Publications by authors named "Richa Yadav"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Role of Imaging in Childhood Arthritis.

J Clin Rheumatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Department of Radiodiagnosis, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

Abstract: Imaging plays a pivotal role in the management of various childhood arthritis. Conventional radiography is the most commonly ordered imaging modality for the evaluation of arthritis. Owing to their higher sensitivity for detecting synovitis, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are increasingly being used to guide clinical management of various forms of arthritis, especially juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Magnetic resonance imaging is a preferred modality for evaluating more complex sites such as the sacroiliac joint. In this review, we have discussed the rational use and the characteristic imaging features of common childhood arthritis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000001735DOI Listing
April 2021

Spine radiograph in dysplasias: A pictorial essay.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2020 Oct-Dec;30(4):436-447. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

Spine radiograph is an essential component of a skeletal survey. It provides important diagnostic clues to various types of skeletal dysplasia. In some conditions, a spine radiograph alone may be diagnostic and characteristic; but mostly, it yields more value as a part of the complete skeletal survey. In this article we will discuss about a few common lethal and non-lethal skeletal dysplasias and their characteristic imaging findings; primarily focusing on the spine radiograph.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijri.IJRI_395_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954163PMC
January 2021

Percutaneous Management of Persistent Urine Leak After Partial Nephrectomy: Sealing the Leak Site with Glue.

J Endourol Case Rep 2020 29;6(4):472-475. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Localized urinary extravasation is a known complication after partial nephrectomy; however, rarely it forms a nephrocutaneous fistula. Nephrocutaneous fistula after partial nephrectomy is a management challenge for the treating surgeon. It is typically managed with indwelling ureteral stent placement. Persistent fistula after indwelling ureteral stent can be managed with percutaneous nephrostomy drainage. However, persistence after all these measures is a real therapeutic dilemma. Few reports are available on effective management of persistent urine leak by percutaneous obliteration of leak site using glue. We report one such rare case of persistent nephrocutaneous fistula in a 41-year-old man of Indo-Aryan ethnicity. He was managed effectively with percutaneous cyanoacrylate glue application, when all the conservative methods failed. At 6 months follow-up he is doing well clinically and radiologically. Persistent nephrocutaneous fistula after partial nephrectomy is a rare and highly morbid condition, which leads to multiple intervention and prolonged hospital stay. Percutaneous glue application is a potential therapeutic approach to tackle such cases with good results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cren.2020.0151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803278PMC
December 2020

Innovation in Community Psychiatry for the Delivery of Mental Health Services: The Sawangi Model.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2020 Oct 31;11(4):593-596. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

 Can undergraduate medical students (UGs) adopt a village model to identify mentally ill persons in an adopted village successfully?  UGs during their first year adopt a village, and each student adopts seven families in the villages. During the visit, they look after immunization, tobacco and alcohol abuse, nutrition, hygiene, and sanitation. They help in identifying the health needs (including mental health) of the adopted family. The Indian Psychiatric Survey Schedule containing 15 questions covering most of the psychiatric illnesses were used by UGs to identify mental illness in the community. Persons identified as suffering from mental illness were referred to a consultant psychiatrist for confirmation of diagnosis and further management.   Calculated by percentage of expected mentally ill persons based on prevalence of mental illness in the rural community and is compared with actual number of patients with mental illness identified by the UGs. True-positive, false-positive, and true predictive values were derived.  In Umri village, UGs were able to identify 269 persons as true positives and 25 as false positives, whereas in Kurzadi village, UGs were able to identify 221 persons as true positives and 35 as false positives. It suggests UGs were able to identify mental illnesses with a good positive predictive value. In Umri village, out of 294 mentally ill patients, it gave a true positive value of 91.49% and a false positive value of 8.5%, whereas in Kurzadi village, out of the 256 mentally ill patients, it gave a true positive value of 86.3% and a false positive value of 13.67%.  The ratio of psychiatrists in India is approximately 0.30 per 100,000 population due to which psychiatrists alone cannot cover the mental health problems of India. Therefore, we need a different model to cover mental illness in India, which is discussed in this article.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1715543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595769PMC
October 2020

Automatic segmentation and RECIST score evaluation in osteosarcoma using diffusion MRI: A computer aided system process.

Eur J Radiol 2020 Dec 20;133:109359. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India; Department of Biomedical Engineering, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: Accuracy and consistency in RECIST (Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors) measurements are crucial for treatment planning. Manual RECIST measurement is tedious, prone-to-error and operator-subjective. Objective was to develop a fully automated system for tumor segmentation and RECIST score estimation with reasonable accuracy, consistency and speed.

