encountering, or will soon encounter, patients with COVID-19 and must attempt to simultaneously assimilate this avalanche of information while managing an entirely novel disease with few guiding precedents. It is increasingly clear that, although primarily a respiratory illness, COVID-19 is associated with cardiovascular complications. However, the true incidence of direct cardiac complications remains unclear, as all complications thus far reported can also occur in patients without COVID-19. In this review, we briefly summarise and critically appraise the data on cardiac complications associated with COVID-19 and describe some cases from our own experience. We identify unresolved questions and highlight the many uncertainties in this developing field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/VB-20-0009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709917PMC
October 2020

Meta-analysis of echocardiographic quantification of left ventricular filling pressure.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 02 23;8(1):566-576. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK.

Aims: The clinical reliability of echocardiographic surrogate markers of left ventricular filling pressures (LVFPs) across different cardiovascular pathologies remains unanswered. The main objective was to evaluate the evidence of how effectively different echocardiographic indices estimate true LVFP.

Methods And Results: Design: this is a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Source: Scopus, PubMed and Embase. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies were those that used echocardiography to predict or estimate pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left ventricular end-diastolic pressures. Twenty-seven studies met criteria. Only eight studies (30%) reported both correlation coefficient and bias between non-invasive and invasively measured LVFPs. The majority of studies (74%) recorded invasive pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as a surrogate for left ventricular end-diastolic pressures. The pooled correlation coefficient overall was r = 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.75, P < 0.01]. Evaluation by cohort demonstrated varying association: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (11 studies, n = 575, r = 0.59, 95% CI 0.53-0.64) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (8 studies, n = 381, r = 0.67, 95% CI 0.61-0.72).

Conclusions: Echocardiographic indices show moderate pooled association to invasively measured LVFP; however, this varies widely with disease state. In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, no single echocardiography-based metric offers a reliable estimate. In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, mitral inflow-derived indices (E/e', E/A, E/Vp, and EDcT) have reasonable clinical applicability. While an integrated approach of several echocardiographic metrics provides the most promise for estimating LVFP reliably, such strategies need further validation in larger, patient-specific studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835555PMC
February 2021

Clinical Application of a Novel Genetic Risk Score for Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Cardiometabolic Disease.

Circulation 2021 02 13;143(5):470-478. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

TIMI Study Group, Boston, MA (N.A.M., F.K.K., F.N., G.M.M., R.P.G., B.M.S., M.L.O'D., E.M.A., E.B., M.S.S., C.T.R.).

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with an increased risk of stroke. We sought to determine whether a genetic risk score (GRS) could identify subjects at higher risk for ischemic stroke after accounting for traditional clinical risk factors in 5 trials across the spectrum of cardiometabolic disease.

Methods: Subjects who had consented for genetic testing and who were of European ancestry from the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 (Effective Anticoagulation with Factor Xa Next Generation in Atrial Fibrillation), SOLID-TIMI 52 (Stabilization of Plaques Using Darapladib), SAVOR-TIMI 53 (Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus), PEGASUS-TIMI 54 (Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Prior Heart Attack Using Ticagrelor Compared to Placebo on a Background of Aspirin), and FOURIER (Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research With PCSK9 Inhibition in Patients With Elevated Risk) trials were included in this analysis. A set of 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ischemic stroke was used to calculate a GRS in each patient and identify tertiles of genetic risk. A Cox model was used to calculate hazard ratios for ischemic stroke across genetic risk groups, adjusted for clinical risk factors.

Results: In 51 288 subjects across the 5 trials, a total of 960 subjects had an ischemic stroke over a median follow-up period of 2.5 years. After adjusting for clinical risk factors, a higher GRS was strongly and independently associated with increased risk for ischemic stroke ( trend=0.009). In comparison with individuals in the lowest third of the GRS, individuals in the middle and top tertiles of the GRS had adjusted hazard ratios of 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.36) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.05-1.45) for ischemic stroke, respectively. Stratification into subgroups revealed that the performance of the GRS appeared stronger in the primary prevention cohort with an adjusted hazard ratio for the top versus lowest tertile of 1.27 (95% CI, 1.04-1.53), in comparison with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.06 (95% CI, 0.81-1.41) in subjects with previous stroke. In an exploratory analysis of patients with atrial fibrillation and CHADS-VASc score of 2, high genetic risk conferred a 4-fold higher risk of stroke and an absolute risk equivalent to those with CHADS-VASc score of 3.

Conclusions: Across a broad spectrum of subjects with cardiometabolic disease, a 32-single-nucleotide polymorphism GRS was a strong, independent predictor of ischemic stroke. In patients with atrial fibrillation but lower CHADS-VASc scores, the GRS identified patients with risk comparable to those with higher CHADS-VASc scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.051927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856243PMC
February 2021

Antithrombotic therapy for patients with chronic coronary syndromes.

Heart 2021 06 30;107(11):925-933. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Infection, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-316914DOI Listing
June 2021

The long journey of individualizing antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndromes.

Authors:
Robert F Storey

Eur Heart J 2020 10;41(37):3546-3548

Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa644DOI Listing
October 2020

Rationale and design of the LIBERATES trial: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of flash glucose monitoring for optimisation of glycaemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes and recent myocardial infarction.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2020 May-Jun;17(5):1479164120957934

Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK.

Hyperglycaemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with guarded clinical prognosis. Studies improving glucose levels in T2D following MI relied on HbA1c as the main glycaemic marker, failing to address potential adverse effects of hypoglycaemia and glucose variability. We describe the design of the LIBERATES trial that investigates the role of flash glucose monitoring in optimising glycaemic markers in high vascular risk individuals with T2D. This multicentre trial is designed to recruit up to 150 insulin and/or sulphonylurea-treated T2D patients, within 5 days of a proven MI. Individuals will be randomised 1:1 into intervention and control groups using flash glucose monitoring sensors and traditional self-monitoring of blood glucose, respectively. The control group will also wear a blinded continuous glucose monitoring sensor. The primary outcome is the difference in time spent in euglycaemia (defined as glucose levels between 3.9-10.0 mmol/l), comparing study groups 3 months following recruitment, assessed daily for 14 days and as an average. Secondary and exploratory end points include time spent in hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, HbA1c, quality of life measures, major adverse cardiac events and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. This study will establish the role of flash glucose monitoring in glycaemic management of individuals with T2D sustaining a cardiac event.(Trial Registration: ISRCTN14974233, registered 12th June 2017).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164120957934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919208PMC
January 2021
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