Publications by authors named "Rasmus Aamand"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

APOE gene-dependent BOLD responses to a breath-hold across the adult lifespan.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 22;24:101955. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 genotype are two of the strongest known risk factors for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroimaging has shown hemodynamic response changes with age, in asymptomatic carriers of the APOE e4 allele, and in AD. In this study, we aimed to characterize and differentiate age- and APOE gene-specific hemodynamic changes to breath-hold and visual stimulation. A further aim was to study whether these responses were modulated by 3-day intake of nitrate, a nitric oxide (NO) source. The study was designed as a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study, and the study cohort comprised 41 APOE e4 carriers (e3/e4 or e4/e4 genotype) and 40 non-carriers (e3/e3 genotype) aged 30-70 years at enrollment. The participants underwent two scanning sessions, each preceded by ingestion of sodium nitrate or sodium chloride (control). During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, participants performed two concurrent tasks; a breath-hold task to probe cerebrovascular reactivity and a visual stimulation task to evoke functional hyperemia, respectively. We found that the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) hemodynamic response to breath-hold was altered in APOE e4 carriers relative to non-carriers. Mid-aged (50-60 years of age) e4 carriers exhibited a significantly increased peak time relative to mid-aged e3 carriers, and peak time for younger (30-40 years of age) e4 carriers was significantly shorter than that of mid-aged e4 carriers. The response width was significantly increased for e4 carriers. The response peak magnitude significantly decreased with age. For the visual stimulation task, we found age-related changes, with reduced response magnitude with age but no significant effect of APOE allele type. We found no effect of nitrate ingestion on BOLD responses evoked by the breath-hold and visual stimulation tasks. The APOE gene-dependent response to breath-hold may reflect NO-independent differences in vascular function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699560PMC
September 2020

Capillary flow disturbances after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: A contributor to delayed cerebral ischemia?

Microcirculation 2019 04 7;26(3):e12516. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN), Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: The high mortality and morbidity after SAH is partly due to DCI, which is traditionally ascribed to development of angiographic vasospasms. This relation has been challenged, and capillary flow disturbances are proposed as another mechanism contributing to brain damage after SAH.

Objective: To investigate capillary flow changes 4 days following experimental SAH.

Methods: SAH was induced by endovascular perforation of circle of Willis. We used TPM to evaluate blood flow characteristics. Cortical capillary diameters were investigated by both TPM and histology.

Results: We found elevated CTH and MTT of blood in SAH mice compared to sham animals. We observed capillaries with stagnant RBCs, and capillaries with increased RBC LD in the SAH group, suggesting severe blood maldistribution among cortical capillaries. Favoring that these capillary flow changes were primary to upstream vasoconstrictions, TPM showed no significant differences in arteriolar diameter between groups, while histological examination showed reduced capillary diameter in SAH group.

Conclusion: Our study shows profound subacute hypoperfusion and capillary flow disturbances in a mouse SAH model and suggests that these changes are the result of changes in capillary function, rather than upstream vasospasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/micc.12516DOI Listing
April 2019

Rapid solution of the Bloch-Torrey equation in anisotropic tissue: Application to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI of cerebral white matter.

Neuroimage 2019 01 15;185:198-207. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

UBC MRI Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 2221, Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224, Agricultural Road, Hennings Building, Room 325, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia Faculty of Medicine, Rm 2D19, 4480, Oak Street, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Blood vessel related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast provides a window into the brain's metabolism and function. Here, we show that the spin echo dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI signal of the brain's white matter (WM) strongly depends on the angle between WM tracts and the main magnetic field. The apparent cerebral blood flow and volume are 20% larger in fibres perpendicular to the main magnetic field compared to parallel fibres. We present a rapid numerical framework for the solution of the Bloch-Torrey equation that allows us to explore the isotropic and anisotropic components of the vascular tree. By fitting the simulated spin echo DSC signal to the measured data, we show that half of the WM vascular volume is comprised of vessels running in parallel with WM fibre tracts. The WM blood volume corresponding to the best fit to the experimental data was 2.82%, which is close to the PET gold standard of 2.6%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.035DOI Listing
January 2019

Capillary transit time heterogeneity and flow-metabolism coupling after traumatic brain injury.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2014 Oct 23;34(10):1585-98. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Most patients who die after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show evidence of ischemic brain damage. Nevertheless, it has proven difficult to demonstrate cerebral ischemia in TBI patients. After TBI, both global and localized changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) are observed, depending on the extent of diffuse brain swelling and the size and location of contusions and hematoma. These changes vary considerably over time, with most TBI patients showing reduced CBF during the first 12 hours after injury, then hyperperfusion, and in some patients vasospasms before CBF eventually normalizes. This apparent neurovascular uncoupling has been ascribed to mitochondrial dysfunction, hindered oxygen diffusion into tissue, or microthrombosis. Capillary compression by astrocytic endfeet swelling is observed in biopsies acquired from TBI patients. In animal models, elevated intracranial pressure compresses capillaries, causing redistribution of capillary flows into patterns argued to cause functional shunting of oxygenated blood through the capillary bed. We used a biophysical model of oxygen transport in tissue to examine how capillary flow disturbances may contribute to the profound changes in CBF after TBI. The analysis suggests that elevated capillary transit time heterogeneity can cause critical reductions in oxygen availability in the absence of 'classic' ischemia. We discuss diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of these predictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2014.131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4269727PMC
October 2014