Methods: Diffusion weight images (DWI) of forty patients (N = 40; Male:Female = 30:10; Age = 17.7 ± 5.9years) with Osteosarcoma was acquired using 1.5 T MRI scanner before (baseline) and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (follow-up). 3D tumor volume was segmented applying Simple-linear-iterative-clustering Superpixels (SLIC-S) and Fuzzy-c-means-clustering (FCM) separately. Connected-component-analysis was performed to identify image-slice with maximum tumor-burden (Max-burden-sliceno) and measure tumor-sizes (Tumor-diameter(cm) & Tumor-volume(cc)). Relative-percentage-changes in tumor-sizes across time-points were scored using RECIST1.1 and Volumetric-response criterion. Segmentation accuracy was estimated by Dice-coefficient (DC), Jaccard-Index (JI), Precision (P) and Recall (R). Evaluated Apparent-diffusion-coefficient (ADC), Tumor-diameter, Max-burden-sliceno and Tumor-volume in segmented tumor-mask and ground-truth tumor-mask were compared using paired-t-test (p < 0.05), Pearson-correlation-coefficient(PCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Misclassification-error-rate (MER) was evaluated for automated RECIST1.1 and Volumetric-response scoring methods.

Results: Automated SLIC-S and FCM produced satisfactory tumor segmentation (DC:∼70-83%;JI:∼55-72%;P:∼64-85%;R:∼73-83%) and showed excellent correlation with ground-truth measurements in estimating ADC (p > 0.05; PCC=0.84-0.89), Tumor-diameters (p > 0.05; PCC=0.90-0.95; bias=0.3-2.41), Max-burden-sliceno (p > 0.05; PCC=0.87-0.96) and Tumor-volumes (p > 0.05; PCC=0.89-0.94; bias=15.19-131.81) at baseline and follow-up. MER for SLIC-S and FCM were comparable for RECIST1.1 (15-18 %) and Volumetric-response (18-20 %) scores and assessment times were 2-3s and 4-6s per patient respectively.

Conclusions: Proposed method produced promising segmentation and RECIST score measurements in current bone tumor dataset and might be useful as decision-support-tool for response evaluation in other tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109359DOI Listing
December 2020

A novel approach for optimal design of digital FIR filter using grasshopper optimization algorithm.

ISA Trans 2021 Feb 25;108:196-206. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Delhi Technological University (DTU) Rohini, Delhi 110042, India. Electronic address:

The idea behind designing digital filters is to compute the optimal filter coefficients such that the magnitude response of the designed matches the ideal frequency response using optimization algorithms. The proposed work employed a recently proposed swarm-based optimization technique, namely, a grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) to design a linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) low pass, high pass, band pass , and band stop filters. This proposed algorithm models the behaviour of grasshoppers while seeking food sources to solve optimization problems. For the designing of the FIR filter, an absolute error difference fitness function is used, which is minimized using GOA to obtain optimal filter coefficients. The performance comparison of the proposed work is done with already existing algorithms such as cuckoo search, particle swarm optimization, artificial bee colony to prove its superiority and consistency. It is found that GOA based filter meets the objective efficiently with reduced ripples in pass band and higher attenuation in stop band with least execution time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.08.032DOI Listing
February 2021

Solid variant ABC of long tubular bones: A diagnostic conundrum for the radiologist.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2019 Jul-Sep;29(3):271-276. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst (sABC) is an extremely rare, reactive and non-neoplastic osseous lesion. On imaging it presents as a diaphyseal aggressive, eccentrically placed lytic and expansile lesion. However, differentiating this entity from the other possible malignant differentials is confounded by the histopathology mimicking several commoner lesions. We describe the distinctive MRI features of sABC of long bones from a series of four cases and briefly review the literature. We hope this review will educate all radiologists about this rare entity increasing their diagnostic confidence while formulating differentials for similar appearing lesions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijri.IJRI_160_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6857266PMC
October 2019

Synthesis, characterization, and supramolecular architectures of two distinct classes of probes for the visualization of endogenously generated hypochlorite ions in response to cellular activity.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Sep 14;198:111594. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India. Electronic address:

