Publications by authors named "R Scott Watson"

3,872 Publications

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A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of simplified guidance with visuals on comprehension of COVID-19 guidelines and intention to stay home if symptomatic.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 10;21(1):892. Epub 2021 May 10.

Behavioural Science Team, Emergency Response Department Science and Technology, Health Protection Directorate, Public Health England, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wilts, SP4 0JG, UK.

Background: In the COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative that people understand and comply with self-isolation guidelines. We tested whether a simplified version of the guidelines and a simplified version with visual aids would affect comprehension and intention to self-isolate during the containment phase of the pandemic in the UK, in March 2020, compared to the standard guidelines.

Methods: We conducted an online, three-armed parallel randomized controlled trial. Participants were English and over 18. The survey software randomized them into conditions; they were blind to condition. The control group read the 7-page standard guidelines (the current version at the time of the trial). The intervention groups were given either a 3-page simplified version, with a summary box on the front page and numbered bullet points, or the same simplified version with pictograms illustrating the points in the box. Primary outcomes were comprehension of the guidelines, as measured by the number of correct answers given to six questions about the content, and the proportion who answered that they would 'definitely' stay at home for 7 days if symptomatic.

Findings: Recruitment was from 13 to 16 March 2020, with 1845 participants randomised and all data analysed. The Control group averaged 4.27 correct answers, the Simplified 4.20, and the Simplified + visual aids 4.13, out of a possible total of 6 correct answers. There were no differences in comprehension in the unadjusted models; however, when the model was adjusted for demographic variables, there was lower comprehension in the simplified + visual aids condition than in the control, (ß = - 0.16, p = 0.04998). There were no statistically significant differences in intention to stay home: Control was 85%, Simplified 83%, and Simplified + visual aids condition 84%.

Conclusion: Simplified guidance did not improve comprehension compared to the standard guidance issued in the containment phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, and simplified guidance with visual aids may even have worsened comprehension. Simplified guidance had no effect on intention to stay home if symptomatic. This trial informed COVID-19 policy and provides insights relevant to guidance production in the acute phase of a major public health emergency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10787-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of a chemical dispersant (Corexit 9500A) on the structure and ion transport function of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) gills.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 7:109070. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, United States of America. Electronic address:

Chemical dispersants are commercially available mixtures of surfactants and solvents that have become important tools in the remediation of spilled oil. Given the importance of oil to the world economy, the recurring nature of spills, and the prevalence of dispersant use in remediation, there is a critical need to understand potential toxic impacts of dispersants on invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) play ecologically important roles in the environments they inhabit and support economically important fisheries along the Atlantic Coast and in the Gulf of Mexico. In studies reported here, we assessed the impact of a chemical dispersant, Corexit 9500A, on the structure and ion transport function of blue crab gills. Exposure of blue crabs to Corexit 9500A for 24 h (0-300 ppm in artificial seawater under static conditions) revealed a 24-h lethal concentration 50 (LC) estimate of 210 ppm. A histological analysis of gills from crabs exposed for 24 h to a sub-lethal concentration of Corexit 9500A (125 ppm) revealed evidence of loss or disruption of cuticle, and an increase in stained amorphous material in the hemolymph spaces of gill lamellae. Quantitative image analysis of stained gill sections revealed the area/length ratio of gill lamellae in crabs exposed to Corexit 9500A (24 h, 125 ppm), was greater than that in gill lamellae from control crabs; the results are consistent with the presence of edematous swelling in gill lamellae from dispersant-exposed crabs. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the relative abundance of transcripts encoding three ion transport proteins (Na/K ATPase, plasma membrane Ca ATPase (PMCA), and sarcoplasmic reticulum/endoplasmic reticulum Ca ATPase (SERCA)) in gills from Corexit-exposed and control crabs. In general, the abundance of transcripts encoding each ion transport protein was lower in gills from dispersant-exposed crabs than in gills from control crabs. The combined results are consistent with the hypothesis that 24-h exposure of blue crabs to a sublethal concentration of Corexit 9500A impacts both the structure and ion transport function of gills.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109070DOI Listing
May 2021

Attitude toward dementia and preferences for diagnosis in Japanese health service consumers.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 3;21(1):411. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajii-cho, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamigyo-ku, 602-8566, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Being diagnosed with dementia is a confronting experience for any individual and their caregiver. However, a diagnosis provides opportunity for future preparation for management of the condition. This study investigated attitudes toward dementia and preferences for diagnosis among a sample of health service consumers in Japan.

