Publications by authors named "Raffaele Fabrini"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evolution of Negative Cooperativity in Glutathione Transferase Enabled Preservation of Enzyme Function.

J Biol Chem 2016 Dec 4;291(52):26739-26749. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

From the Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies,

Negative cooperativity in enzyme reactions, in which the first event makes subsequent events less favorable, is sometimes well understood at the molecular level, but its physiological role has often been obscure. Negative cooperativity occurs in human glutathione transferase (GST) GSTP1-1 when it binds and neutralizes a toxic nitric oxide adduct, the dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl iron complex (DNDGIC). However, the generality of this behavior across the divergent GST family and its evolutionary significance were unclear. To investigate, we studied 16 different GSTs, revealing that negative cooperativity is present only in more recently evolved GSTs, indicating evolutionary drift in this direction. In some variants, Hill coefficients were close to 0.5, the highest degree of negative cooperativity commonly observed (although smaller values of n are theoretically possible). As DNDGIC is also a strong inhibitor of GSTs, we suggest negative cooperativity might have evolved to maintain a residual conjugating activity of GST against toxins even in the presence of high DNDGIC concentrations. Interestingly, two human isoenzymes that play a special protective role, safeguarding DNA from DNDGIC, display a classical half-of-the-sites interaction. Analysis of GST structures identified elements that could play a role in negative cooperativity in GSTs. Beside the well known lock-and-key and clasp motifs, other alternative structural interactions between subunits may be proposed for a few GSTs. Taken together, our findings suggest the evolution of self-preservation of enzyme function as a novel facility emerging from negative cooperativity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M116.749507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5207182PMC
December 2016

The extreme hyper-reactivity of selected cysteines drives hierarchical disulfide bond formation in serum albumin.

FEBS J 2016 11 26;283(22):4113-4127. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Italy.

After mild reduction of serum albumin, seven among the 34 cysteines forming the disulfide network displayed a surprising hyper-reactivity. Compared to the thiol group of glutathione, the average reactivity of these cysteines towards disulfides and thiol reagents was more than 100 times higher. Using mass spectrometry and kinetic data, we identified all these unusual residues, with Cys75, Cys123 and Cys264 showing the highest reactivity. This effect was mainly due to a low pK of the sulfhydryl groups and may explain the very fast formation of early disulfides in the nascent protein suggesting the existence of a hierarchical propensity to form such covalent links in selected regions during oxidative folding. An identical pattern of hyper-reactive cysteines was found in albumins from six different mammals. This hyper-reactivity is much higher than the one found in other proteins containing multiple cysteines only devoted to structural disulfide bonds. It is possible that such hyper-reactive cysteines could also be present in other proteins, although their existence has been completely ignored so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.13909DOI Listing
November 2016

Erythrocyte glutathione transferase in uremic diabetic patients: additional data.

Acta Diabetol 2015 Aug 16;52(4):813-5. Epub 2014 Nov 16.

Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, "Tor Vergata" University, Viale Oxford 81, 00133, Rome, Italy,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-014-0683-yDOI Listing
August 2015

Inactivation of human salivary glutathione transferase P1-1 by hypothiocyanite: a post-translational control system in search of a role.

PLoS One 2014 13;9(11):e112797. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", 00133 Rome, Italy.

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes over-expressed in tumor tissues and tentatively proposed as biomarkers for localizing and monitoring injury of specific tissues. Only scarce and contradictory reports exist about the presence and the level of these enzymes in human saliva. This study shows that GSTP1-1 is the most abundant salivary GST isoenzyme, mainly coming from salivary glands. Surprisingly, its activity is completely obscured by the presence of a strong oxidizing agent in saliva that causes a fast and complete, but reversible, inactivation. Although salivary α-defensins are also able to inhibit the enzyme causing a peculiar half-site inactivation, a number of approaches (mass spectrometry, site directed mutagenesis, chromatographic and spectrophotometric data) indicated that hypothiocyanite is the main salivary inhibitor of GSTP1-1. Cys47 and Cys101, the most reactive sulfhydryls of GSTP1-1, are mainly involved in a redox interaction which leads to the formation of an intra-chain disulfide bridge. A reactivation procedure has been optimized and used to quantify GSTP1-1 in saliva of 30 healthy subjects with results of 42±4 mU/mg-protein. The present study represents a first indication that salivary GSTP1-1 may have a different and hitherto unknown function. In addition it fulfills the basis for future investigations finalized to check the salivary GSTP1-1 as a diagnostic biomarker for diseases.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0112797PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4231102PMC
December 2015

The impact of nitric oxide toxicity on the evolution of the glutathione transferase superfamily: a proposal for an evolutionary driving force.