Two distinct classes of compounds, (E)-2-(((3-amino-4-nitrophenyl) imino) methyl)-5-(diethylamino) phenol (SB) and 5-(diethylamino)-2-(5-nitro-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenol (IM) were synthesized. SB, a bright red colored compound was crystallized in acetonitrile as a triclinic crystal system while IM, yellow colored compound crystallized as a monoclinic crystal system in dimethylformamide by vapor diffusion of diethylether. These compounds were characterized using spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-visible, H, and C NMR), and X-ray crystallography. SB and IM displayed classical and non-classical H-bonding involving C-H…O and π…π interactions. These compounds detected hypochlorite ions in aqueous DMSO (1: 9, v/v, HEPES buffer, pH 7.4), and detection was visible via color changes by naked eye. We also performed UV-visible and fluorescence titrations, showing detection limits of 8.82 × 10 M for SB and 2.44 × 10 M for IM. The fluorometric responses from SB and IM were also studied against different ROS and anions. DFT calculations were performed to strengthen the proposed sensing mechanisms of both SB and IM. Hypochlorite, which is endogenously generated by myeloperoxidase in endosomes, was specifically visualized using SB and IM in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells. These probes were also used to image the generation of hypochlorite by RAW264.7 cells during phagocytosis of non-fluorescent polystyrene beads.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111594DOI Listing
September 2019

The Role of Crush Cytology in the Diagnosis of Large-Intestine Lesions with Correlation on Histopathology.

Acta Cytol 2018 4;62(3):215-222. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Objective: To study the efficacy of colonoscopic crush cytology as a convenient and near-accurate method to evaluate colonic neoplasms.

Study Design: Retrospective and cross-sectional. The original cytologic diagnoses were correlated with a histology report on 100 cases sent to the cytology laboratory over 2 years.

Results: Of the 100 cases, 25 were nonmalignant. Of the 75 malignant lesions, 72 could be identified as positive for malignancy on cytology. The false-positives consisted of 6 adenomas and 1 case of ulcerative colitis. Thus, sensitivity and specificity of cytology are 96 and 63.2%, respectively. Of the 6 adenomas diagnosed as malignant, 4 showed high-grade dysplasia, and the other 2 showed superficial ulceration with low-grade dysplasia on histopathology. The ulcerative colitis case showed widespread ulcers and regenerative/reparative features on biopsy. The 3 adenocarcinomas diagnosed s benign on cytology showed an occasional malignant cell with thickened nuclear borders and prominent central nucleoli.

Conclusions: With careful attention to the cytomorphology, coupled with good clinical and endoscopic correlation, crush cytology of the large intestine is a reliable diagnostic tool. It categorizes lesions as malignant and benign with a high sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Adenomas and reparative/regenerative changes seen in inflammatory bowel disease are major pitfalls in the cytology diagnosis of malignancy that may be averted by informing the endoscopic findings and clinical history. Cytology diagnosis saves time and gives proper feedback to the gastroenterologist.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000487628DOI Listing
June 2018

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (block 2), glutamate-rich protein and sexual stage antigen Pfs25 from Chandigarh, North India.

Trop Med Int Health 2017 12 9;22(12):1590-1598. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Objective: To elucidate the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in residual transmission foci of northern India.

Methods: Clinically suspected patients with malaria were screened for malaria infection by microscopy. 48 P. falciparum-infected patients were enrolled from tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh, India. Blood samples were collected from enrolled patients, genomic DNA extraction and nested PCR was performed for further species confirmation. Sanger sequencing was carried out using block 2 region of msp1, R2 region of glurp and pfs25-specific primers.

Results: Extensive diversity was found in msp1 alleles with predominantly RO33 alleles. Overall allelic prevalence was 55.8% for RO33, 39.5% for MAD20 and 4.7% for K1. Six variants were observed in MAD20, whereas no variant was found in RO33 and K1 alleles. A phylogenetic analysis of RO33 alleles indicated more similarity to South African isolates, whereas MAD20 alleles showed similarity with South-East Asian isolates. In glurp, extensive variation was observed with eleven different alleles based on the AAU repeats. However, pfs25 showed less diversity and was the most stable among the targeted genes.

Conclusion: Our findings document the genetic diversity among circulating strains of P. falciparum in an area of India with low malaria transmission and could have implications for control strategies to reach the national goal of malaria elimination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12990DOI Listing
December 2017

New improved fractional order differentiator models based on optimized digital differentiators.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 6;2014:741395. Epub 2014 Feb 6.

Netaji Subhash Institute of Technology, Sector 3, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078, India.

Different evolutionary algorithms (EAs), namely, particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), and PSO-GA hybrid optimization, have been used to optimize digital differential operators so that these can be better fitted to exemplify their new improved fractional order differentiator counterparts. First, the paper aims to provide efficient 2nd and 3rd order operators in connection with process of minimization of error fitness function by registering mean, median, and standard deviation values in different random iterations to ascertain the best results among them, using all the abovementioned EAs. Later, these optimized operators are discretized for half differentiator models for utilizing their restored qualities inhibited from their optimization. Simulation results present the comparisons of the proposed half differentiators with the existing and amongst different models based on 2nd and 3rd order optimized operators. Proposed half differentiators have been observed to approximate the ideal half differentiator and also outperform the existing ones reasonably well in complete range of Nyquist frequency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/741395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933233PMC
December 2014

Ayurvedic concepts related to psychotherapy.

