Publications by authors named "Rada Rakić"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure-to-Height Ratio in Predicting Incidence of Hypertension in Serbian Children.

Children (Basel) 2020 Nov 25;7(12). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.

Background: A new method using blood pressure-to-height ratio for diagnosing elevated blood pressure/hypertension in children has been introduced recently. We aimed to compare blood pressure-to-height ratio (BPHR) and Body Mass Index (BMI) in predicting incidence of hypertension (HTN).

Methods: The sample consisted of 1133 boys and 1154 girls aged 7-15. We used the following equations for BPHR: systolic BPHR (SBPHR) = SBP (mm Hg)/height (cm) and diastolic BPHR (DBPHR) = DBP (mm Hg)/height (cm). In order to determine the accuracy of SBPHR, DBPHR and BMI as diagnostic tests for elevated blood pressure (elevated BP), we used the receiveroperating characteristic curve analyses.

Results: The area under the curve (AUC) values for BMI ranged from 0.625 to 0.723 with quite low sensitivity rates from 62% to 72.5% and specificities from 58.2% to 67.3% showing a modest ability to identify children with elevated BP and HTN. On the contrary, BPHR showed a great predictive ability to identify elevated BP and HTN with AUC values of 0.836 to 0.949 for SBP and from 0.777 to 0.904 for DBP. Furthermore, the sensitivity ranged from 78.5% to 95.7%, and the specificity from 73.9% to 87.6%.

Conclusion: the current study showed that BPHR is an accurate index for detecting elevated BP and HTN in children aged 7 to 15 years and can be used for early screening.
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November 2020

Menarche in adolescents from Vojvodina (the Republic of Serbia) in the period 2001-2019.

Anthropol Anz 2020 Nov;77(4):289-298

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department for Biology and Ecology, Novi Sad, Serbia.

Menarcheal age is the starting point of reproductive life and could be a marker of health and socioeconomic status of a population.The aim of this study was to assess the temporal pattern in variability of menarcheal age from 2001 to 2019 and the relationship with biological factors and educational level of parents. : A cross-sectional anthropometric survey was conducted in three intervals: 2001-2004, 2011-2014 and in 2019. In total, 5201 adolescent girls from Vojvodina (North Serbia) aged 11-18 were surveyed, 3272 (62.91%) of them with menarche. Data on the age at menarche was gathered applying method and the age at menarche was calculated by probit analysis. The surveyed traits included height, weight and Body mass index (BMI). : Mean menarcheal age declined from 12.60 ± 1.11 years to 12.33 ± 1.20 years during the period from 2001 to 2019. Within three investigated periods variance decreased after the first decade from 1.23 year to 1.09 year, and then increased to 1.44 year. On average, postmenarcheal girls were 4.36 cm taller, 8.03 kg heavier, and their BMI was 1.96 kg/m higher than in premenarcheal girls of the same calendar age. An inverse effect of BMI and mother's education on the menarcheal age was detected, but the interaction between the variables was not statistically significant. These results indicate continuing decrease in menarcheal age in girls from Vojvodina. Menarche is closely associated with BMI and it appears that this factor effects the age at menarche irrespective of the parents' education.
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November 2020

Secular trend of head and face shape in adult population of Vojvodina (Serbia).

Ann Hum Biol 2018 Jun 26;45(4):330-336. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

b Department for Anatomy, Medical Faculty , University of Novi Sad , Novi Sad , Serbia.

Background: Different populations show variation in the pattern of change in craniofacial dimensions over time. Earlier studies of craniofacial traits in the Republic of Serbia were carried out, without any particular reference to secular changes.

Aim: The aim of the study is to determine possible changes in craniofacial dimensions among the adult population of Vojvodina (Serbia) during a 33 year period.

Subjects And Methods: The findings of the study are based on the comparison of data from two cross-sectional surveys. The earlier research was conducted in 1975 (n = 2600) and the second from 2001-2006 (n = 4504). Four craniofacial dimensions and body height were analysed.

Results: In terms of the head dimensions, head length in males has increased substantially, while head breadth has decreased in both sexes. The total change in the cephalic index is 0.58 (males) and 0.48 (females) units per decade. Morphological face height has substantially increased, while face breadth has decreased in both sexes over this period. The total change in the facial index per decade is 0.75 units in males and 0.98 in females.

Conclusion: The results point to a trend of head and face shape remodelling toward a narrower head and more elongated face, consistent with ongoing dolichocephalisation.
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June 2018

Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from Serbia in the period 2001-2004 and 2011-2014.

Anthropol Anz 2016;73(2). Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Faculty of Applied Ecology Futura, Singidunum University, Belgrade.


Objective: In recent years an increasing prevalence in overweight and obesity of children and adolescents has been recorded worldwide. Childhood obesity is a risk factor for adulthood obesity. The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 7-19 in a 10-year long period in Serbia.