J Biol Chem 2013 Aug 3;288(34):24936-47. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome, Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are protection enzymes capable of conjugating glutathione (GSH) to toxic compounds. During evolution an important catalytic cysteine residue involved in GSH activation was replaced by serine or, more recently, by tyrosine. The utility of these replacements represents an enigma because they yield no improvements in the affinity toward GSH or in its reactivity. Here we show that these changes better protect the cell from nitric oxide (NO) insults. In fact the dinitrosyl·diglutathionyl·iron complex (DNDGIC), which is formed spontaneously when NO enters the cell, is highly toxic when free in solution but completely harmless when bound to GSTs. By examining 42 different GSTs we discovered that only the more recently evolved Tyr-based GSTs display enough affinity for DNDGIC (KD < 10(-9) M) to sequester the complex efficiently. Ser-based GSTs and Cys-based GSTs show affinities 10(2)-10(4) times lower, not sufficient for this purpose. The NO sensitivity of bacteria that express only Cys-based GSTs could be related to the low or null affinity of their GSTs for DNDGIC. GSTs with the highest affinity (Tyr-based GSTs) are also over-represented in the perinuclear region of mammalian cells, possibly for nucleus protection. On the basis of these results we propose that GST evolution in higher organisms could be linked to the defense against NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.476135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3750189PMC
August 2013

Erythrocyte glutathione transferase activity: a possible early biomarker for blood toxicity in uremic diabetic patients.

Acta Diabetol 2014 Apr 2;51(2):219-24. Epub 2013 Jul 2.

Nephrology and Hypertension Unit, Department of System Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Viale Oxford 81, 00133, Rome, Italy.

Erythrocyte glutathione transferase (e-GST) displays increased activity in patients with renal damage and positive correlation with homocysteine (Hcy) in patients under maintenance hemodialysis. Here, we determined e-GST, Hcy, and erythrocyte catalase (e-CAT) in 328 patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 61 diabetic non-nephropathic patients and 267 affected by diabetes and by chronic kidney disease (CKD) under conservative therapy subdivided into four stages according to K-DOQI lines. e-GST activity was significantly higher in all T2DM patients compared to the control group (7.90 ± 0.26 vs. 5.6 ± 0.4 U/g(Hb)), and we observed an enhanced activity in all subgroups of CKD diabetic patients. No significant correlation or increase has been found for e-CAT in all patients tested. Mean Hcy in diabetic patients is higher than that in healthy subjects (33.42 ± 1.23 vs. 13.6 ± 0.8 μM), and Hcy increases in relation to the CKD stage. As expected, a significant correlation was found between e-GST and Hcy levels. These findings suggest that e-GST hyperactivity is not caused directly by diabetes but by its consequent renal damage. e-GST, as well as Hcy, may represent an early biomarker of renal failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-013-0497-3DOI Listing
April 2014

Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a novel biomarker to check environmental pollution hazardous for humans.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012 Sep 14;426(1):71-5. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Glutathione transferase (GST) is an enzyme capable of protecting the body from a lot of toxic compounds. Previous studies demonstrated that the erythrocyte GST (e-GST) expression increases as the level of circulating toxins increases. Aim of the present study is to verify if e-GST may represent a biomarker able to signalize an environmental pollution hazardous for humans. The study involved about 500 healthy volunteers living in eight distinct areas at or near the Sacco river valley, a region of the Frosinone district (Lazio-Italy) well known for its environmental pollution. Subjects of six areas displayed increased levels of e-GST ranging from 18% to 44% compared to 400 volunteers living in the Rome hinterland. Higher levels of GSTs are present in the areas where the risk of pollution is higher (areas 7 and 8). Interestingly, women living in the Sacco valley display much higher expression of e-GST than men, possibly due to a greater time exposition to the environmental contamination. Possible oxidative alteration of GST activity has not been observed. In conclusion, e-GST may represent an early and sensitive bio-signal of dangerous pollution for humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.08.037DOI Listing
September 2012

Spectrophotometric assay for serum glutathione transferase: a re-examination.

Clin Biochem 2012 Jun 25;45(9):668-71. Epub 2012 Feb 25.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, I-00133, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of the present paper is a careful re-examination of an automated spectrophotometric procedure for glutathione transferase (GST) activity in human serum described previously and used in many laboratories.