Indian J Psychiatry 2013 Jan;55(Suppl 2):S310-4

Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

The perfect balance of mind, body and soul is considered as complete health in Ayurveda. Ayurveda has its own identity as most ancient and traditional System of Medicine in India. Even Ayurveda emphasizes its treatment modalities into three parts viz. Satwawajay Chikitsa, Yuktivyapashray and Daivyapashray Chikitsa. Sattvavajaya therapy mentioned in Charakasamhita and it used as new concept of psychotherapy in Ayurveda. The effectiveness of "traditional mental health promoting practices" was identified as health regimens (swasthvrtt), correct behavior (sadvrtt), and yoga. Sattvavajaya as psychotherapy, is the mental restraint, or a "mind control" as referred by Caraka, is achieved through "spiritual knowledge, philosophy, fortitude, remembrance and concentration. Ayurvedic psychotherapy would play a dual role: First, as a revival of authentic medical culture, the exercise of a practice with an assumed primordial dimension, and second as a discovery of authentic subjectivity, the revelation of a self with an assumed interior depth. When we integrate the contemporary art of psychotherapy with the ancient science of Ayurveda, it becomes a powerful combination that is called Psycho Veda. The integration of Psycho and Veda is motivated by the complete integration of the immense but fairly contemporary view of the mind, emotions and psyche and how this performs in our lives. Integrating Psychotherapy and Vedic principles teaches us how to rediscover critical knowledge and awareness of the natural forces and rhythms that compliment and strengthen our human experience, through the understanding of the psyche and what our inner experiences are and also involving practical daily activities with thorough attention to our total environment to bring about radical changes in our mental outlook and in physical health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.105556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705701PMC
January 2013

Religion and mental health.

Indian J Psychiatry 2013 Jan;55(Suppl 2):S187-94

Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5545.105526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705681PMC
January 2013

Feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the combination of D-serine and computerized cognitive retraining in schizophrenia: an international collaborative pilot study.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2013 Feb 24;38(3):492-503. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06516, USA.

The combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive retraining (CRT) for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia may be more efficacious than either approach alone, but this has not yet been tested. This study evaluated the feasibility, safety, tolerability, and efficacy of 12 weeks of D-serine, combined with CRT in the treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia at two academic sites in parallel, in India and the United States. In a randomized, partial double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design, 104 schizophrenia subjects (US site=22, Indian site=82) were randomized to: (1) D-serine (30 mg/kg)+CRT (5 h/week), (2) D-serine+control CRT, (3) CRT+placebo D-serine, and (4) placebo+control CRT. Completion rates were 84 and 100% in the Indian and US samples, respectively. On various outcome measures of safety and tolerability, the interventions were well tolerated. D-Serine and CRT did not show any significant effect on the Global Cognitive Index, although both interventions showed differential site effects on individual test performance. CRT resulted in a significant improvement in Verbal Working Memory, and a trend toward improvement in Attention/Vigilance. This is the first study to demonstrating the feasibility, safety, and tolerability of combination pharmacotherapy and CRT in a multicenter international clinical trial. These preliminary findings provide support for future studies using higher doses of D-serine that have been shown to be efficacious or other pharmacotherapies, along with the newer cognitive remediation strategies that are individualized and that target basic information processing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2012.208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3547200PMC
February 2013

A comparative study of stress among students of medicine, engineering, and nursing.

Indian J Psychol Med 2011 Jul;33(2):145-8

Department of Psychiatry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Maharashtra, India.

Background: In today's ultra competitive environment, students face more stress than ever - be it related to studies, examination, peer, teachers or parent's pressure. Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment. On one hand, stress compels us to action. However, it can result in feelings of rejection, anger, and depression, leading to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke.

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 100 randomly selected students each from Medical College Engineering College and 50 Nursing College was done. For reliability, anonymity and confidentiality were maintained. Stress was measured by using stress measurement scale having 24 Yes/No questions. The questionnaire was in English and Hindi so that language would not be problem.

Results: Stress as an entity is universally present among students of all three streams, irrespective of age, sex, and other variables. Students in all three streams have shown denial to existence of problems, with maximum among nursing students. Medical and Engineering students had stress level of such a degree that requires clinical attention, while none of the nursing students belonged to this category.

Conclusions: There is attitude among students of turning a blind eye toward existing stress which is a serious problem and may be harbinger of serious mental and psychosocial problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0253-7176.92064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3271488PMC
July 2011