Dietary nitrate facilitates an acetazolamide-induced increase in cerebral blood flow during visual stimulation.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2014 Feb 12;116(3):267-73. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark;

The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ) is used routinely to estimate cerebrovascular reserve capacity in patients, as it reliably increases cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, the mechanism by which AZ accomplishes this CBF increase is not entirely understood. We recently discovered that CA can produce nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite, and that AZ enhances this NO production in vitro. In fact, this interaction between AZ and CA accounted for a large part of AZ's vasodilatory action, which fits well with the known vasodilatory potency of NO. The present study aimed to assess whether AZ acts similarly in vivo in the human cerebrovascular system. Hence, we increased or minimized the dietary intake of nitrate in 20 healthy male participants, showed them a full-field flickering dartboard, and measured their CBF response to this visual stimulus with arterial spin labeling. Doing so, we found a significant positive interaction between the dietary intake of nitrate and the CBF modulation afforded by AZ during visual stimulation. In addition, but contrary to studies conducted in elderly participants, we report no effect of nitrate intake on resting CBF in healthy human participants. The present study provides in vivo support for an enhancing effect of AZ on the NO production from nitrite catalyzed by CA in the cerebrovascular system. Furthermore, our results, in combination with the results of other groups, indicate that nitrate may have significant importance to vascular function when the cerebrovascular system is challenged by age or disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00797.2013DOI Listing
February 2014

The role of the microcirculation in delayed cerebral ischemia and chronic degenerative changes after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013 Dec 25;33(12):1825-37. Epub 2013 Sep 25.

1] Department of Neuroradiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark [2] Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience and MINDLab, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

The mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is 50%, and most survivors suffer severe functional and cognitive deficits. Half of SAH patients deteriorate 5 to 14 days after the initial bleeding, so-called delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Although often attributed to vasospasms, DCI may develop in the absence of angiographic vasospasms, and therapeutic reversal of angiographic vasospasms fails to improve patient outcome. The etiology of chronic neurodegenerative changes after SAH remains poorly understood. Brain oxygenation depends on both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its microscopic distribution, the so-called capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH). In theory, increased CTH can therefore lead to tissue hypoxia in the absence of severe CBF reductions, whereas reductions in CBF, paradoxically, improve brain oxygenation if CTH is critically elevated. We review potential sources of elevated CTH after SAH. Pericyte constrictions in relation to the initial ischemic episode and subsequent oxidative stress, nitric oxide depletion during the pericapillary clearance of oxyhemoglobin, vasogenic edema, leukocytosis, and astrocytic endfeet swelling are identified as potential sources of elevated CTH, and hence of metabolic derangement, after SAH. Irreversible changes in capillary morphology and function are predicted to contribute to long-term relative tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. We discuss diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these predictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2013.173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3851911PMC
December 2013

A NO way to BOLD? Dietary nitrate alters the hemodynamic response to visual stimulation.

Neuroimage 2013 Dec 1;83:397-407. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Denmark; Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Denmark. Electronic address:

Neurovascular coupling links neuronal activity to vasodilation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator, and in neurovascular coupling NO production from NO synthases plays an important role. However, another pathway for NO production also exists, namely the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. On this basis, we hypothesized that dietary nitrate (NO3-) could influence the brain's hemodynamic response to neuronal stimulation. In the present study, 20 healthy male participants were given either sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or sodium chloride (NaCl) (saline placebo) in a crossover study and were shown visual stimuli based on the retinotopic characteristics of the visual cortex. Our primary measure of the hemodynamic response was the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response measured with high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (0.64×0.64×1.8 mm) in the visual cortex. From this response, we made a direct estimate of key parameters characterizing the shape of the BOLD response (i.e. lag and amplitude). During elevated nitrate intake, corresponding to the nitrate content of a large plate of salad, both the hemodynamic lag and the BOLD amplitude decreased significantly (7.0±2% and 7.9±4%, respectively), and the variation across activated voxels of both measures decreased (12.3±4% and 15.3±7%, respectively). The baseline cerebral blood flow was not affected by nitrate. Our experiments demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary nitrate may modulate the local cerebral hemodynamic response to stimuli. A faster and smaller BOLD response, with less variation across local cortex, is consistent with an enhanced hemodynamic coupling during elevated nitrate intake. These findings suggest that dietary patterns, via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, may be a potential way to affect key properties of neurovascular coupling. This could have major clinical implications, which remain to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.06.069DOI Listing
December 2013

The role of the cerebral capillaries in acute ischemic stroke: the extended penumbra model.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2013 May 27;33(5):635-48. Epub 2013 Feb 27.