Subjects And Methods: Cross sectional investigation was conducted in the periods 2001-2004 and 2011-2014. The first investigation included 8965 individuals, 4344 schoolboys and 4621 schoolgirls aged 7-19, while the second investigation included 2507 schoolboys and 3083 schoolgirls. The body mass index (BMI kg m(-2)) was obtained from the recorded height and weight and the assessment of overweight and obesity was based on IOTF reference values.

Results: In the first period investigation overweight prevalence was detected in 18% of subjects (21.1% in boys and 15.1% in girls) and obesity prevalence in 5.5% of subjects (6.7% in boys and 4.4% in girls). In the second investigation the overweight and obesity prevalence was observed in 17.4% and 4.5% of subjects, respectively (20.6% in boys and 14.8% in girls; 5.3% in boys and 3.9% in girls).

Conclusion: The results indicate that in the ten-year period there has been no increase in the number of overweight and obese children and adolescents in Serbia.
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February 2017

Anthropometric indices of obesity and potential health risk in adult rural population from Backa and Banat--the Republic of Serbia.

Coll Antropol 2014 Mar;38(1):227-33

Obesity, along with other unhealthy living habits, nowadays represents one of the greatest risk factors for various diseases. Vojvodina is a part of Serbia where a high percentage of the overweight has been recorded since the period of former Yugoslavia. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the percentage of adults with potential health risk using the indices of obesity. The anthropological study was conducted from 2001 to 2006. The tested group consisted of 4504 individuals, 1965 men and 2539 women. The mean age of the sample was 40.61 +/- 11.29. The data were collected in 46 villages in Backa and Banat, in the central and north-east parts of Vojvodina, situated in the north of Serbia. The investigation included the height, weight, waist and hip circumference. Nutritional condition was determined using the body mass index (BMI kg/m2), while the waist circumference and WHR were used for assessing the central obesity. According to the average BMI (26.86 kg/m2 males, 25.80 kg/m2 females), the population of Backa and Banat is characterised with pre-obesity. In total, 58.47% individuals of both sexes are with excessive body weight, 38.52% of them being classified as overweight and 19.48% as obese. Central obesity is more frequent in males aged up to 40, while in females it is more present above the age of 50. A higher waist circumference (males > 94 cm; females > 80 cm) is observed in 58% of males and 55% of females, with the risk value (males > 102 cm; females > 88 cm) recorded in 32% of men and women. The indices of obesity indicate a potential health risk for more than a half of the subjects in this study. The data therefore point to the necessity of introducing educational programs for promoting good nutrition and healthy living habits that would ultimately reduce the number of individuals with health risk.
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March 2014

[Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult rural population of the northern part of Backa and Banat].

Vojnosanit Pregl 2012 Oct;69(10):833-9

Departman za biologiju i ekologiju, Prirodnomatematicki fakultet, Univerzitet Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Srbija.

Background/aim: Obesity represents one of the frequent health problems in developed countries today. It is related to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and various cancer forms. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult population of the northern Badka and Banat.

Methods: On the basis of a multistage stratified random sampling, 4505 individuals of the age 40.61 +/- 11.29 years took part in the study. The study included 46 rural settlements. The overweight and obesity prevalence was obtained using the anthropometric indicators of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and the waist to hip ratio (WHR). The correlations among BMI, WC and WHR were determined by the Pearson's correlation coefficient while the multiple regression analysis was used for correlating sociodemographic parameters and the obesity index.

Results: A significant positive correlation was found in relation to all anthropometric parameters in both sexes. The data indicated that 66.32% of males and 49.68% of females had an overweight problem. On average, approximately 38.52% of subjects of both sexes were overweight, while 19.48% were obese. The factors that largely contributed to higher values of the obesity index were the age of male subjects and the age, education and origin in females. Ragarding the female subjects, the level of education negatively correlated with the level of nutritional condition.

Conclusion: The prevalence values of the overweight and obese subjects, obtained on the basis of the anthropometric parameters, vary. However, regardless methods applied, the percentage of the overweight and obese persons is very high, being among the highest recorded in European populations. The obtained results indicate the necessity of introducing better education programmes and conducting regular health controls among citizens in these regions.
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October 2012

Relationship between adult stature, BMI and WHR in Backa and Banat.

Anthropol Anz 2010 ;68(1):31-41

University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department for Biology and Ecology, Laboratory for Human Biology, Novi Sad, Serbia.

Background: Adult height can be a marker of living conditions in early life. The aim of this study was to assess relationship between adult stature, overweight and central obesity in Backa and Banat--Vojvodina (Serbia). 4,504 adults, average age 40.62 +/- 10.74, were tested.

Methodology: The analysis of differences in morphological variables, BMI, WHR in stature, age and educational groups was carried out using t-test and chi-square test. Models of logistic regression were used to estimate the risk (OR; 95% CI) of obesity in different stature groups.