Design And Methods: GST activity in human serum has been assayed spectrophotometrically under various experimental conditions. Recombinant human GSTs and specific inhibitors were also used to check the possible occurrence of artifacts.

Results: Basal level of the enzyme calculated using this method turns out to be much higher than that found using RIA and ELISA procedures. Relevant pH-dependent artifacts deeply affect this spectrophotometric assay. Notably, spectral changes previously interpreted as a measure of basal activity, are mainly due to an increase of the spontaneous reaction between the two substrates.

Conclusion: GST activity in normal serum cannot be correctly determined with the spectrophotometric assay described previously because of the very low enzyme concentration and the pH-dependent artifacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.02.017DOI Listing
June 2012

Erythrocyte glutathione transferase: a potential new biomarker in chronic kidney diseases which correlates with plasma homocysteine.

Amino Acids 2012 Jul 8;43(1):347-54. Epub 2011 Oct 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

The erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (e-GST) is a member of a superfamily of inducible enzymes involved in cell detoxification that shows an increased expression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We propose a new automated analysis procedure for e-GST activity that has been validated in 72 CKD patients and 62 maintenance hemodialysis patients (MHD). Regression analysis was carried out to assess association between e-GST activity data, main clinical variables, and plasma homocysteine (Hcy), a modified sulfur amino acid known as potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that is increased above normal levels in more than 90% of the uremic patients. An increased e-GST activity was confirmed in MHD patients (N=62; 10.2±0.4 U/gHb) compared with healthy subjects (N=80; 5.8±0.4 U/gHb), and as an original finding, a significant increase of e-GST activity was observed in pre-dialysis CKD patients with a positive correlation with disease severity weighted according to the four stages of "Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative" classification (7.4±0.5, 8±1, 9.5±0.6, 12±1 U/gHb, respectively). No correlation was found between e-GST activity and hemoglobin, transferrin, blood iron and the markers of systemic inflammation and renal function such as alpha-1 acid glycoprotein and high-sensitive C-Reactive Protein, beta-2 microglobulin and the index of malnutrition-inflammation PINI, while a significant correlation was observed for the first time between plasma Hcy and e-GST activity (r2=0.64, P<0.0001) in MHD patients. Hcy, however, was not identified as an inhibitor of e-GST enzyme. The results in this study suggest the potential for automated e-GST analysis as a valuable tool to further explore phase II-related uremic toxicity in CKD and MHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-011-1085-xDOI Listing
July 2012

Nuclear shield: a multi-enzyme task-force for nucleus protection.

PLoS One 2010 Dec 10;5(12):e14125. Epub 2010 Dec 10.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Background: In eukaryotic cells the nuclear envelope isolates and protects DNA from molecules that could damage its structure or interfere with its processing. Moreover, selected protection enzymes and vitamins act as efficient guardians against toxic compounds both in the nucleoplasm and in the cytosol. The observation that a cytosolic detoxifying and antioxidant enzyme i.e. glutathione transferase is accumulated in the perinuclear region of the rat hepatocytes suggests that other unrecognized modalities of nuclear protection may exist. Here we show evidence for the existence of a safeguard enzyme machinery formed by an hyper-crowding of cationic enzymes and proteins encompassing the nuclear membrane and promoted by electrostatic interactions.

Methodology/principal Findings: Electron spectroscopic imaging, zeta potential measurements, isoelectrofocusing, comet assay and mass spectrometry have been used to characterize this surprising structure that is present in the cells of all rat tissues examined (liver, kidney, heart, lung and brain), and that behaves as a "nuclear shield". In hepatocytes, this hyper-crowding structure is about 300 nm thick, it is mainly formed by cationic enzymes and the local concentration of key protection enzymes, such as glutathione transferase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase is up to seven times higher than in the cytosol. The catalytic activity of these enzymes, when packed in the shield, is not modified and their relative concentrations vary remarkably in different tissues. Removal of this protective shield renders chromosomes more sensitive to damage by oxidative stress. Specific nuclear proteins anchored to the outer nuclear envelope are likely involved in the shield formation and stabilization.

Conclusions/significance: The characterization of this previously unrecognized nuclear shield in different tissues opens a new interesting scenario for physiological and protection processes in eukaryotic cells. Selection and accumulation of protection enzymes near sensitive targets represents a new safeguard modality which deeply differs from the adaptive response which is based on expression of specific enzymes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0014125PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000810PMC
December 2010

The extended catalysis of glutathione transferase.

