Publications by authors named "Reinier A Waalewijn"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clopidogrel in noncarriers of CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles versus ticagrelor in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome: A pre-specified sub analysis from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials CYP2C19 alleles in elderly patients.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 20;334:10-17. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands; Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles derive less benefit from clopidogrel treatment. Despite this, in elderly patients, clopidogrel might be preferred over more potent P2Y inhibitors due to a lower bleeding risk. Whether CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet treatment in the elderly could be of benefit has not been studied specifically.

Methods: Patients aged 70 years and older with known CYP2C19*2 and *3 genotype were identified from the POPular Genetics and POPular Age trials. Noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles treated with clopidogrel were compared to patients, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype, treated with ticagrelor and to clopidogrel treated carriers of loss-of-function alleles. We assessed net clinical benefit (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke and Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) major bleeding), atherothrombotic outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and bleeding outcomes (PLATO major and minor bleeding).

Results: A total of 991 patients were assessed. There was no significant difference in net clinical benefit (17.2% vs. 15.1%, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-1.44), atherothrombotic outcomes (9.7% vs. 9.2%, adjHR 1.00, 95%CI 0.66-1.50), and bleeding outcomes (17.7% vs. 19.8%, adjHR 0.80, 95%CI 0.62-1.12) between clopidogrel in noncarriers of loss-of-function alleles and ticagrelor respectively.

Conclusion: In ACS patients aged 70 years and older, there was no significant difference in net clinical benefit and atherothrombotic outcomes between noncarriers of a loss-of-function allele treated with clopidogrel and patients treated with ticagrelor. The bleeding rate was numerically; though not statistically significant, lower in patients using clopidogrel.
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July 2021

Causes for the declining proportion of ventricular fibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Resuscitation 2015 Nov 21;96:23-9. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims: The reported proportion of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has declined worldwide. VF decline may be caused by less VF at collapse and/or faster dissolution of VF into asystole. We aimed to determine the causes of VF decline by comparing VF proportions in relation to delay from emergency medical services (EMS) call to initial ECG (call-to-ECG delay), and VF dissolution rates between two study periods.

Methods: Data from the AmsteRdam REsuscitation STudies (ARREST), an ongoing OHCA registry in the Netherlands, were used. We studied cardiac OHCA in the study periods 1995-1997 (n=917) and 2006-2012 (n=5695). Cases with available ECG and information on call-to-ECG delay were included. We tested whether initial VF proportion and VF dissolution rates differed between both study periods using logistic regression.

Results: Despite a 15% VF decline between the periods, VF proportion around EMS call remained high in 2006-2012 (64%). The odds ratio (OR) for VF proportion in 2006-2012 vs. 1995-1997 was 0.52 (95%-CI 0.45-0.60, P<0.001), with similar rates of VF dissolution in both periods (P=0.83). VF decline was higher for unwitnessed collapse (OR 0.41, 95%-CI 0.28-0.58) and collapse at home (OR 0.50, 95%-CI 0.42-0.59), but not for categories of bystander CPR, age or sex.

Conclusion: VF proportion early after collapse remains high. VF decline is explained by the occurrence of less initial VF, rather than faster dissolving VF. An increase in unwitnessed OHCA and collapse at home contributes to the observed VF decline.
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November 2015

Familial evaluation in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: disease penetrance and expression in cardiac ryanodine receptor mutation-carrying relatives.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2012 Aug 10;5(4):748-56. Epub 2012 Jul 10.

Department of Cardiology, Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited arrhythmia syndrome associated with mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (Ryr2) in the majority of patients. Previous studies of CPVT patients mainly involved probands, so current insight into disease penetrance, expression, genotype-phenotype correlations, and arrhythmic event rates in relatives carrying the Ryr2 mutation is limited.

