Publications by authors named "Rishika A Pace"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Establishment and characterization of fetal and maternal mesenchymal stem/stromal cell lines from the human term placenta.

Placenta 2016 Mar 22;39:134-46. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

University of Melbourne, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia; Pregnancy Research Centre, Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Royal Women's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Human placental mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive source of MSC with great therapeutic potential. However, primary MSC are difficult to study in vitro due to their limited lifespan and patient-to-patient variation.

Methods: Fetal and maternal MSC were prepared from cells of the chorionic and basal plates of the placenta, respectively. Fetal and maternal MSC were transduced with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Conventional stem cell assays assessed the MSC characteristics of the cell lines. Functional assays for cell proliferation, cell migration and ability to form colonies in soft agar were used to assess the whether transduced cells retained properties of primary MSC.

Results: Fetal chorionic and maternal MSC were successfully transduced with hTERT to create the cell lines CMSC29 and DMSC23 respectively. The lifespans of CMSC29 and DMSC23 were extended in cell culture. Both cell lines retained important MSC characteristics including cell surface marker expression and multipotent differentiation potential. Neither of the cell lines was tumourigenic in vitro. Gene expression differences were observed between CMSC29 and DMSC23 cells and their corresponding parent, primary MSC. Both cell lines show similar migration potential to their corresponding primary, parent MSC.

Discussion: The data show that transduced MSC retained important functional properties of the primary MSC. There were gene expression and functional differences between cell lines CMSC29 and DMSC23 that reflect their different tissue microenvironments of the parent, primary MSC. CMSC29 and DMSC23 cell lines could be useful tools for optimisation and functional studies of MSC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2016.01.018DOI Listing
March 2016

Immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2012 Jun;8(2):375-92

King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences/King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, PO Box 22490, Riyadh, 11426, Mail Code 1515, Saudi Arabia.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be isolated from different adult tissues including bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood and placenta. MSCs modulate the immune function of the major immune cell populations involved in alloantigen recognition and elimination, including antigen presenting cells, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. Many clinical trials are currently underway that employ MSCs to treat human immunological diseases. However, the molecular mechanism that mediates the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs is still unclear and the safety of using MSC in patient needs further confirmation. Here, we review the cytokines that activate MSCs and the soluble factors produced by MSCs, which allow them to exert their immunosuppressive effects. We review the mechanism responsible, at least in part, for the immune suppressive effects of MSCs and highlight areas of research required for a better understanding of MSC immune modulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-011-9312-0DOI Listing
June 2012

Collagen VI glycine mutations: perturbed assembly and a spectrum of clinical severity.

Ann Neurol 2008 Sep;64(3):294-303

Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: The collagen VI muscular dystrophies, Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, form a continuum of clinical phenotypes. Glycine mutations in the triple helix have been identified in both Bethlem and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, but it is not known why they cause these different phenotypes.

Methods: We studied eight new patients who presented with a spectrum of clinical severity, screened the three collagen VI messenger RNA for mutations, and examined collagen VI biosynthesis and the assembly pathway.

Results: All eight patients had heterozygous glycine mutations toward the N-terminal end of the triple helix. The mutations produced two assembly phenotypes. In the first patient group, collagen VI dimers accumulated in the cell but not the medium, microfibril formation in the medium was moderately reduced, and the amount of collagen VI in the extracellular matrix was not significantly altered. The second group had more severe assembly defects: some secreted collagen VI tetramers were not disulfide bonded, microfibril formation in the medium was severely compromised, and collagen VI in the extracellular matrix was reduced.

Interpretation: These data indicate that collagen VI glycine mutations impair the assembly pathway in different ways and disease severity correlates with the assembly abnormality. In mildly affected patients, normal amounts of collagen VI were deposited in the fibroblast matrix, whereas in patients with moderate-to-severe disability, assembly defects led to a reduced collagen VI fibroblast matrix. This study thus provides an explanation for how different glycine mutations produce a spectrum of clinical severity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.21439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2743946PMC
September 2008

Molecular consequences of dominant Bethlem myopathy collagen VI mutations.

Ann Neurol 2007 Oct;62(4):390-405

Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Dominant mutations in the three collagen VI genes cause Bethlem myopathy, a disorder characterized by proximal muscle weakness and commonly contractures of the fingers, wrists, and ankles. Although more than 20 different dominant mutations have been identified in Bethlem myopathy patients, the biosynthetic consequences of only a subset of these have been studied, and in many cases, the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown.

Methods: We have screened fourteen Bethlem myopathy patients for collagen VI mutations and performed detailed analyses of collagen VI biosynthesis and intracellular and extracellular assembly.

Results: Collagen VI abnormalities were identified in eight patients. One patient produced around half the normal amount of alpha1(VI) messenger RNA and reduced amounts of collagen VI protein. Two patients had a previously reported mutation causing skipping of COL6A1 exon 14, and three patients had novel mutations leading to in-frame deletions toward the N-terminal end of the triple-helical domain. These mutations have different and complex effects on collagen VI intracellular and extracellular assembly. Two patients had single amino acid substitutions in the A-domains of COL6A2 and COL6A3. Collagen VI intracellular and extracellular assembly was normal in one of these patients.

Interpretation: The key to dissecting the pathogenic mechanisms of collagen VI mutations lies in detailed analysis of collagen VI biosynthesis and assembly. The majority of mutations result in secretion and deposition of structurally abnormal collagen VI. However, one A-domain mutation had no detectable effect on assembly, suggesting that it acts by compromising collagen VI interactions in the extracellular matrix of muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.21213DOI Listing
October 2007