FEBS Lett 2011 Jan 14;585(2):341-5. Epub 2010 Dec 14.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome, Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Glutathione transferase reaches 0.5-0.8 mM concentration in the cell so it works in vivo under the unusual conditions of, [S]≪[E]. As glutathione transferase lowers the pK(a) of glutathione (GSH) bound to the active site, it increases the cytosolic concentration of deprotonated GSH about five times and speeds its conjugation with toxic compounds that are non-typical substrates of this enzyme. This acceleration becomes more efficient in case of GSH depletion and/or cell acidification. Interestingly, the enzymatic conjugation of GSH to these toxic compounds does not require the assumption of a substrate-enzyme complex; it can be explained by a simple bimolecular collision between enzyme and substrate. Even with typical substrates, the astonishing concentration of glutathione transferase present in hepatocytes, causes an unusual "inverted" kinetics whereby the classical trends of v versus E and v versus S are reversed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2010.12.009DOI Listing
January 2011

Trypanothione efficiently intercepts nitric oxide as a harmless iron complex in trypanosomatid parasites.

FASEB J 2010 Apr 1;24(4):1035-42. Epub 2009 Dec 1.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Trypanosomatids are protozoan organisms that cause serious diseases, including African sleeping sickness, Chagas' disease, and leishmaniasis, affecting about 30 million people in the world. These parasites contain the unusual dithiol trypanothione [T(SH)(2)] instead of glutathione (GSH) as the main intracellular reductant, and they have replaced the otherwise ubiquitous GSH/glutathione reductase redox couple with a T(SH)(2)/trypanothione reductase (TR) system. The reason for the existence of T(SH)(2) in parasitic organisms has remained an enigma. Here, we show that T(SH)(2) is able to intercept nitric oxide and labile iron and form a dinitrosyl-iron complex with at least 600 times higher affinity than GSH. Accumulation of the paramagnetic dinitrosyl-trypanothionyl iron complex in vivo was observed in Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania infantum exposed to nitric oxide. While the analogous dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl iron complex formed in mammalian cells is a potent irreversible inhibitor of glutathione reductase (IC(50)=4 microM), the T(SH)(2) complex does not inactivate TR even at millimolar levels. The peculiar capacity of T(SH)(2) to sequester NO and iron in a harmless stable complex could explain the predominance of this thiol in parasites regularly exposed to NO.-Bocedi, A., Dawood, K. F., Fabrini, R., Federici, G., Gradoni, L., Pedersen, J. Z., Ricci, G. Trypanothione efficiently intercepts nitric oxide as a harmless iron complex in trypanosomatid parasites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.09-146407DOI Listing
April 2010

Monomer-dimer equilibrium in glutathione transferases: a critical re-examination.

Biochemistry 2009 Nov;48(43):10473-82

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are dimeric enzymes involved in cell detoxification versus many endogenous toxic compounds and xenobiotics. In addition, single monomers of GSTs appear to be involved in particular protein-protein interactions as in the case of the pi class GST that regulates the apoptotic process by means of a GST-c-Jun N-terminal kinase complex. Thus, the dimer-monomer transition of GSTs may have important physiological relevance, but many studies reached contrasting conclusions both about the modality and extension of this event and about the catalytic competence of a single subunit. This paper re-examines the monomer-dimer question in light of novel experiments and old observations. Recent papers claimed the existence of a predominant monomeric and active species among pi, alpha, and mu class GSTs at 20-40 nM dilution levels, reporting dissociation constants (K(d)) for dimeric GST of 5.1, 0.34, and 0.16 microM, respectively. However, we demonstrate here that only traces of monomers could be found at these concentrations since all these enzymes display K(d) values of <1 nM, values thousands of times lower than those reported previously. Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence anisotropy experiments, two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, kinetic studies, and docking simulations have been used to reach such conclusions. Our results also indicate that there is no clear evidence of the existence of a fully active monomer. Conversely, many data strongly support the idea that the monomeric form is scarcely active or fully inactive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi901238tDOI Listing
November 2009

Tetramerization and cooperativity in Plasmodium falciparum glutathione S-transferase are mediated by atypic loop 113-119.