Methods And Results: One-hundred sixteen relatives carrying the Ryr2 mutation from 15 families who were identified by cascade screening of the Ryr2 mutation causing CPVT in the proband were clinically characterized, including 61 relatives from 1 family. Fifty-four of 108 antiarrhythmic drug-free relatives (50%) had a CPVT phenotype at the first cardiological examination, including 27 (25%) with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Relatives carrying a Ryr2 mutation in the C-terminal channel-forming domain showed an increased odds of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (odds ratio, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.5-11.5; P=0.007, compared with N-terminal domain) compared with N-terminal domain. Sinus bradycardia was observed in 19% of relatives, whereas other supraventricular dysrhythmias were present in 16%. Ninety-eight (most actively treated) relatives (84%) were followed up for a median of 4.7 years (range, 0.3-19.0 years). During follow-up, 2 asymptomatic relatives experienced exercise-induced syncope. One relative was not being treated, whereas the other was noncompliant. None of the 116 relatives died of CPVT during a 6.7-year follow-up (range, 1.4-20.9 years).

Conclusions: Relatives carrying an Ryr2 mutation show a marked phenotypic diversity. The vast majority do not have signs of supraventricular disease manifestations. Mutation location may be associated with severity of the phenotype. The arrhythmic event rate during follow-up was low.
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August 2012

Assessment of quality of life and cognitive function after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with successful resuscitation.

Am J Cardiol 2004 Jan;93(2):131-5

Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This prospective cohort study evaluated the impact of the time-related elements of the "chain of survival" on the quality of life of patients, taking their characteristics into account. Between 1995 and 2002, consecutive, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients from Amsterdam and the surrounding areas were included in this study. A total of 227 patients (12%) survived to hospital discharge and 174 were definitive survivors who were available for assessment at 6 months. Quality of life was measured with the 136-item Sickness Impact Profile (SIP); cognitive functioning was assessed through the Mini Mental State Examination. SIP profiles were compared with profiles of an open Dutch population of the elderly and patients who experienced a stroke. Time intervals of the chain of survival were calculated from the estimated moment of collapse and related to outcome using regression analysis. The SIP profile of survivors was a little above the reference profile, indicating a slightly poorer quality of life, and below the profile of patients after stroke, indicating a better quality of life. Impaired cognitive function was associated with delay in the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio 4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 19). Absence of the need for advanced cardiopulmonary life support was associated with better cognitive functioning (odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 0.9). Female gender and older age were associated with impaired physical functioning. Trends were found for better outcomes after early access, immediate resuscitation, early defibrillation, and early advanced care.
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January 2004

Prevention of deterioration of ventricular fibrillation by basic life support during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Resuscitation 2002 Jul;54(1):31-6

Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, University of Amsterdam, F4-143, PO Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Survival of cardiac arrest is improved by basic life support (BLS). This study investigated the relationship between ventricular fibrillation (VF) characteristics and survival. In a 2-year prospective study out-of-hospital witnessed non-traumatic cardiac arrests were observed. The probabilities of recording VF, asystole or other rhythms in relation to BLS and the time to the rhythm recording were analyzed with logistic regression. Amplitude and baseline crossings of VF were related to survival, using linear regression analysis. In 873 patients, the probability to record VF decreased per minute (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.89-0.95) and of asystole increased (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.09-1.18) as time from collapse elapsed. BLS reduced these trends significantly for VF (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.94-0.99) and asystole (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.05-1.13). This effect was not observed for other rhythms. The amplitude of VF decreased in time; significantly less for patients who received BLS than for those who did not (p=0.009). Survival significantly decreased with lower amplitude of VF (OR 0.23 per mV, 95%CI 0.07-0.79) and with less baseline crossings (OR 0.80 per baseline crossings per second, 95%CI 0.71-0.91). Our study demonstrated that BLS and VF as initial rhythm, considered being "baseline" predictors in survival models, were proved not independent of each other. The decrease of VF amplitude and increase in prevalence of asystole is slowed significantly by BLS. Predicting survival from VF amplitude and baseline crossings alone is limited.
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July 2002