Department of Neuroradiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia is traditionally understood in relation to reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, a recent reanalysis of the flow-diffusion equation shows that increased capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTTH) can reduce the oxygen extraction efficacy in brain tissue for a given CBF. Changes in capillary morphology are typical of conditions predisposing to stroke and of experimental ischemia. Changes in capillary flow patterns have been observed by direct microscopy in animal models of ischemia and by indirect methods in humans stroke, but their metabolic significance remain unclear. We modeled the effects of progressive increases in CTTH on the way in which brain tissue can secure sufficient oxygen to meet its metabolic needs. Our analysis predicts that as CTTH increases, CBF responses to functional activation and to vasodilators must be suppressed to maintain sufficient tissue oxygenation. Reductions in CBF, increases in CTTH, and combinations thereof can seemingly trigger a critical lack of oxygen in brain tissue, and the restoration of capillary perfusion patterns therefore appears to be crucial for the restoration of the tissue oxygenation after ischemic episodes. In this review, we discuss the possible implications of these findings for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of acute stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2013.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3652700PMC
May 2013

The capillary dysfunction hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2013 Apr 18;34(4):1018-31. Epub 2012 Oct 18.

Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience and MINDLab, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

It is widely accepted that hypoperfusion and changes in capillary morphology are involved in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is difficult to reconcile with the hyperperfusion observed in young high-risk subjects. Differences in the way cerebral blood flow (CBF) is coupled with the local metabolic needs during different phases of the disease can explain this apparent paradox. This review describes this coupling in terms of a model of cerebral oxygen availability that takes into consideration the heterogeneity of capillary blood flow patterns. The model predicts that moderate increases in heterogeneity requires elevated CBF in order to maintain adequate oxygenation. However, with progressive increases in heterogeneity, the resulting low tissue oxygen tension will require a suppression of CBF in order to maintain tissue metabolism. The observed biphasic nature of CBF responses in preclinical AD and AD is therefore consistent with progressive disturbances of capillary flow patterns. Salient features of the model are discussed in the context of AD pathology along with potential sources of increased capillary flow heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.09.011DOI Listing
April 2013

Enhancing effects of acetazolamide on neuronal activity correlate with enhanced visual processing ability in humans.

Neuropharmacology 2011 Oct-Nov;61(5-6):900-8. Epub 2011 Jun 29.

Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Acetazolamide is a potent inhibitor of the reversible hydration of CO(2) catalyzed by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase and is commonly used to increase cerebral blood flow e.g. in order to estimate cerebrovascular reserve. However it is not known whether acetazolamide may positively affect the excitability of neurons in the brain in vivo or cortical processing abilities. To test these possibilities we intravenously administered a low dose (7 mg/kg) acetazolamide to volunteers who performed a demanding visual signal detection task while undergoing whole brain electroencephalographic examinations. Two groups were tested twice on the same task, while receiving acetazolamide or a saline treatment in between the two sessions. Our data indicate that, while the control group showed a decrease in global gamma (30-49 Hz) power across sessions, with no correlation to performance, the acetazolamide group showed increased global gamma power that strongly related to their performance in the signal detection task. This was accompanied by a decrease in the early part of the event related potential in the control group, a decrease not seen in the acetazolamide group. There were no significant differences in blood pressure, ventilation rate, or heart rate between the two groups. It is possible that the differences between the groups, observed in this study, are related to the enhancing effect of acetazolamide on the nitric oxide generation catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase, or to other actions of acetazolamide, e.g. opening of Ca(2+) activated K(+) channels and inhibition of Ca(2+) channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.06.010DOI Listing
February 2012

Generation of nitric oxide from nitrite by carbonic anhydrase: a possible link between metabolic activity and vasodilation.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2009 Dec 9;297(6):H2068-74. Epub 2009 Oct 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Universitetsparken Bldg. 1131, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

In catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate and protons, the ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a crucial role in CO2 transport, in acid-base balance, and in linking local acidosis to O2 unloading from hemoglobin. Considering the structural similarity between bicarbonate and nitrite, we hypothesized that CA uses nitrite as a substrate to produce the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) to increase local blood flow to metabolically active tissues. Here we show that CA readily reacts with nitrite to generate NO, particularly at low pH, and that the NO produced in the reaction induces vasodilation in aortic rings. This reaction occurs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and in various tissues at physiological levels of CA and nitrite. Furthermore, two specific inhibitors of the CO2 hydration, dorzolamide and acetazolamide, increase the CA-catalyzed production of vasoactive NO from nitrite. This enhancing effect may explain the known vasodilating effects of these drugs and indicates that CO2 and nitrite bind differently to the enzyme active site. Kinetic analyses show a higher reaction rate at high pH, suggesting that anionic nitrite participates more effectively in catalysis. Taken together, our results reveal a novel nitrous anhydrase enzymatic activity of CA that would function to link the in vivo main end products of energy metabolism (CO2/H+) to the generation of vasoactive NO. The CA-mediated NO production may be important to the correlation between blood flow and metabolic activity in tissues, as occurring for instance in active areas of the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00525.2009DOI Listing
December 2009
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