J Biol Chem 2009 Aug 16;284(33):22133-22139. Epub 2009 Jun 16.

the Departments of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Glutathione S-transferase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfGST) displays a peculiar dimer to tetramer transition that causes full enzyme inactivation and loss of its ability to sequester parasitotoxic hemin. Furthermore, binding of hemin is modulated by a cooperative mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetic experiments, and fluorescence anisotropy have been used to verify the possible involvement of loop 113-119 in the tetramerization process and in the cooperative phenomenon. This protein segment is one of the most prominent structural differences between PfGST and other GST isoenzymes. Our results demonstrate that truncation, increased rigidity, or even a simple point mutation of this loop causes a dramatic change in the tetramerization kinetics that becomes at least 100 times slower than in the native enzyme. All of the mutants tested have lost the positive cooperativity for hemin binding, suggesting that the integrity of this peculiar loop is essential for intersubunit communication. Interestingly, the tetramerization process of the native enzyme that occurs rapidly when GSH is removed is prevented not only by GSH but even by oxidized glutathione. This result suggests that protection by PfGST against hemin is independent of the redox status of the parasite cell. Because of the importance of this unique segment in the function/structure of PfGST, it could be a new target for the development of antimalarial drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.015198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755937PMC
August 2009

Glutathione transferases sequester toxic dinitrosyl-iron complexes in cells. A protection mechanism against excess nitric oxide.

J Biol Chem 2007 Mar 30;282(9):6364-71. Epub 2006 Dec 30.

Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Children's Hospital Bambin Gesù, 00165 Rome.

It is now well established that exposure of cells and tissues to nitric oxide leads to the formation of a dinitrosyl-iron complex bound to intracellular proteins, but little is known about how the complex is formed, the identity of the proteins, and the physiological role of this process. By using EPR spectroscopy and enzyme activity measurements to study the mechanism in hepatocytes, we here identify the complex as a dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl-iron complex (DNDGIC) bound to Alpha class glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) with extraordinary high affinity (K(D) = 10(-10) m). This complex is formed spontaneously through NO-mediated extraction of iron from ferritin and transferrin, in a reaction that requires only glutathione. In hepatocytes, DNDGIC may reach concentrations of 0.19 mm, apparently entirely bound to Alpha class GSTs, present in the cytosol at a concentration of about 0.3 mm. Surprisingly, about 20% of the dinitrosyl-glutathionyl-iron complex-GST is found to be associated with subcellular components, mainly the nucleus, as demonstrated in the accompanying paper (Stella, L., Pallottini, V., Moreno, S., Leoni, S., De Maria, F., Turella, P., Federici, G., Fabrini, R., Dawood, K. F., Lo Bello, M., Pedersen, J. Z., and Ricci, G. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 6372-6379). DNDGIC is a potent irreversible inhibitor of glutathione reductase, but the strong complex-GST interaction ensures full protection of glutathione reductase activity in the cells, and in vitro experiments show that damage to the reductase only occurs when the DNDGIC concentration exceeds the binding capacity of the intracellular GST pool. Because Pi class GSTs may exert a similar role in other cell types, we suggest that specific sequestering of DNDGIC by GSTs is a physiological protective mechanism operating in conditions of excessive levels of nitric oxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M609905200DOI Listing
March 2007

Electrostatic association of glutathione transferase to the nuclear membrane. Evidence of an enzyme defense barrier at the nuclear envelope.

J Biol Chem 2007 Mar 30;282(9):6372-9. Epub 2006 Dec 30.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome.

The possible nuclear compartmentalization of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes has been the subject of contradictory reports. The discovery that the dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl-iron complex binds tightly to Alpha class GSTs in rat hepatocytes and that a significant part of the bound complex is also associated with the nuclear fraction (Pedersen, J. Z., De Maria, F., Turella, P., Federici, G., Mattei, M., Fabrini, R., Dawood, K. F., Massimi, M., Caccuri, A. M., and Ricci, G. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 6364-6371) prompted us to reconsider the nuclear localization of GSTs in these cells. Surprisingly, we found that a considerable amount of GSTs corresponding to 10% of the cytosolic pool is electrostatically associated with the outer nuclear membrane, and a similar quantity is compartmentalized inside the nucleus. Mainly Alpha class GSTs, in particular GSTA1-1, GSTA2-2, and GSTA3-3, are involved in this double modality of interaction. Confocal microscopy, immunofluorescence experiments, and molecular modeling have been used to detail the electrostatic association in hepatocytes and liposomes. A quantitative analysis of the membrane-bound Alpha GSTs suggests the existence of a multilayer assembly of these enzymes at the outer nuclear envelope that could represent an amazing novelty in cell physiology. The interception of potentially noxious compounds to prevent DNA damage could be the possible physiological role of the perinuclear and intranuclear localization of Alpha GSTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M609906200DOI Listing
March 2007