Publications by authors named "Rebecca Cabral"

7 Publications

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Early Identification and Linkage to Care for People with Chronic HBV and HCV Infection: The HepTLC Initiative.

Public Health Rep 2016 May-Jun;131 Suppl 2:5-11

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral Hepatitis, Atlanta, GA.

Objective: In 2012, CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis launched a public health initiative to increase hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection testing for those at risk and to improve linkage to medical care for those infected. We describe testing outcomes of previously unidentified people at risk for HBV and HCV infection and the lessons learned while linking patients to care.

Methods: CDC's Hepatitis Testing and Linkage to Care (HepTLC) initiative provided 34 financial awards to U.S. organizations that serve people at risk for viral hepatitis, 25 of which focused on HCV and nine of which focused on HBV. Grantees offered testing and test result notification to people at risk for HBV and/or HCV infection, as well as counseling, referral, and verification or notification of linkage to care for people with positive test results. We entered demographic data, self-reported risk factors, country of origin (for HBV), and testing outcomes into a confidential database.

Results: The 34 grantees tested 87,860 people at more than 260 sites in 17 states. Of the 23,144 people tested for HBV, 1,317 (6%) were positive. Of the 64,716 people tested for HCV, 57,570 (89%) received an HCV antibody (anti-HCV) test, of whom 7,580 (13%) tested anti-HCV positive. Of the 4,765 people who received an HCV RNA test, 3,449 (72%) tested positive. Of the 4,766 people who tested positive for either HBV or HCV infection, 2,116 (44%) were linked to care.

Conclusion: Interventions targeting people at risk for HBV and HCV infection reached a substantial number of people for whom testing is recommended and identified a large proportion of those who had previously unrecognized infection. Patient navigation was critical for follow-up and linkage to care.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4853322PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00333549161310S202DOI Listing
July 2017

Early identification and linkage to care of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection--three U.S. sites, 2012-2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014 May;63(18):399-401

In the United States, an estimated 0.8-1.4 million persons are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Among these persons, as many as 70% were born in countries of Asia, Africa, or other regions where HBV is moderately or highly endemic (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] prevalence ≥2%). HBV-associated cirrhosis and liver cancer are major health problems for these populations. Most persons with HBV were infected at birth or during early childhood and are asymptomatic until advanced liver disease develops. To address these concerns, CDC recommends HBsAg testing for all persons born in these areas and linkage to medical care and preventive services for those who are infected. In 2012, CDC awarded funds to nine sites to implement this recommendation. This report describes programs at three sites (New York, New York; Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; and San Diego, California) that conducted HBV testing, in clinical or community settings, and referred for medical evaluation and care those persons whose HBsAg test results were positive. During October 2012-March 2014, the three sites tested 4,727 persons for HBV infection; 310 (6.6%) were HBsAg-positive. Among the HBsAg-positive persons, 94% were informed of their results, 90% were counseled, 86% were referred for care, and 66% attended their scheduled first medical visit. These projects demonstrate that community-based programs can identify infected persons among populations with a high prevalence of HBV infection and refer HBsAg-positive persons for care. Individualized efforts to assist patients with accessing and receiving health-care services ("patient navigation services") can increase the number of persons who follow up on referrals and receive recommended care.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5779400PMC
May 2014

Application of the transtheoretical model for HIV prevention in a facility-based and a community-level behavioral intervention research study.

Health Promot Pract 2004 Apr;5(2):199-207

Division of Reproductive Health at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia.

This article describes the application of the transtheoretical model of behavior change to prevention programs for women at risk for or infected with HIV. The focus of these multisite demonstration projects was to increase condom and contraceptive use. The model was operationalized for use in the following two different intervention approaches: facility-based interventions (individual counseling for women in clinics, shelters, and drug treatment centers) and community-level interventions (including production of small media materials, street outreach, and community mobilization). The authors found that interventions derived from a complex theory can be disseminated to frontline providers who have little prior HIV education experience or academic training. They suggest that the transtheoretical model has value for the design and implementation of HIV prevention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524839903258765DOI Listing
April 2004

Applying motivational interviewing to contraceptive counseling: ESP for clinicians.

Contraception 2004 Mar;69(3):213-7

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, and Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7590, USA.

Healthcare providers are in a unique position to address women's risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), yet evidence for effective counseling strategies is limited. One approach to developing effective contraceptive counseling methods may be the application of theory-based behavior counseling models. One such model, motivational interviewing (MI), is a promising approach for addressing risk-taking behaviors of many kinds. We propose application of MI to contraceptive counseling. This process, ESP, involves Exploring discrepancies between pregnancy intention and contraceptive use and between risk of STIs and condom use, Sharing information and Promoting behaviors to reduce risk. This model emphasizes the importance of identifying discrepancies between goals and behaviors and supporting women's confidence in using appropriate contraceptive methods
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2003.10.007DOI Listing
March 2004

Reproductive health counseling at pregnancy testing: a pilot study.

Contraception 2003 Nov;68(5):377-83

Adolescent Medicine, The Permanente Medical Group, 3400 Delta Fair Boulevard, Antioch, CA, USA.

Objectives: To pilot brief reproductive health counseling for women obtaining pregnancy testing in a managed-care setting who did not desire pregnancy.

Methods: Women received counseling, access to contraception and a booster call at 2 weeks. Changes in contraceptive behavior were evaluated.

Results: Of 85 women who completed counseling, 58 (68%) completed follow-up. Participants reported that counseling was useful at baseline (94%) and follow-up (83%). The staff found the intervention important (100%) and implementation feasible (100%). Forty-one percent of participants improved their use of contraception (from no use or from less effective use to more effective use). Twenty-nine percent continued highly effective use and 9% recessed from highly effective use. Of 22 participants with risk of sexually transmitted disease, 3 (14%) began using condoms consistently, while 1 (5%) continued using condoms consistently.

Conclusions: Counseling at pregnancy testing was well accepted by the staff and participants. Observed behavioral changes suggest that this intervention may be effective in increasing effective use of contraception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2003.08.002DOI Listing
November 2003

Do main partner conflict, power dynamics, and control over use of male condoms predict subsequent use of the female condom?

Women Health 2003 ;38(1):37-52

Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (MS K-34), 4770 Buford Highway, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.

This study assessed hypotheses that measures of power and control over male condom (MC) use would predict use of the female condom (FC) among women with main partners from two public STD clinics (n = 616). The women (mean age 24 years, 87% African American) were enrolled in an intervention study to promote barrier contraceptive use and were interviewed at baseline and at 6 monthly follow-up visits. Seven baseline predictor variables were assessed: her having requested MC use, his having objected, her having wanted a MC used but not asking, percentage of MC use, perceived control over MC use, anticipated consequences of refusing unprotected sex, and physical violence. In the first Poisson regression analysis, none of the hypothesized predictors was significantly associated with FC use during follow up. In the second regression analysis, which assessed the influence of the hypothesized set of predictors on follow-up FC use in situations when MCs were not used, we found two effects. Either no or inconsistent MC use before study entry was associated with less subsequent FC use; women who reported, at study entry, having more control over MC use were more likely to use FCs during follow up. We found no evidence of adoption of the FC by women in relationships marked by history of conflict over the MC, circumstances in which alternatives are most needed. On the contrary, we found that women with a history of control and consistent use of MCs were the most likely users of FCs when MCs were not used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J013v38n01_03DOI Listing
December 2003

The measurement and meaning of unintended pregnancy.

Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2003 Mar-Apr;35(2):94-101

Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1363/3509403DOI Listing
August 2003
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