Methods: Participants were patients or accompanying support persons (n = 217) who visited the specialty outpatient clinic of four hospital departments. The survey was conducted using an iPad with answers sent automatically to a secure server. The survey included items about the participants' most feared diseases and the reasons behind those fears, estimates of dementia prevalence in Japan, and preferences regarding a diagnosis of dementia and the reasons for their preference.

Results: The most feared disease was cancer (43.8 %), followed by dementia (18 %). Those selecting dementia most commonly reported practical, emotional and social impacts as the reasons why they most feared this condition. Almost all participants preferred to know the diagnosis of dementia as soon as possible for themselves, with significantly fewer preferring their spouse to know as soon as possible if they had dementia (95.9 % for self vs. 67.5 % for partner/spouse, p < 0.001). On average, participants estimated that 18.1 % of Japanese people are diagnosed with dementia by age 65, while they thought that 43.7 % of Japanese people are diagnosed with dementia by age 85.

Conclusions: The findings highlight a need for community education about the significant impacts of dementia on the lives of individuals and their caregivers. People were more reluctant for their spouse to receive a diagnosis as soon as possible if they had dementia. Physicians should sensitively disclose diagnosis and ensure they involve both the patient and their relatives in discussions about diagnosis disclosure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-06381-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091787PMC
May 2021

Daily photoprotection to prevent photoaging.

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Geriatric and Environmental Dermatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: Extrinsic skin aging or photoaging was previously thought to be almost exclusively due to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, recent literature has described other contributing factors and clarification is thus required as to what extent and what type of daily photoprotection is needed to mitigate extrinsic skin aging.

Methods: We reviewed the existing scientific evidence on daily photoprotection, and specific requirements at the product level, to prevent extrinsic skin aging. We critically reviewed the existing evidence on potential ecological and toxicological risks which might be associated with daily photoprotection.

Results: Evidence shows that broad protection against the entire solar range of UVB, UVA, UVA1, visible light, and short infrared (IRA) is required to prevent extrinsic aging. Other exposome factors, such as air pollution and smoking, also contribute to skin aging. Daily broad-spectrum sunscreen photoprotection should thus contain antioxidant ingredients for additional benefits against UV, IRA, and pollution-induced oxidative stress as well as anti-aging active ingredients to provide clinical benefits against skin aging signs, such as wrinkles and dark spots. Broad-spectrum sunscreen containing pigments, such as iron oxide, may be required for melasma prevention. There is no conclusive clinical evidence that daily sunscreen use is unsafe or that it compromises vitamin D synthesis.

Conclusion: Daily use of broad-spectrum sunscreen containing antioxidant and anti-aging active ingredients can effectively reduce extrinsic aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/phpp.12688DOI Listing
April 2021

A patient-centred approach to determine optimal supportive care across the cancer trajectory: a cross-sectional study.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2021 Apr 21:e13455. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Health Behaviour Research Collaborative, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Objective: Supportive care is recognised as an integral component of cancer care. To comprehensively improve supportive care and to inform policy, it is essential to examine consumer's views of health services. This study aimed to develop and test a patient-centred approach by measuring consumer perspectives on the importance of aspects of supportive care to determine what patients consider highest quality or 'optimal' care.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in oncology outpatient clinics. Eligible patients were invited to complete the optimal care survey on an iPad. The survey consisted of 69 items assessing 14 care domains across five phases of the care trajectory.

Results: A total of 359 participants completed the survey. Items in the 'preparation for treatment' and 'follow-up and end-of-life care' phases were endorsed as very important/essential to optimal care by most participants (79-97% and 80-100%, respectively). Items in the 'preparation for first appointment' (48-84%), 'first appointment' (51-97%) and 'receiving treatment' (32-93%) phases showed greater variation in endorsement.

Conclusion: This study provides a patient-centred tool for quantifying optimal supportive care for people with cancer across the treatment trajectory. This tool could be used by healthcare providers to evaluate existing care quality, develop policies and guide clinical service improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecc.13455DOI Listing
April 2021