Results: This study showed that education was a significant factor that influences stature. Most short stature subjects had primary education. The highest percentage of those with university-level education was in the tall stature group. Among men, short stature did not correlate with overweight/obesity while a smaller correlation was observed in relation to central adiposity. It, however, had a more marked influence among women. Short stature women were more susceptible to overweight in 20-49 y age groups, and to abdominal obesity in 50-59 y age group.

Conclusion: Short stature can potentially be an independent risk factor for developing overweight/obesity in women and to a lesser extent for central obesity of both men and women.
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November 2010

[Nutritional status and fat tissue distribution in health adults from some places in Central Banat].

Med Pregl 2010 Jan-Feb;63(1-2):21-6

Departman za biologiju i ekologiju, Prirodno-matematicki fakultet, Novi Sad.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine, relying on anthropological parameters, nutritional status, fat tissue distribution and possible health risk in adult population of Central Banat.

Material And Methods: 730 subjects of both genders (average age 40.19 +/- 11.36(y) underwent following measurements: height, weight, waist and hip circumference.

Results And Discussion: Central Banat population was characterized by great height (males: 178.40 +/- 7.24 cm; females: 163.06 +/- 6.32 cm). The average BMI was at the lower limit of overweight category (males: 26.59 kg/m2; females: 25.29 kg/m2). Overweight and obesity were found in 55.5% of examined subjects. In males, normal weight was recorded only in the youngest age group (20-29y), while in older age groups the percentage of overweight and obese males increased with age. In females, normal weight was recorded till the age of 50, after which overweight category was mainly present. Regarding both of the sexes, obesity was most frequent in the age group 50-59 (22%). The average waist circumference was lower than the cut-off values recommended by WHO (96.43 cm in males and 82.49 cm in females). According to fat distribution, normal values were recorded ini males younger that 39y, after which there was an increase in risk central obesity. In females, normal jar distribution was mainly present in all ages, although the percentage of the risk category increased with age. The highest percentage of the subjects of both sexes showed no health risk.

Conclusion: Our results indicate the need for preventive action towards obesity consequences and obesiay inducing surroundings.
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October 2010

Detection of premature segregation of centromeres in persons exposed to ionizing radiation.

Health Phys 2010 May;98(5):717-27

Faculty for Applied Ecology Futura, Singidunum University, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

We have analyzed the frequency of premature centromeric division (PCD) in medical personnel professionally exposed to low doses of radiation. They had chromosome aberrations (CAs) involving dicentric chromosomes, ring chromosomes, acentric fragments, chromosome breaks, and chromatid breaks. The study included 30 exposed subjects and 23 controls who were each analyzed by a conventional cytogenetics procedure and subsequently by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The latter was applied particularly in order to verify PCD in a specific chromosome (chromosome 18) in both metaphases and interphase nuclei. The results revealed a significant difference (p < 0.001) in frequencies between the two groups (exposed and controls) for all the observed variables (CAs), metaphases with PCD (MPCD), total number of chromosomes with PCD (TPCD), number of PCD metaphases in acrocentric chromosomes (MAPCD), and the total number of acrocentric chromosomes with PCD (TAPCD). The doses of ionizing radiation absorbed by the subjects' bodies were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters once a month during the duration of occupational exposure. They were expressed in mSv, as mean annual effective doses for the period of exposure. The Spearman rank test showed a high positive correlation between total life effective dose and frequency of CAs and PCD. Based on the results obtained in this study, we suggest that PCD, as a phenomenon manifesting chromosomal instability (CIN), should be considered as a suitable cytogenetic biomarker for individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation.
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May 2010

Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist/height in adult population from Backa and Banat - the Republic of Serbia.

Ann Hum Biol 2010 Aug;37(4):562-73

Laboratory for Human Biology, Department for Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia.

Background: Nutritional status is vital in the assessment of physical fitness and health status of populations.

Aim: This study aimed to describe relationships between BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist/height (W/Ht) and factors such as education, residence, origin and ethnic belonging among adults in Backa and Banat.

Subjects And Methods: The study was conducted in 47 villages in the north of Serbia. The tested group consisted of 4247 individuals, aged 20+.

Results: The problem of overweight and obesity was more common among men (66%) than women (49.71%). In the group with normal BMI, the majority of men and women were characterized by normal WHR and W/Ht values, but among them there were also groups with incorrect WHR (males >or= 0.95, females >or= 0.8) and W/Ht (>or= 0.5). Socio-demographic factors had a little impact on BMI, WHR and W/Ht in men in certain age groups while their impact was higher in women. These factors, especially education and origin, had a significant impact on nutritional status in young and middle-aged women, whereas they were not significant in older female participants (> 60).

Conclusion: Despite the fact that this part of the country has undergone intensive social changes since the last decade of 20th century, the nutritional status of the population has not significantly changed.
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August 2010